4600 W Loomis Rd Suite 201
Greenfield WI 53220
Medical School: Medical College Of Wisconsin - 1996
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: Yes
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 39103
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Awards & Recognitions
Dr. Christopher Long is associated with these group practices
|HCPCS Code||Description||Average Price||Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
|HCPCS Code:31231||Description:Nasal endoscopy dx||Average Price:$822.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:31575||Description:Diagnostic laryngoscopy||Average Price:$559.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:31575||Description:Diagnostic laryngoscopy||Average Price:$559.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99222||Description:Initial hospital care||Average Price:$370.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99203||Description:Office/outpatient visit new||Average Price:$313.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:69210||Description:Remove impacted ear wax||Average Price:$209.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99202||Description:Office/outpatient visit new||Average Price:$210.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99221||Description:Initial hospital care||Average Price:$222.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99213||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$169.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99212||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$123.00||Average Price Allowed
HCPCS Code Definitions
- Initial hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; and Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the problem(s) requiring admission are of moderate severity. Typically, 50 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
- Initial hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires these 3 key components: A detailed or comprehensive history; A detailed or comprehensive examination; and Medical decision making that is straightforward or of low complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the problem(s) requiring admission are of low severity. Typically, 30 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A problem focused history; A problem focused examination; Straightforward medical decision making. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are self limited or minor. Typically, 10 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of low complexity. Counseling and coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of low to moderate severity. Typically, 15 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Laryngoscopy, flexible fiberoptic; diagnostic
- Nasal endoscopy, diagnostic, unilateral or bilateral (separate procedure)
- Laryngoscopy, flexible fiberoptic; diagnostic
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of a new patient, which requires these 3 key components: A detailed history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of low complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate severity. Typically, 30 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of a new patient, which requires these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused history; An expanded problem focused examination; Straightforward medical decision making. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of low to moderate severity. Typically, 20 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Removal impacted cerumen requiring instrumentation, unilateral
Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical Board Sanctions
Critical Care (Intensivists)
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Long has made to other doctors
Multi-institutional Experience in Laparoendoscopic Single Site Surgery (LESS): For Major Extirpative and Reconstructive Procedures in Pediatric Urology. - Urology
To review peri-procedural outcomes from a large, multi-institutional series of pediatric urology patients treated with Lapara-Endoscopic Single-site Surgery for major extirpative and reconstructive procedures.Consecutive LESS cases between January 2011 and May 2014 from three freestanding pediatric referral centers were reviewed. Data includes age, sex, operative (OR) time, blood loss (EBL), length of stay (LOS), and complications according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification. Hasson technique was used for peritoneal entry, GelPOINT advanced access platform was inserted, and standard 5mm laparoscopic instruments were used.59 patients (median age 5 years, 4 months-17 years) met inclusion criteria: 29 nephrectomies, 9 nephroureterectomies, 3 bilateral nephrectomies, 5 heminephrectomies, 5 renal cyst decortications, 3 bilateral gonadectomies, 2 Malone Antegrade Continence Enema (MACE), 2 calyceal diverticulectomy, and 1 ovarian detorsion with cystectomy. Median OR times for each case type were comparable to published experiences with traditional laparascopy (TL). Overall mean and median LOS was 36.2 hours and 1 day respectively. There were two complications: port site hernia requiring surgical repair (Clavien IIIb) and a superficial port site infection that resolved with antibiotics (Clavien II). Cosmetic outcomes were subjectively well received by patients and their parents. Operative time was significantly shorter between the first half of the experience and the second half (102 vs 70 min, p<0.05).LESS approach can be broadly applied across many major extirpative and reconstructive procedures within pediatric urology. Our series advances our field's utilization of this technique and its safety.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Child Abuse Mimic: Avulsion Injury in a Child With Penoscrotal Webbing. - Pediatric emergency care
Sexual abuse of children is prevalent in today's society. In 2012, approximately 686,000 children (9.2 per 1000) in the United States were determined to be victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect, according to national data compiled by child protective service agencies; victimization rates were highest for children younger than 1 year. Nearly 9.3% of maltreated children were victims of sexual abuse, this finding was reported by US Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment). Previous research has shown that as many as 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 7 boys will be sexually abused during childhood (Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:1205-1222). Although sexual abuse seems to be less common in boys than girls, this may be partly due to underdiagnosis and underreporting of sexual abuse in boys (Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:328-331). Clinicians should therefore consider the possibility of sexual abuse when boys present with genital injuries, because failing to recognize and diagnose sexual abuse can pose an ongoing safety risk to a child. However, an erroneous diagnosis of sexual abuse can have equally hazardous repercussions, including removal of a child from their caregivers or prosecution of an innocent individual. A number of medical conditions can mimic child sexual abuse injuries, including anal fissures, failure of midline fusion, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and straddle injury (J Pediatr Health Care. 2009;23:283-288 and Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:590-593). The following case involves a 5-week-old male infant who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an avulsion injury to his penis concerning for sexual abuse. He was ultimately diagnosed with a relatively rare anatomic variant of the genitalia and determined to have sustained an accidental injury whose appearance mimicked abuse.
