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The Evaluation of Olfactory Function in Patients With Schizophrenia. - Global journal of health science
The aim of this study was to compare olfactory threshold, smell identification, intensity and pleasantness ratings between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and (2) to evaluate correlations between ratings of olfactory probes and illness characteristics. Thirty one patients with schizophrenia and 31 control subjects were assessed with the olfactory n-butanol threshold test, the Iran smell identification test (Ir-SIT), and the suprathreshold amyl acetate odor intensity and odor pleasantness rating test. All olfactory tasks were performed unirhinally. Patients with schizophrenia showed disrupted olfaction in all four measures. Longer duration of schizophrenia was associated with a larger impairment of olfactory threshold or microsmic range on the Ir-SIT (P = 0.04, P = 0.05, respectively). In patients with schizophrenia, female subjects' ratings of pleasantness followed the same trend as control subjects, whereas male patients' ratings showed an opposite trend. Patients exhibiting high positive score on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) performed better on the olfactory threshold test (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). The higher odor pleasantness ratings of patients were associated with presence of positive symptoms. The results suggest that both male and female patients with schizophrenia had difficulties on the olfactory threshold and smell identification tests, but appraisal of odor pleasantness was more disrupted in male patients.
Self-assembly pathway of peptide nanotubes formed by a glutamatic acid-based bolaamphiphile. - Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)
The self-assembly of peptide nanotubes formed by an l-glutamic acid-based bolaamphiphile is shown to proceed via a remarkable mechanism where the peptide conformation changes from Î²-sheet to unordered. The kinetics of this process are elucidated via X-ray scattering and UV circular dichroism methods. The reverse transition from "unordered" to Î²-sheet structures is triggered by UV radiation.
Structural and electronic properties of an [(Al2O 3) 4] (+) cluster. - Journal of molecular modeling
Density functional theory (DFT) has been applied to investigate the structural and electronic properties of an [(Al2O3)4](+) cluster. Since there is no structural data available from experiment, the geometry of the cluster was obtained based on a model which produced the best agreement with vibrational IR-MPD data. A range of different exchange-correlation functionals were tested, and it was concluded that the best spectral agreement was produced using the CAM-B3LYP and B3LYP functionals, respectively. To further characterize the properties of the cluster, natural bond order analysis was performed, and it was concluded that an appropriate description for the system is [Al8O12](+). The frontier orbitals and spin densities of both cation and neutral systems were considered, and it was concluded that the unrestricted singlet and triplet spin densities of the neutral [Al8O12] system were nearly degenerate, representing a di-radical, with the triplet state being lower in energy.
Single measurement of salivary estriol as a predictor of preterm birth. - Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
One of the major problems in obstetrics and pediatrics is preterm birth. A new method of prediction of preterm birth is by salivary estriol. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of single measurement of salivary estriol and its relationship with preterm birth. In this study, the salivary specimens of 466 pregnant women of 25-34 weeks gestational age were collected and kept in a freezer until delivery. Consequently, the salivary specimens were thawed and estriol levels were measured. The cut-off point for estriol was determined by a receiver operating characteristics curve. Salivary estriol levels equal to or higher than the cut-off point (2.6 ng m(-1)) were considered as the estriol (+) group and those lower than 2.6 ng mL(-1) were considered as the estriol (-) group. Our findings showed that 36 (18.3%) subjects in the estriol (+) group and 22 (8.2%) subjects in the estriol (-) group had preterm deliveries. There was a significant relationship between salivary estriol levels and preterm birth (Ï‡2 = 10.636, p = 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (positive and negative) of estriol were 62, 60, 18.3 and 82%, respectively. Single measurement of salivary estriol at 25-34 weeks of gestation, with its high negative predictive values, could be beneficial to identify women who will not develop preterm labor. This outcome suggests that unnecessary interventions should be avoided to prevent preterm births.
Dispersed Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled 2-, 3-, and 4-Methylcyclohexoxy Radicals. - The journal of physical chemistry. A
Vibrational structures of the nearly degenerate XÌƒ and Ãƒ states of the 2-, 3-, and 4-methylcyclohexoxy (MCHO) radicals were studied by jet-cooled dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectroscopy. The observed transitions were assigned on the basis of vibrational frequencies and Franck-Condon factors predicted by quantum chemical calculations. Intensities of vibronic transitions in the DF spectra are dependent on the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) bands pumped in the experiment, which can be explained by the difference in geometry and symmetry between the lower XÌƒ/Ãƒ states and the highly excited BÌƒ state. All three studied isomers of MCHO have close-lying XÌƒ and Ãƒ states although their energy separations are affected by the position of the methyl group. It is suggested by quantum chemical calculations that the lowest-energy conformers of all three isomers have the half-filled orbital oriented perpendicular to the OCH plane, which is consistent with the observed relative intensities of the BÌƒ â†’ XÌƒ and BÌƒ â†’ Ãƒ origin bands. When the origin and the CO-stretch bands of the BÌƒ â† XÌƒ LIF excitation spectra were pumped, the DF spectra were dominated by CO-stretch progressions. When non-CO-stretch vibrational levels of the BÌƒ state were pumped, progressions of CO-stretch modes combined with the pumped vibrational mode were observed. Excited-state vibrational population relaxation from the CO stretch level to the vibrational ground level and from combination levels of the CO stretch mode and other vibrational modes to the non-CO stretch modes was observed. Analysis of the DF spectra confirms the previous conclusion that all strong LIF bands observed under jet-cooled conditions belong to a single conformer of each positional isomer ( Lin et al. RSC Adv. 2012 , 2 , 583 - 589 ).
