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Secondary Interventions after Endovascular Repair of Aortic Dissections. - Annals of vascular surgery
Review the literature on secondary interventions performed for patients who underwent endovascular repair of their type B aortic dissection. Endovascular repair for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) has been proven to be both technically feasible and beneficial in some patients. However, the information regarding secondary interventions is not cohesive. To date, there are little data to help guide physicians on the indications and benefits of secondary interventions in the setting of previous endovascular repair for TBAD.PubMed database was queried for publications using the following combination of keywords; "aortic dissection," "type B," "secondary intervention," "false lumen thrombosis," "stent graft," "aortic remodeling," and endovascular repair. Sixteen articles were selected and reviewed for secondary interventions, indications for procedure, and effects on false lumen thrombosis. Data were collected, and a composite database of patients was created.Literature review demonstrated 161 of 862 patients required secondary interventions for entry tears, retrograde type A dissection, false lumen degeneration with aortic expansion, graft malfunction, and various access complications. The complete false lumen thrombosis rate was 33%, and overall mortality was 18.2%.Secondary interventions provide a useful adjunct to failing endovascular repair of aortic dissections. A variety of treatment options are available for aneurysmal degeneration after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair. This review also shows that these secondary interventions, in combination with proper surveillance and optimal medical management, are feasible but carry a high all-cause mortality.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of atriocaval shunting with perihepatic packing versus perihepatic packing alone for retrohepatic vena cava injuries in a swine model. - Injury
Retrohepatic vena cava (RVC) injuries are technically challenging and often lethal. Atriocaval shunting has been promoted as a modality to control haemorrhage from these injuries, but evidence from controlled studies supporting its benefit is lacking. We hypothesised that addition of an atriocaval shunt to perihepatic packing would improve outcomes in our penetrating RVC injury swine model.After a survivable atriocaval shunting model was refined in 4 swine without an injury, 13 additional female Yorkshire swine were randomised into either perihepatic packing and atriocaval shunt (PPAS, n=7) or perihepatic packing alone (PP, n=6) treatment arms prior to creating a standardised, 1.5cm stab wound to the RVC. Haemodynamic parameters, intravenous fluid, and blood loss were recorded until mortality or euthanisation after 4h. Statistical tests used to test differences include the Wilcoxon rank sums test, Fisher exact test and analysis of covariance. A p-value â‰¤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Immediately before and after RVC injury, no difference in temperature, cardiac output, heart rate, mean arterial pressure or mean pulmonary artery pressure was detected (all p>0.05) between the two groups. While the RVC injury did affect measures parameters in PPAS swine over time, haemodynamic compromise and blood loss were not significantly greater in PPAS than PP swine. Survival time was significantly different with all PPAS swine dying within 2h (mean survival duration 39 (SD 58)min) while all 6 PP swine survived the entire 4h study period.While perihepatic packing alone slowed haemorrhage to survivable rates during the 4h study period, atriocaval shunt placement led to rapid physiologic decline and death in our standardised, penetrating RVC model.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paclitaxel impairs adipose stem cell proliferation and differentiation. - The Journal of surgical research
Cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression have poor surgical site wound healing. Prior literature supports the use of human adipose-derived stem cell (hASC) lipoinjection to improve wound healing. It has been established that multipotent hASCs facilitate neovascularization, accelerate epithelialization, and quicken wound closure in animal models. Although hASC wound therapy may benefit surgical cancer patients, the chemotherapeutic effects on hASCs are unknown. We hypothesized that paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, impairs hASC growth, multipotency, and induces apoptosis.hASCs were isolated and harvested from consented, chemotherapy and radiation naive patients. Growth curves, MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide), and EdU (5-ethynyl-2-deoxyguridine) assays measured cytotoxicity and proliferation. Oil Red O stain, Alizarin Red stain, matrigel tube formation assay, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyzed hASC differentiation. Annexin V assay measured apoptosis. Immunostaining and Western blot determined tumor necrosis factor Î± (TNF-Î±) expression.hASCs were selectively more sensitive to paclitaxel (0.01-30 Î¼M) than fibroblasts (P < 0.05). After 12 d, paclitaxel caused hASC growth arrest, whereas control hASCs proliferated (P = 0.006). Paclitaxel caused an 80.6% reduction in new DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). Paclitaxel severely inhibited endothelial differentiation and capillary-like tube formation. Differentiation markers, lipoprotein lipase (adipogenic), alkaline phosphatase (osteogenic), CD31, and van Willebrand factor (endothelial), were significantly decreased (all P < 0.05) confirming paclitaxel impaired differentiation. Paclitaxel was also found to induce apoptosis and TNF-Î± was upregulated in paclitaxel-treated hASCs (P < 0.001).Paclitaxel is more cytotoxic to hASCs than fibroblasts. Paclitaxel inhibits hASC proliferation, differentiation, and induces apoptosis, possibly through the TNF-Î± pathway. Paclitaxel's severe inhibition of endothelial differentiation indicates neovascularization disruption, possibly causing poor wound healing in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rate of healthcare worker-patient interaction and hand hygiene opportunities in an acute care setting. - Infection control and hospital epidemiology