Heterotrophic bacteria from an extremely phosphate-poor lake have conditionally reduced phosphorus demand and utilize diverse sources of phosphorus. - Environmental microbiology
Heterotrophic Proteo- and Actinobacteria were isolated from Lake Matano, Indonesia, a stratified, ferruginous (iron-rich), ultra-oligotrophic lake with phosphate concentrations below 50 nM. Here, we describe the growth of eight strains of heterotrophic bacteria on a variety of soluble and insoluble sources of phosphorus. When transferred to medium without added phosphorus (P), the isolates grow slowly, their RNA content falls to as low as 1% of cellular dry weight, and 86-100% of the membrane lipids are replaced with amino- or glycolipids. Similar changes in lipid composition have been observed in marine photoautotrophs and soil heterotrophs, and similar flexibility in phosphorus sources has been demonstrated in marine and soil-dwelling heterotrophs. Our results demonstrate that heterotrophs isolated from this unusual environment alter their macromolecular composition, which allows the organisms to grow efficiently even in their extremely phosphorus-limited environment.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Complete genome sequence, metabolic model construction and phenotypic characterization of Geobacillus LC300, an extremely thermophilic, fast growing, xylose-utilizing bacterium. - Metabolic engineering
We have isolated a new extremely thermophilic fast-growing Geobacillus strain that can efficiently utilize xylose, glucose, mannose and galactose for cell growth. When grown aerobically at 72Â°C, Geobacillus LC300 has a growth rate of 2.15h(-1) on glucose and 1.52h(-1) on xylose (doubling time less than 30min). The corresponding specific glucose and xylose utilization rates are 5.55g/g/h and 5.24g/g/h, respectively. As such, Geobacillus LC300 grows 3-times faster than E. coli on glucose and xylose, and has a specific xylose utilization rate that is 3-times higher than the best metabolically engineered organism to date. To gain more insight into the metabolism of Geobacillus LC300 its genome was sequenced using PacBio×³s RS II single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform and annotated using the RAST server. Based on the genome annotation and the measured biomass composition a core metabolic network model was constructed. To further demonstrate the biotechnological potential of this organism, Geobacillus LC300 was grown to high cell-densities in a fed-batch culture, where cells maintained a high xylose utilization rate under low dissolved oxygen concentrations. All of these characteristics make Geobacillus LC300 an attractive host for future metabolic engineering and biotechnology applications.Copyright Â© 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morphological and functional characterization of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (iCell Neurons) in defined culture systems. - Biotechnology progress
Pre-clinical testing of drug candidates in animal models is expensive, time-consuming, and often fails to predict drug effects in humans. Industry and academia alike are working to build human-based in vitro test beds and advanced high throughput screening systems to improve the translation of preclinical results to human drug trials. Human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stems cells (hiPSCs) are readily available for use within these test-beds and high throughput screens, but there remains a need to robustly evaluate cellular behavior prior to their incorporation in such systems. This study reports on the characterization of one source of commercially available hiPSC-derived neurons, iCell(Â®) Neurons, for their long-term viability and functional performance to assess their suitability for integration within advanced in vitro platforms. The purity, morphology, survival, identity, and functional maturation of the cells utilizing different culture substrates and medium combinations were evaluated over 28 days in vitro (DIV). Patch-clamp electrophysiological data demonstrated increased capacity for repetitive firing of action potentials across all culture conditions. Significant differences in cellular maturity, morphology, and functional performance were observed in the different conditions, highlighting the importance of evaluating different surface types and growth medium compositions for application in specific in vitro protocols. Â© 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2015.Â© 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation. - International journal of environmental research and public health
Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios--pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended.