Urinary tract anomalies in patients with anorectal malformation. - Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
Urinary tract anomalies are common associated anomalies in anorectal malformation (ARM) and major contributory factor for high morbidity and mortality in ARM. In this study, urinary tract anomalies were evaluated in 72 patients of ARM (43 high varieties & 29 low varieties) that were admitted in Dhaka Medical College & Hospital (DMCH) during the period of January 2007 to April 2008. In all cases, evaluation was done by ultrasonogram (USG) and voiding cysto-urethrography (VCUG). Intravenous urography (IVU) was done in selected cases. Urinary tract anomalies were found in 20(27.85%) cases of ARM patients. These anomalies were significantly higher 16(37.2%) in high variety of ARM than 4(13.8%) those with low variety of ARM. The pattern of urological anomalies were vesicoureteral reflux (VUR - 35%), hydronephrosis due to PUJ obstruction (25%), posterior urethral valve (PUV - 15%), renal agenesis (10%), duplex ureter (10%) and bladder diverticulum (5%). Before definite management of ARM urological evaluation is essential to prevent renal damage and to reduce the morbidity and mortality.
Formulation of bi-layer matrix tablets of tramadol hydrochloride: Comparison of rate retarding ability of the incorporated hydrophilic polymers. - Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
Bi-layer tablets of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared by direct compression technique. Each tablet contains an instant release layer with a sustained release layer. The instant release layer was found to release the initial dose immediately within minutes. The instant release layer was combined with sustained release matrix made of varying quantity of Methocel K4M, Methocel K15MCR and Carbomer 974P. Bi-layer tablets were evaluated for various physical tests including weight variation, thickness and diameter, hardness and percent friability. Drug release from bi-layer tablet was studied in acidic medium and buffer medium for two and six hours respectively. Sustained release of tramadol hydrochloride was observed with a controlled fashion that was characteristic to the type and extent of polymer used. % Drug release from eight-hour dissolution study was fitted with several kinetic models. Mean dissolution time (MDT) and fractional dissolution values (T25%, T50% and T80%) were also calculated as well, to compare the retarding ability of the polymers. Methocel K15MCR was found to be the most effective in rate retardation of freely water-soluble tramadol hydrochloride compared to Methocel K4M and Capbomer 974P, when incorporated at equal ratio in the formulation.
A self-assembling fluorescent dipeptide conjugate for cell labelling. - Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Derivatives of fluorophore FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) are widely used in bioassays to label proteins and cells. An N-terminal leucine dipeptide is attached to FITC, and we show that this simple conjugate molecule is cytocompatible and is uptaken by cells (human dermal and corneal fibroblasts) in contrast to FITC itself. Co-localisation shows that FITC-LL segregates in peri-nuclear and intracellular vesicle regions. Above a critical aggregation concentration, the conjugate is shown to self-assemble into beta-sheet nanostructures comprising molecular bilayers.Copyright Â© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of effect of self-examination and physical examination on breast cancer. - Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
Breast cancer is the number one cancer of women in the world. More than 90% of breast cancers can be cured with early diagnosis followed by effective multimodality treatment. The efficacy of screening by breast self-examination (BSE) and breast physical examination (BPx) is best evaluated using randomized screening trials.A total of 12,660 women aged 35-64 years, 6330 in the intervention group and 6330 in the control group, were randomly selected from four areas of Yazd city, I.R. of Iran. The number of detected cancers along with kind of cancer, staging of cancer, the route of detected cancer and the number of deaths during the first 5 years of the study were collected and analyzed.No significance difference between the two groups was seen in respect to socio-demographic and socio-economic variables (PÂ >Â 0.05). Subjects in the intervention group had a response rate of 83.5% for attending the health center and 80.2% for visiting the assigned surgeon. A total of 31 and 13 new cases of breast cancer were identified in the intervention and control groups, respectively, of which 48.5% of cases in the intervention group were <50Â yr of age. A significant difference between the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in the two groups with a ratio of 2.4 was observed.BSE & BPx have a significant effect in detecting breast cancers at early stages (<3) suggesting they are effective screening tests with high availability and low costs that can be applied at the community level.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Interrogating the Venom of the Viperid Snake Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii by a Combined Approach of Electrospray and MALDI Mass Spectrometry. - PloS one
The complete sequence characterization of snake venom proteins by mass spectrometry is rather challenging due to the presence of multiple isoforms from different protein families. In the present study, we investigated the tryptic digest of the venom of the viperid snake Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii by a combined approach of liquid chromatography coupled to either electrospray (online) or MALDI (offline) mass spectrometry. These different ionization techniques proved to be complementary allowing the identification a great variety of isoforms of diverse snake venom protein families, as evidenced by the detection of the corresponding unique peptides. For example, ten out of eleven predicted isoforms of serine proteinases of the venom of S. c. edwardsii were distinguished using this approach. Moreover, snake venom protein families not encountered in a previous transcriptome study of the venom gland of this snake were identified. In essence, our results support the notion that complementary ionization techniques of mass spectrometry allow for the detection of even subtle sequence differences of snake venom proteins, which is fundamental for future structure-function relationship and possible drug design studies.
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