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Dr. John  Fraser  Md image

Dr. John Fraser Md

1701 Raintree Rd
Fullerton CA 92835
714 253-3603
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: G9002
NPI: 1639334972
Taxonomy Codes:
207Q00000X

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Publications

Targeted Coagulation Management in Severe Trauma: The Controversies and the Evidence. - Anesthesia and analgesia
Hemorrhage in the setting of severe trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. The pathophysiology of hemorrhage and coagulopathy in severe trauma is complex and remains poorly understood. Most clinicians currently treating trauma patients acknowledge the presence of a coagulopathy unique to trauma patients-trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC)-independently associated with increased mortality. The complexity and incomplete understanding of TIC has resulted in significant controversy regarding optimum management. Although the majority of trauma centers utilize fixed-ratio massive transfusion protocols in severe traumatic hemorrhage, a widely accepted "ideal" transfusion ratio of blood to blood products remains elusive. The recent use of viscoelastic hemostatic assays (VHAs) to guide blood product replacement has further provoked debate as to the optimum transfusion strategy. The use of VHA to quantify the functional contributions of individual components of the coagulation system may permit targeted treatment of TIC but remains controversial and is unlikely to demonstrate a mortality benefit in light of the heterogeneity of the trauma population. Thus, VHA-guided algorithms as an alternative to fixed product ratios in trauma are not universally accepted, and a hybrid strategy starting with fixed-ratio transfusion and incorporating VHA data as they become available is favored by some institutions. We review the current evidence for the management of coagulopathy in trauma, the rationale behind the use of targeted and fixed-ratio approaches and explore future directions.
Cerebral microcirculation during mild head injury after a contusion and acceleration experimental model in sheep. - Brain injury
Cerebral microcirculation after head injury is heterogeneous and temporally variable. Regions at risk of infarction such as peri-contusional areas are vulnerable to anaemia. However, direct quantification of the cerebral microcirculation is clinically not feasible. This study describes a novel experimental head injury model correlating cerebral microcirculation with histopathology analysis.To test the hypothesis that cerebral microcirculation at the ischaemic penumbrae is reduced over time when compared with non-injured regions.Merino sheep were instrumented using a transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left cardiac atrium, ensuring systemic distribution. After a blunt impact over the left parietal region, cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation and amyloid precursor protein staining identified axonal injury in pre-defined anatomical regions. A mixed effect regression model assessed the hourly blood flow results during 4 hours after injury.Cerebral microcirculation showed temporal reductions with minimal amyloid staining except for the ipsilateral thalamus and medulla.The spatial heterogeneity and temporal reduction of cerebral microcirculation in ovine models occur early, even after mild head injury, independent of the intracranial pressure and the level of haemoglobin. Alternate approaches to ensure recovery of regions with reversible injury require a targeted assessment of cerebral microcirculation.
Activation of the protein C pathway and endothelial glycocalyx shedding is associated with coagulopathy in an ovine model of trauma and hemorrhage. - The journal of trauma and acute care surgery
Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is an endogenous coagulopathy that develops following tissue injury and shock. The pathogenesis of ATC remains poorly understood, with platelet dysfunction, activation of the protein C pathway, and endothelial glycocalyx shedding all hypothesized to contribute to onset. The primary aim of this study was to develop an ovine model of traumatic coagulopathy, with a secondary aim of assessing proposed pathophysiological mechanisms within this model.Twelve adult Samm-Border Leicester cross ewes were anesthetized, instrumented, and divided into three groups. The moderate trauma group (n = 4) underwent 20% blood volume hemorrhage, bilateral tibial fractures, and pulmonary contusions. The severe trauma group (n = 4) underwent the same injuries, an additional hamstring crush injury, and 30% blood volume hemorrhage. The remaining animals (n = 4) were uninjured controls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and regularly after injury for evaluation of routine hematology, arterial blood gases, coagulation and platelet function, and factor V, factor VIII, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, syndecan 1, and hyaluranon levels.At 4 hours after injury, a mean increase in international normalized ratio of 20.50% ± 12.16% was evident in the severe trauma group and 22.50% ± 1.00% in the moderate trauma group. An increase in activated partial thromboplastin time was evident in both groups, with a mean of 34.25 ± 1.71 seconds evident at 2 hours in the severe trauma animals and 34.75 ± 2.50 seconds evident at 4 hours in the moderate trauma animals. This was accompanied by a reduction in ROTEM EXTEM A10 in the severe trauma group to 40.75 ± 8.42 mm at 3 hours after injury. Arterial lactate and indices of coagulation function were significantly correlated (R = -0.86, p < 0.0001). Coagulopathy was also correlated with activation of the protein C pathway and endothelial glycocalyx shedding. While a significant reduction in platelet count was evident in the severe trauma group at 30 minutes after injury (p = 0.018), there was no evidence of altered platelet function on induced aggregation testing. Significant fibrinolysis was not evident.Animals in the severe trauma group developed coagulation changes consistent with current definitions of ATC. The degree of coagulopathy was correlated with the degree of shock, quantified by arterial lactate. Activation of the protein C pathway and endothelial glycocalyx shedding were correlated with the development of coagulopathy; however, altered platelet function was not evident in this model.
Autologous Adipose Derived Regenerative Cells: A Platform for Therapeutic Applications. - Surgical technology international
