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Beef Fat Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Products Improves Insulin Sensitivity Without Altering Dyslipidemia in Insulin Resistant JCR:LA-cp Rats. - Lipids
The main dietary sources of trans fatty acids are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), and products derived from polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation (PUFA-BHP) in ruminants. Trans fatty acid intake has historically been associated with negative effects on health, generating an anti-trans fat campaign to reduce their consumption. The profiles and effects on health of PHVO and PUFA-BHP can, however, be quite different. Dairy products naturally enriched with vaccenic and rumenic acids have many purported health benefits, but the putative benefits of beef fat naturally enriched with PUFA-BHP have not been investigated. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of beef peri-renal fat (PRF) with differing enrichments of PUFA-BHP on lipid and insulin metabolism in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (JCR:LA-cp rat). The results showed that 6Â weeks of diet supplementation with beef PRF naturally enriched due to flaxseed (FS-PRF) or sunflower-seed (SS-PRF) feeding to cattle significantly improved plasma fasting insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, postprandial insulin levels (only in the FS-PRF) without altering dyslipidemia. Moreover, FS-PRF but not SS-PRF attenuated adipose tissue accumulation. Therefore, enhancing levels of PUFA-BHP in beef PRF with FS feeding may be a useful approach to maximize the health-conferring value of beef-derived fats.
Ethnomedical and ethnobotanical investigations on the response capacities of Guinean traditional health practioners in the management of outbreaks of infectious diseases: The case of the Ebola virus epidemic. - Journal of ethnopharmacology
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus infections has mostly remained confined to the West African countries Guinea-Conakry, Sierra-Leone and Liberia. Due to intense national and international mobilizations, a significant reduction in Ebola virus transmission has been recorded. While international efforts focus on new vaccines, medicines and diagnostics, no coherent national or international approach exists to integrate the potential of the traditional health practitioners (THPs) in the management of infectious diseases epidemics. Nevertheless, the first contact of most of the Ebola infected patients is with the THPs since the symptoms are similar to those of common traditionally treated diseases or symptoms such as malaria, hemorrhagic syndrome, typhoid or other gastrointestinal diseases, fever and vomiting.In an ethnomedical survey conducted in the 4 main Guinean regions contacts were established with a total of 113 THPs. The socio-demographic characteristics, the professional status and the traditional perception of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) were recorded.The traditional treatment of the main symptoms was based on 47 vegetal recipes which were focused on the treatment of diarrhea (22 recipes), fever (22 recipes), vomiting (2 recipes), external antiseptic (2 recipes), hemorrhagic syndrome (2 recipes), convulsion and dysentery (one recipe each). An ethnobotanical survey led to the collection of 54 plant species from which 44 identified belonging to 26 families. The most represented families were Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Rubiaceae. Literature data on the twelve most cited plant species tends to corroborate their traditional use and to highlight their pharmacological potential.It is worth to document all available knowledge on the traditional management of EVD-like symptoms in order to evaluate systematically the anti-Ebola potential of Guinean plant species.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vaccenic acid suppresses intestinal inflammation by increasing anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines in the JCR:LA-cp rat. - Journal of lipid research
Vaccenic acid (VA), the predominant ruminant-derivedtransfat in the food chain, ameliorates hyperlipidemia, yet mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether VA could influence tissue endocannabinoids (ECs) by altering the availability of their biosynthetic precursor, arachidonic acid (AA), in membrane phospholipids (PLs). JCR:LA-cprats were assigned to a control diet with or without VA (1% w/w),cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (1% w/w) or VA+CLA (1% + 0.5% w/w) for 8 weeks. VA reduced the EC, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) relative to control diet (P< 0.001), but did not change AA in tissue PLs. There was no additive effect of combining VA+CLA on 2-AG relative to VA alone (P> 0.05). Interestingly, VA increased jejunal concentrations of anandamide and those of the noncannabinoid signaling molecules, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, relative to control diet (P< 0.05). This was consistent with a lower jejunal protein abundance (but not activity) of their degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, as well as the mRNA expression of TNFÎ± and interleukin 1Î² (P< 0.05). The ability of VA to reduce 2-AG in the liver and VAT provides a potential mechanistic explanation to alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation. The opposing regulation of ECs and other noncannabinoid lipid signaling molecules by VA suggests an activation of benefit via the EC system in the intestine.Copyright Â© 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
The Prevalence of HIV in Cancer Patients at the Surgical Oncology Unit of Donka University Hospital of Conakry (Guinea). - Journal of cancer epidemiology
Aim. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Method. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education) and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count) were reviewed. Results. Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1%) tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4%) defining AIDS and 43 (79.6%) nondefining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14) (26.0%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6) (11.1%), liver (6) (11.1%), eye and annexes (6) (11.1%), and cervical cancer (5) (9.3%). These patients were female in 34 (63.0%) and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3â€‰Kg/m(2). They were unschooled in 40 (74.1%) and married in 35 (64.8%). CD4 count showed a median of 317â€‰cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%). Conclusion. HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis.