Putting the past behind us: Social stress-induced urinary retention can be overcome. - Journal of pediatric urology
To study the pathophysiology of dysfunctional voiding, we have previously developed a model of stress-induced voiding dysfunction. We have shown that cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-calmodulin complex, can prevent social stress-induced urinary retention. However, treatment with cyclosporine has not had an effect on the increase in the stress peptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in Barrington's nucleus, which is involved in the micturition pathway.We now investigate whether cyclosporine administered after stress can reverse the abnormal voiding phenotype, and whether it has effects on the bladder wall itself, or on the stress response within Barrington's nucleus.Six-week old Swiss-Webster mice were exposed to aggressor males for 1 h a day, followed by 23 h of barrier separation. In a long-term trial, 1 month of stress was followed by single-cage housing for 6 months. In a separate CsA reversal trial, mice either received CsA in drinking water or had plain drinking water during 1 month of single-cage housing during recovery. Bladder contractile function was examined on a Guth myograph. Nuclear translocation of myocyte enhancing factor (MEF)-2 and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) in the bladder was assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). The expression of CRF was determined in Barrington's nucleus using in situ hybridization.Voiding dysfunction persisted for up to 6 months after stress exposure while mice recovered in single-cage housing. In the CsA reversal trial, voiding patterns improved when they received CsA in water during single-cage housing following stress, whereas those that underwent single-cage housing alone had persistent abnormal voiding (Fig. A). There was no difference between CRF levels in Barrington's nucleus between reversal groups (p = 0.42) (Fig. B), possibly indicating a direct effect on the bladder rather than a persistent stress effect. There were no differences in the contractility of bladder wall muscle. CsA decreased the nuclear translocation of MEF-2 and NFAT induced by stress (Fig. C,D).CsA reverses stress-induced urinary retention, but does not change the stress-induced CRF increase in Barrington's nucleus. Furthermore, bladder smooth muscle contractility is unchanged by CsA; however, there are changes in the levels of the downstream transcription factors MEF-2 and NFAT. We suspect that additional CsA responsive neural changes play a pivotal role in the abnormal voiding phenotype following social stress.Copyright Â© 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A phenotypic in vitro model for the main determinants of human whole heart function. - Biomaterials
This article details the construction and testing of a phenotypic assay system that models inÂ vivo cardiac function in a parallel inÂ vitro environment with human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes. The major determinants of human whole-heart function were experimentally modeled by integrating separate 2D cellular systems with BioMicroelectromechanical Systems (BioMEMS) constructs. The model features a serum-free defined medium to enable both acute and chronic evaluation of drugs and toxins. The integration of data from both systems produced biologically relevant predictions of cardiac function in response to varying concentrations of selected drugs. Sotalol, norepinephrine and verapamil were shown to affect the measured parameters according to their specific mechanism of action, in agreement with clinical data. This system is applicable for cardiac side effect assessment, general toxicology, efficacy studies, and evaluation of inÂ vitro cellular disease models in body-on-a-chip systems.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Utility of Low-dose High-pitch Scanning for Pediatric Cardiac Computed Tomographic Imaging. - Journal of thoracic imaging
Noninvasive anatomic imaging is critical to management of pediatric congenital heart disease. With the introduction of high-pitch dual-source computed tomography (CT), comprehensive, high-temporal resolution cardiovascular imaging can now be performed without the need for breath-holding or patient sedation with very low radiation dose. In this article, we review the unique advantages of dual-source cardiac CT relative to other imaging modalities and illustrate its utility for patient management with multiple case examples.
Integrated 13C-metabolic flux analysis of 14 parallel labeling experiments in Escherichia coli. - Metabolic engineering
The use of parallel labeling experiments for (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) has emerged in recent years as the new gold standard in fluxomics. The methodology has been termed COMPLETE-MFA, short for complementary parallel labeling experiments technique for metabolic flux analysis. In this contribution, we have tested the limits of COMPLETE-MFA by demonstrating integrated analysis of 14 parallel labeling experiments with Escherichia coli. An effort on such a massive scale has never been attempted before. In addition to several widely used isotopic tracers such as [1,2-(13)C]glucose and mixtures of [1-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose, four novel tracers were applied in this study: [2,3-(13)C]glucose, [4,5,6-(13)C]glucose, [2,3,4,5,6-(13)C]glucose and a mixture of [1-(13)C]glucose and [4,5,6-(13)C]glucose. This allowed us for the first time to compare the performance of a large number of isotopic tracers. Overall, there was no single best tracer for the entire E. coli metabolic network model. Tracers that produced well-resolved fluxes in the upper part of metabolism (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways) showed poor performance for fluxes in the lower part of metabolism (TCA cycle and anaplerotic reactions), and vice versa. The best tracer for upper metabolism was 80% [1-(13)C]glucose+20% [U-(13)C]glucose, while [4,5,6-(13)C]glucose and [5-(13)C]glucose both produced optimal flux resolution in the lower part of metabolism. COMPLETE-MFA improved both flux precision and flux observability, i.e. more independent fluxes were resolved with smaller confidence intervals, especially exchange fluxes. Overall, this study demonstrates that COMPLETE-MFA is a powerful approach for improving flux measurements and that this methodology should be considered in future studies that require very high flux resolution.Copyright Â© 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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4600 W Loomis Rd Suite 201 Greenfield, WI 53220
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