Adipose derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells including multipotent adipose derived stems cells, other progenitor cells, fibroblasts, T-regulatory cells, and macrophages. Preclinical data exist supporting benefits that are predominantly through angiogenesis, modulation of inflammation, and wound remodeling. Such effects are likely paracrine in nature. The application of autologous ADRCs has been investigated across multiple therapeutic areas. While there are numerous publications, there is a relative lack of double-blind, well-controlled, randomized clinical trials in the literature. Nevertheless, a consistency in outcomes and a consistency with preclinical and laboratory studies suggests a true positive effect. The therapeutic areas reported include orthopedics, autoimmune disease, wounds and reconstruction, cardiology, peripheral vascular disease, genitourinary disorders, gastrointestinal fistulas, and neurology. Case reports have documented wound healing in otherwise intractable wounds such as ischemic- and radiation-related cutaneous ulcers and enterocutaneous fistulas. An open label, 12-patient-study indicated substantial improvement in hand manifestations of scleroderma across multiple endpoints. Post-radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence improved in a study of 11 patients with local delivery of ADRCs. Small studies of intramyocardial delivery have been associated with trends towards benefit. The studies also indicate that same day fat harvest through liposuction, cell processing, and cell delivery is feasible and can be performed with an acceptable safety profile. The objective of this review is to highlight the interest, potential, and trends that support the need to continue evaluation and exploration for the role of ADRCs as a therapeutic agent.
Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography. - Canadian respiratory journal
Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT), yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.
Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography. - Canadian respiratory journal
Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT), yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.
Veno-Arterial ECMO in the Setting of Post-Infarct Ventricular Septal Defect: A Bridge to Surgical Repair. - Heart, lung & circulation
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex rescue therapy utilised to provide circulatory and/or respiratory support to critically ill patients who have failed maximal conventional therapy. The use of ECMO in adult cardiac surgery is not routine, occurring in a minority of critically ill patients, typically postoperatively. Presented here are three cases of post-infarct ventricular septal defect with cardiogenic shock managed preoperatively with ECMO support as a bridge to definitive surgical closure. We present a review of ECMO in the adult cardiac surgical population and highlight the potential role of preoperative ECMO for cardiogenic shock in the setting of post-infarct ventricular septal defect (PI VSD) as a bridge to definitive closure.Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cell Therapy for Burn Wound Healing: A Comparison of Two Delivery Methods. - Advances in wound care
Objective: The use of noncultured autologous stromal vascular fraction or clinical grade adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) is a promising strategy to promote wound healing and tissue repair. Nevertheless, issues regarding the optimal mode of administration remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of local injection and topical spray delivery of ADRCs in a porcine model of thermal burns. Approach: Full-thickness thermal burns were created on the dorsum of 10 Gottingen minipigs. Two days following injury, wounds underwent fascial excision and were randomized to receive control vehicle or freshly isolated autologous ADRCs delivered by either multiple injections into or surrounding the wound bed, or by spray onto the wound surface (0.25 × 10(6) viable cells/cm(2)). Healing was evaluated by planimetry, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry at day 7, 12, 16, 21, and 28 posttreatment. Results: In vitro analysis demonstrated that there was no substantial loss of cell number or viability attributable to the spray procedure. Planimetric assessment revealed that delivery of ADRCs by either local injection or topical spray increased wound reepithelialization relative to control at day 14. No significant difference in wound reepithelialization was observed between both delivery approaches. In addition, on day 7 posttreatment, blood vessel density was greater in wounds receiving local or topical spray ADRCs than in the wounds treated with vehicle control. Histopathologic analysis suggests that ADRC treatment may modulate the inflammatory response by reducing neutrophil infiltration at day 7 and 12 posttreatment, irrespective of the route of administration. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that local injection and spray delivery of ADRCs modulate inflammation and improve wound angiogenesis and epithelialization. Importantly, both delivery routes exhibited similar effects on wound healing. Given the greater ease-of-use associated with topical spray delivery, these data support the use of a spray system for autologous ADRC delivery.
Bivalirudin for Alternative Anticoagulation in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Systematic Review. - Journal of intensive care medicine
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) offers therapeutic options in refractory respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Systemic anticoagulation with heparin is routinely administered. However, in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or heparin resistance, the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin is a valid option and has been increasingly used for ECMO anticoagulation. We aimed at evaluating its safety and its optimal dosing for ECMO.Systematic web-based literature search of PubMed and EMBASE performed via National Health Service Library Evidence and manually, updated until January 30, 2016.The search revealed 8 publications relevant to the topic (5 case reports). In total, 58 patients (24 pediatrics) were reported (18 received heparin as control groups). Bivalirudin was used with or without loading dose, followed by infusion at different ranges (lowest 0.1-0.2 mg/kg/h without loading dose; highest 0.5 mg/kg/h after loading dose). The strategies for monitoring anticoagulation and optimal targets were dissimilar (activated partial thromboplastin time 45-60 seconds to 42-88 seconds; activated clotting time 180-200 seconds to 200-220 seconds; thromboelastography in 1 study).Bivalirudin loading dose was not always used; infusion range and anticoagulation targets were different. In this systematic review, we discuss the reasons for this variability. Larger studies are needed to establish the optimal approach with the use of bivalirudin for ECMO.© The Author(s) 2016.
Mentoring medical students in your general practice. - Australian family physician
Mentoring medical students in general practices is becoming more common in Australia due to formalised scholarship programs and informal approaches by students.This paper defines mentoring in Australian general practice. Practical suggestions are made on how to structure a mentorship program in your practice.Mentoring differs from leadership and teaching. It is a long-term relationship between a student and an experienced general practitioner. Avoiding summative assessment in mentorship is important to its success. Mentoring is about forming a safe place to confidentially discuss personal and professional issues between a mentor and student. This is based on defining roles and mutual trust. At the same time, students crave formative feedback. Unfortunately, present feedback models are based on teaching principles that can blur the differences between assessor, teacher and mentor. Mentorship can provide students with orientation and learning experiences so that they are prepared for practice as an intern.

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