Risk factors associated with abscess formation among patient with leg erysipelas (cellulitis) in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicenter study. - BMC dermatology
Abscess formation is a frequent local complication of leg erysipelas. In this study we aimed at identifying factors associated with abscess formation of leg erysipelas in patients in sub-Saharan African countries.This is a multicenter prospective study conducted in dermatology units in eight sub-Saharan African countries from October 2013 to September 2014. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to compare characteristics among the group of patients with leg erysipelas complicated with abscess against those without this complication.In this study, 562 cases of leg erysipelas were recruited in the eight sub-Saharan African countries. The mean age of patients was 43.67 years (SD =16.8) (Range: 15 to 88 years) with a sex-ratio (M/F) of 5/1. Out of the 562 cases, 63 patients (11.2%) had abscess formation as a complication. In multivariate analysis showed that the main associated factors with this complication were: nicotine addiction (aORâ€‰=â€‰3.7; 95 % CIâ€‰=â€‰[1.3 - 10.7]) and delayed antibiotic treatment initiation (delay of 10 days or more) (aORâ€‰=â€‰4.6; 95 % CIâ€‰=â€‰[1.8 - 11.8]).Delayed antibiotics treatment and nicotine addiction are the main risk factors associated with abscess formation of leg erysipelas in these countries. However, chronic alcohol intake, which is currently found in Europe as a potential risk factor, was less frequent in our study.
Early High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure. A Propensity Score Analysis. - American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
The use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for acute respiratory failure in children is prevalent despite the lack of efficacy data.To compare the outcomes of patients with acute respiratory failure managed with HFOV within 24-48 hours of endotracheal intubation with those receiving conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and/or late HFOV.This is a secondary analysis of data from the RESTORE (Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure) study, a prospective cluster randomized clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013 in 31 U.S. pediatric intensive care units. Propensity score analysis, including degree of hypoxia in the model, compared the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality of patients treated with early HFOV matched with those treated with CMV/late HFOV.Among 2,449 subjects enrolled in RESTORE, 353 patients (14%) were ever supported on HFOV, of which 210 (59%) had HFOV initiated within 24-48 hours of intubation. The propensity score model predicting the probability of receiving early HFOV included 1,064 patients (181 early HFOV vs. 883 CMV/late HFOV) with significant hypoxia (oxygenation index â‰¥8). The degree of hypoxia was the most significant contributor to the propensity score model. After adjusting for risk category, early HFOV use was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; Pâ€‰=â€‰0.001) but not with mortality (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.79; Pâ€‰=â€‰0.15) compared with CMV/late HFOV.In adjusted models including important oxygenation variables, early HFOV was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. These analyses make supporting the current approach to HFOV less convincing.