Identify factors affecting the rate of hand hygiene opportunities in an acute care hospital.Prospective observational study.Medical and surgical in-patient units, medical-surgical intensive care unit (MSICU), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and emergency department (ED) of an academic acute care hospital from May to August, 2012.Healthcare workers.One-hour patient-based observations measured patient interactions and hand hygiene opportunities as defined by the "Four Moments for Hand Hygiene." Rates of patient interactions and hand hygiene opportunities per patient-hour were calculated, examining variation by room type, healthcare worker type, and time of day.During 257 hours of observation, 948 healthcare worker-patient interactions and 1,605 hand hygiene opportunities were identified. Moments 1, 2, 3, and 4 comprised 42%, 10%, 9%, and 39% of hand hygiene opportunities. Nurses contributed 77% of opportunities, physicians contributed 8%, other healthcare workers contributed 11%, and housekeeping contributed 4%. The mean rate of hand hygiene opportunities per patient-hour was 4.2 for surgical units, 4.5 for medical units, 5.2 for ED, 10.4 for NICU, and 13.2 for MSICU (P < .001). In non-ICU settings, rates of hand hygiene opportunities decreased over the course of the day. Patients with transmission-based precautions had approximately half as many interactions (rate ratio [RR], 0.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.80]) and hand hygiene opportunities per hour (RR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.29-0.77]) as did patients without precautions.Measuring hand hygiene opportunities across clinical settings lays the groundwork for product use-based hand hygiene measurement. Additional work is needed to assess factors affecting rates in other hospitals and health care settings.
Disseminated cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus-1 in a woman with rheumatoid arthritis receiving infliximab: a case report. - Journal of medical case reports
We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a seronegative rheumatoid arthritis who developed pustular psoriasis whilst on etanercept and subsequently developed disseminated herpes simplex on infliximab.Our patient presented with an inflammatory arthritis which failed to respond to both methotrexate and leflunomide, and sulphasalazine treatment led to side effects. She was started on etanercept but after 8 months of treatment developed scaly pustular lesions on her palms and soles typical of pustular psoriasis. Following the discontinuation of etanercept, our patient required high doses of oral prednisolone to control her inflammatory arthritis. A second biologic agent, infliximab, was introduced in addition to low-dose methotrexate and 15 mg of oral prednisolone. However, after just 3 infusions of infliximab, she was admitted to hospital with a fever, widespread itchy vesicular rash and worsening inflammatory arthritis. Fluid from skin vesicles examined by polymerase chain reaction showed Herpes Simplex Virus type 1. Blood cultures were negative and her chest X-ray was normal. Her infliximab was discontinued and she was started on acyclovir, 800 mg five times daily for 2 weeks. She made a good recovery with improvement in her skin within 48 hours.She continued for 2 months on a prophylactic dose of 400 mg bd. Her rheumatoid arthritis became increasingly active and a decision was made to introduce adalimumab alongside acyclovir. Acyclovir prophylaxis has been continued but the dose tapered so that she is taking only 200 mg of acyclovir on alternate days. There has been no recurrence of Herpes Simplex Virus lesions despite increasing adalimumab to 40 mg weekly 3 months after starting treatment.We believe this to be the first reported case of widespread cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 infection following treatment with infliximab. We discuss the clinical manifestations of Herpes Simplex Virus infections with particular emphasis on the immunosuppressed patient and the use of prophylactic acyclovir. Pustular psoriasis is now a well recognised but uncommon side effect of antitumour necrosis factor therapy and can lead to cessation of therapy, as in our patient's case.
Neuroimaging findings in children with rare or novel de novo chromosomal anomalies. - Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
De novo constitutional chromosomal anomalies provide important insights into the genetic loci responsible for congenital neurological disorders. However, most phenotypic descriptions of patients with rare chromosomal abnormalities are published as individual case reports or small group studies, making genotype-phenotype correlations unclear. Moreover, many clinical genetic reports do not include neuroimaging.We conducted a retrospective case series study of all children who had genetic testing done at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois between 1985 and 2006. The case series was selected from a database containing all chromosomal testing results, clinical data, and neuroimaging. Clinical examination results were assigned by board certified geneticists and/or neurologists and neuroimages were reviewed by both a neurologist or neuroradiologist and a blinded neurologist.Of the 28,108 children in the series, we identified 34 children with novel or apparently novel de novo chromosomal abnormalities. Several of the cases represent potentially new genetic loci for neurological malformations and novel syndromic conditions.This study demonstrates the utility of large clinical databases in assessing genotype-phenotype correlations and mapping loci for congenital neurological disorders. We describe a case-series strategy to analyze existing databases to reveal new genotype-phenotype correlations.(c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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