125 High St
Taunton MA 02780
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Accuracy of vertical radial plume mapping technique in measuring lagoon gas emissions. - Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)
Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) posted a ground-based optical remote sensing method on its Web site called Other Test Method (OTM) 10 for measuring fugitive gas emission flux from area sources such as closed landfills. The OTM 10 utilizes the vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) technique to calculate fugitive gas emission mass rates based on measured wind speed profiles and path-integrated gas concentrations (PICs). This study evaluates the accuracy of the VRPM technique in measuring gas emission from animal waste treatment lagoons. A field trial was designed to evaluate the accuracy of the VRPM technique. Control releases of methane (CH4) were made from a 45 mÃ—45 m floating perforated pipe network located on an irrigation pond that resembled typical treatment lagoon environments. The accuracy of the VRPM technique was expressed by the ratio of the calculated emission rates (QVRPM) to actual emission rates (Q). Under an ideal condition of having mean wind directions mostly normal to a downwind vertical plane, the average VRPM accuracy was 0.77Â±0.32. However, when mean wind direction was mostly not normal to the downwind vertical plane, the emission plume was not adequately captured resulting in lower accuracies. The accuracies of these nonideal wind conditions could be significantly improved if we relaxed the VRPM wind direction criteria and combined the emission rates determined from two adjacent downwind vertical planes surrounding the lagoon. With this modification, the VRPM accuracy improved to 0.97Â±0.44, whereas the number of valid data sets also increased from 113 to 186.The need for developing accurate and feasible measuring techniques for fugitive gas emission from animal waste lagoons is vital for livestock gas inventories and implementation of mitigation strategies. This field lagoon gas emission study demonstrated that the EPA's vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) technique can be used to accurately measure lagoon gas emission with two downwind vertical concentration planes surrounding the lagoon.
Optimal sensor locations for the backward lagrangian stochastic technique in measuring lagoon gas emission. - Journal of environmental quality
This study evaluated the impact of gas concentration and wind sensor locations on the accuracy of measuring gas emission rates from a lagoon environment using the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) inverse-dispersion technique. Path-integrated concentrations (PICs) and three-dimensional (3D) wind vector data were collected at different locations within the lagoon landscape. A floating 45 m Ã— 45 m perforated pipe network on an irrigation pond was used as a synthetic distributed emission source for the controlled release of methane. A total of 961 15-min datasets were collected under different atmospheric stability conditions over a 2-yr period. The PIC location had a significant impact on the accuracy of the bLS technique. The location of the 3D sonic anemometer was generally not a factor for the measured accuracies with the PIC positioned on the downwind berm. The PICs across the middle of the pond consistently produced the lowest accuracy with any of the 3D anemometer locations (<69% accuracy). The PICs located on the downwind berm consistently yielded the best bLS accuracy regardless of whether the 3D sonic anemometer was located on the upwind, side, or downwind berm (accuracies ranged from 79 to 108%). The accuracies of the emission measurements with the berm PIC-berm 3D setting were statistically similar to that found in a more ideal homogeneous grass field. Considering the practical difficulties of setting up equipment and the accuracies associated with various sensor locations, we recommend that wind and concentration sensors be located on the downwind berm.Copyright Â© by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Bioenergy from Coastal bermudagrass receiving subsurface drip irrigation with advance-treated swine wastewater. - Bioresource technology
Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) may be a potentially important source of bio-based energy in the southern US due to its vast acreage. It is often produced as part of a waste management plan with varying nutrient composition and energy characteristics on fields irrigated with livestock wastewater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of subsurface drip irrigation with treated swine wastewater on both the quantity and quality of bermudagrass bioenergy. The treated wastewater was recycled from an advanced treatment system and used for irrigation of bermudagrass in two crop seasons. The experiment had nine water and drip line spacing treatments arrayed in a randomized complete block-design with four replicates. The bermudagrass was analyzed for calorific and mineral contents. Bermudagrass energy yields for 2004 and 2005 ranged from 127.4 to 251.4MJ ha(-1). Compared to irrigation with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, the least biomass energy density was associated with bermudagrass receiving treated swine wastewater. Yet, in 2004 the wastewater irrigated bermudagrass had greater hay yields leading to greater energy yield per ha. This decrease in energy density of wastewater irrigated bermudagrass was associated with increased concentrations of K, Ca, and Na. After thermal conversion, these compounds are known to remain in the ash portion thereby decreasing the energy density. Nonetheless, the loss of energy density using treated effluent via SDI may be offset by the positive influence of these three elements for their catalytic properties in downstream thermal conversion processes such as promoting a lesser char yield and greater combustible gas formation.
Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge. - Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. A potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to (1) produce an effective IDS, (2) determine the IDS reaction kinetics in laboratory column bioreactors, and (3) test a field bioreactor for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage line water. We developed a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) denitrifying sludge using inoculant from an overland flow treatment system. It had a specific denitrification rate of 11.4 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) MLSS h(-1). We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to immobilize this sludge and form IDS pellets. When placed in a 3.8-L column bioreactor, the IDS had a maximum removal rate (K(MAX)) of 3.64 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) pellet d(-1). In a field test with drainage water containing 7.8 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), 50% nitrogen removal was obtained with a 1 hr hydraulic retention time. Expressed as a 1 m(3) cubically-shaped bioreactor, the nitrogen removal rate would be 94 g NO(3)-N m(-2)d(-1), which is dramatically higher than treatment wetlands or passive carbonaceous bioreactors. IDS bioreactors offer potential for reducing nitrogen discharge from agricultural drainage lines. More research is needed to develop the bioreactors for agricultural use and to devise effective strategies for their implementation with other emerging technologies for improved water quality on both watershed and basin scales.
Diabetic endovascular disease: role of coronary artery revascularization. - The American journal of cardiology
This century brings a pandemic of diabetes mellitus, with marked increases in early-accelerated atherosclerosis. When asymptomatic patients with diabetes present for evaluation, they have more extensive coronary atherosclerosis, lower ejection fractions, higher rates of previous cardiac events, and more silent ischemia than the normal population. The challenge faced by clinicians is to accurately identify asymptomatic patients with diabetes who have significant coronary ischemia that would benefit from revascularization. Diabetic endovascular disease has all the high-risk features to promote atherosclerosis and coronary occlusion: hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis, increased platelet aggregation, plaque instability, dysfunctional arterial remodeling, and fibrotic and calcified coronary arteries. The optimal revascularization strategy for patients with diabetes is an ongoing debate. The advent of drug-eluting stents has changed the landscape, and some have suggested that the current role of coronary artery bypass grafting may be reduced by as much as 46%. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence from randomized, controlled trials that reflects current practice and could guide clinicians in making the best choices for patients with diabetes and coronary disease. It is hoped that ongoing trials--including Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D), Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease (FREEDOM), and Coronary Artery Revascularisation in Diabetes (CARDia)--will answer many of the remaining questions. Still, the best treatment includes lifestyle modification and early prevention strategies with global risk reduction.
Statin therapy in cardiovascular diseases other than atherosclerosis. - Current atherosclerosis reports
Statins are drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, thereby blocking the synthesis of cholesterol. Since being discovered in Japan in the mid 1970s, statins have been widely used to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, analysis of cardiovascular research has revealed other important effects beyond changes in lipid parameters, referred to as pleiotropic effects. This paper focuses on the effects of statins as anti-ischemic agents with improvement in endothelial function, along with studies on valvular aortic stenosis, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, and cancer. As the evolution of statin research continues, there appear to be new potential benefits from statins to be found in many facets of cardiovascular disease.
Assessment and management of patients with pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. - Critical care medicine
To review the design and function of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators with particular attention to those aspects that are of clinical relevance to perioperative and critical care physicians.Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators are complex devices that interact with cardiac function in ways that can significantly influence hemodynamics. A basic appreciation of device technology is essential to understanding both the normal patterns of pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator usage and the ways in which iatrogenic influences may result in adverse outcomes. The most important concern for pacemaker patients who enter the hospital is exposure to electromagnetic interference. Exposure is mainly from surgical cautery, but other sources are also present. With awareness of these concerns and an understanding of how to prevent adverse interactions, it is possible to safely care for these patients in the critical care setting. Despite recommended precautions, undesirable outcomes may occur and the clinician must be prepared to intervene in an appropriate manner to prevent patient injury.
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125 High St Taunton, MA 02780
72 Washington St Suite 1400-1700
101 Industrial Park Rd Suite 307
88 Washington St Attn: Emergency Dept