[Risk factors associated with leg erysipelas (cellulitis) in sub-Saharan Africa: A multicentre case-control study]. - Annales de dermatologie et de veÌneÌreÌologie
Acute bacterial cellulitis of the leg (erysipelas) is a common problem involving considerable morbidity in dermatology practice in Africa. Previous studies conducted in Europe and North Africa have highlighted lymphoedema and toe-web intertrigo as independent factors associated with leg erysipelas. The aim of this case-control study was to identify risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa, within a different socio-economic and culture context.We conducted a prospective case-control study in hospital dermatology departments in 8 sub-Saharan African countries over a 12-month period (October 2013 to September 2014). Each case of acute leg cellulitis was matched with 2 controls for age (Â±5 years) and sex. We analysed the general and local factors.During the study period, 364 cases (223 female, 141 male) were matched with 728 controls. The mean age was 42.15Â±15.15 years for patients and 42.11Â±36 years for controls. Multivariate analysis showed the following to be independent risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in our study: obesity (odds ratio [OR]=2.82 ; 95% confidence interval: 2.11-3.76), lymphoedema (OR=3.87, 95%CI: 2.17-6.89), voluntary cosmetic depigmentation (OR=4.29, 95%CI: 2.35-7.83), neglected traumatic wound (OR=37.2, 95%CI: 24.9-57.72) and toe-web intertrigo (OR=37.86, 95%CI: 22.27-64.5).The results of this study confirms the major role of local risk factors (toe-web intertrigo, lymphoedema) previously identified in other geographical settings. However, the originality of our study consists of the identification of voluntary cosmetic depigmentation as a risk factor for leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Differential expression of hypothalamic, metabolic and inflammatory genes in response to short-term calorie restriction in juvenile obese- and lean-prone JCR rats. - Nutrition & diabetes
Childhood obesity is an important early predictor of adult obesity and associated comorbidities. Common forms of obesity are underpinned by both environmental and genetic factors. However, the rising prevalence of obesity in genetically stable populations strongly suggests that contemporary lifestyle is a premier factor to the disease. In pediatric population, the current treatment/prevention options for obesity are lifestyle interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) and increase physical activity. In obese individuals, CR improves many metabolic parameters in peripheral tissues. Little is known about the effect of CR on the hypothalamus. This study aimed to assess the effect of CR on hypothalamic metabolic gene expression of young obese- and lean-prone animals.Male juvenile JCR:LA-cp obese-prone rats were freely fed (Obese-FF) or pair fed (Obese-FR) to lean-prone, free-feeding animals (Lean-FF). A group of lean-prone rats (Lean-FR) were matched for relative average degree of CR to Obese-FR rats.In free-feeding conditions, obese-prone rats consumed more energy than lean-prone rats (P<0.001) and showed greater increases in body weight, fat mass, plasma glucose, insulin and lipids (P<0.01). These metabolic differences were associated with alterations of feeding-related neuropeptides expression in the hypothalamus, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. When submitted to the same degree of CR, the two genotypes responded differently; hypothalamic inflammatory and oxidative stress gene expression was improved in Obese-FR, while it was worsened in Lean-FR rats.We demonstrate in JCR rats that the metabolic and inflammatory response of the brain to CR is genotype dependent.
Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. - The Journal of endocrinology
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4â€Š h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (P<0.01). Energy restriction induced an increase in exercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART.Â© 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
The malaria co-infection challenge: An investigation into the antimicrobial activity of selected Guinean medicinal plants. - Journal of ethnopharmacology
In sub-Saharan Africa, concomitant occurrence of malaria and invasive infections with micro-organisms such as Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and yeasts or fungi such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus is common. Non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae has been recognized as a pulmonary pathogen with increasing frequency without effective therapy. Although less important, the high incidence of Trichophyton rubrum infections along with its ability to evade host defense mechanisms, accounts for the high prevalence of infections with this dermatophyte. Considering the treatment cost of both malaria and microbial infections, along with the level of poverty, most affected African countries are unable to cope with the burden of these diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa, many plant species are widely used in the treatment of these diseases which are traditionally diagnosed through the common symptom of fever. Therefore it is of interest to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of medicinal plants reported for their use against malaria/fever.Based on an ethnobotanical survey, 34 Guinean plant species widely used in the traditional treatment of fever and/or malaria have been collected and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. Plants extracts were tested against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mycobacterium chelonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The most interesting activities against Candida albicans were obtained for the polar extracts of Pseudospondias microcarpa and Ximenia americana with IC50 values of 6.99 and 8.12 Âµg/ml, respectively. The most pronounced activity against Trichophyton rubrum was obtained for the ethanol extract of Terminalia macroptera (IC50 5.59 Âµg/ml). Only 7 of the 51 tested extracts were active against Staphylococcus aureus. From these, the methanolic extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Alchornea cordifolia were the most active with IC50 values of 2.81 and 7.47 Âµg/ml, respectively. Only Terminalia albida and Lawsonia inermis showed activity against Mycobacterium chelonae. None of the tested extracts was active against Escherichia coli.A number of traditional Guinean plant species used against malaria/fever showed, in addition to their antiplasmodial properties and antimicrobial activity. The fact that some plant species are involved in the traditional treatment of malaria/fever without any antiplasmodial evidence may be justified by their antimicrobial activities.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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