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Shear Stress Effects on Production of Exopolymeric Substances and Biofilm Characteristics During Phenol Biodegradation by Immobilized Pseudomonas desmolyticum (NCIM2112) Cells in a Pulsed Plate Bioreactor. - Preparative biochemistry & biotechnology
The present paper reports the studies on a continuous pulsed plate bioreactor(PPBR) with the cells of Pseudomonas desmolyticum(NCIM2112) immobilized on granular activated carbon (GAC) used as a biofilm reactor for biodegradation of phenol. Almost complete removal of 200Â ppm phenol could be achieved in this bioreactor. Biofilm structure and characteristics are influenced by hydrodynamic and shear conditions in bioreactors. In the present paper, the effect of shear stress induced by frequency of pulsation on biofilm characteristics during startup period in the PPBR is reported. The startup time decreased with the increase in frequency of pulsation. The formation of biofilm in PPBR was found to have three phases of accumulation, compaction and plateau. Effect of frequency on production of exoploymeric substances (EPS) viz., protein, carbohydrate, humic substance is reported. An increase in shear stress induced by frequency of pulsation, increased the production of exopolymeric substances in the biofilm during startup of the bioreactor. Increase in shear stress caused decrease in biofilm thickness and increase in dry density of the biofilm. Increase in shear stress resulted in smoother and thinner biofilm surface with more compact and dense structure.
A randomized controlled trial of sublingual misoprostol and intramuscular oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. - Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
In India, two third of maternal deaths occur in rural areas where there is lack of transportation facilities, lack of refrigeration to store the injectable uterotonic drug such as oxytocin, lack of skilled personnel to administer them and lack of sterile syringes and needles. Hence, this study was conceived to evaluate misoprostol as a safe, effective, easily administered non-parenteral drug in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.This study was conducted during the period from August 2012 to July 2014. Low risk women with singleton pregnancy at term admitted for vaginal delivery were eligible for the study. A total of 500 women were randomized to two groups, 250 in each group, either to receive 400 mcg misoprostol sublingually or 10 units oxytocin intramuscularly at the delivery of anterior shoulder. Patient factors, labor parameters, blood loss and side effects were noted.The women in both the groups were well matched with respect to age, parity, gestational age and labor parameters. There was statistical significance in the blood loss (pÂ =Â 0.04) between the two groups. The average blood loss was 70Â ml in misoprostol group and 75Â ml in oxytocin group. Shivering was the statistically significant side effect (pÂ =Â 0.004) in the misoprostol group and nausea was the statistically significant side effect (pÂ =Â 0.003) in the oxytocin group.Sublingual misoprostol is as effective as intramuscular oxytocin as a prophylactic oxytocic in the active management of third stage of labor for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.
How the direct oral anticoagulant apixaban affects thrombin generation parameters. - Thrombosis research
Apixaban is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) targeting factor Xa and thus quenching thrombin generation and clot formation. However, little information is available on the influence that apixaban may have on the parameters of thrombin generation.Aliquots of a pooled normal plasma have been added with increased concentrations of purified apixaban and were used to assess the degree of modification brought about by the drug on the basic tests of coagulation prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (PT and APTT) and on thrombin generation parameters.The study shows that while apixaban has little effect on PT or APTT it does affect all the parameters of thrombin generation, including the lag-time (which is increased), the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and thrombin-peak (both decreased although to a different extent), and the velocity index (decreased). Interestingly, the above effects were more pronounced when the measurements were recorded in the presence of thrombomodulin, thus making the ratio (with/without thrombomodulin) to decrease consistently as a function of the apixaban concentrations.These findings support the antithrombotic properties of apixaban and can help to understand the mechanism(s) of action of this drug. Thrombin generation could be used as a convenient laboratory tool to assess the anticoagulant activity of other drugs and to make between-DOAC comparison.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Preparation and characterisation of Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract loaded chitosan-collagen-starch membrane: role in wound healing process. - Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
Engineered scaffolds made from natural biomaterials are crucial elements in tissue engineering strategies. In this study, biological scaffold like chitosan-collagen-starch membrane (CCSM) loaded with the antibacterial agent, Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract was explored for enhanced regeneration of epithelial tissue during wound healing. Collagen was extracted from Rachycentron canadum fish skin. Membranous scaffold was prepared by mixing collagen, starch and chitosan in a fixed proportion, loaded with aqueous extract of P. granatum and its anti-pseudomonal activity was studied. Morphological characterization by SEM and mechanical property like tensile strength of the membrane were studied. Excision wound of 2 cm(2) size was induced in Guinea pig and the effect of P. granatum extract loaded CCSM in wound healing was studied. The SEM image showed deep pores in the membrane and also possessed good tensile strength. Wound surface area was reduced prominently in the experimental group with P. granatum extract loaded CCSM when compared to the group with unloaded membrane and the one with no membrane. Punica granatum extract loaded CCSM has antipseudomonal property and supported enhanced epithelial cell proliferation without leaving a scar after wound healing. This has significant therapeutic application in membranous scaffold mediated skin repair and regeneration.
The recycling of autoclaved autografts in mandibular reconstruction: case report and review of literature. - Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery
Removal of pathological lesions from the mandible can leave a disfiguring appearance in addition to compromising the function of speech and mastication. It therefore becomes imperative to replace the lost part with bone grafts. Autogenous bone grafts-vascularised and non-vascularised, have been in vogue for the same. The probability of using the same resected bone after removal of all pathology has been done for a long time with mixed results in terms of uptake and viability. This paper presents a case of the use of autoclaved resected bone being used for reconstructing the mandible.
Phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) from Pseudomonas sp. strain PUP6 selectively induced apoptosis in lung (A549) and breast (MDA MB-231) cancer cells by inhibition of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. - Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death
Phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), a naturally occurring simple phenazine derivative isolated from Pseudomonas sp. strain PUP6, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity against lung (A549) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines in differential and dose-dependent manner compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PCN-treated cancer cells showed the induction of apoptosis as evidenced by the release of low level of LDH, morphological characteristics, production of reactive oxygen species, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Î”Î¨m) and induction of caspase-3. At molecular level, PCN instigates apoptosis by mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway via the overexpression of p53, Bax, cytochrome C release and activation of caspase-3 with the inhibition of oncogenic anti-apoptotic proteins such as PARP and Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Bcl-xL). The in silico docking studies of PCN targeted against the anti-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family proteins revealed the interaction of PCN with the BH3 domain, which might lead to the induction of apoptosis due to the inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins. Due to its innate inhibition potential of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, PCN may be used as potent anticancer agent against both lung and breast cancer.
5-Methyl phenazine-1-carboxylic acid: a novel bioactive metabolite by a rhizosphere soil bacterium that exhibits potent antimicrobial and anticancer activities. - Chemico-biological interactions
A new rhizosphere soil bacterium that exhibits antimicrobial potential against human pathogens was isolated. On the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA nucleotide sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain PUW5 was identified as Pseudomonas putida. A bioactive metabolite was extracted and purified using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Characterization of metabolite was done by employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was structurally elucidated as 5-methyl phenazine-1-carboxylic acid betaine (MPCAB). The MPCAB exhibits selective cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) and breast (MDA MB-231) cancer cell lines in dose-dependent manner with IC50 value of 488.7Â±2.52 nM and 458.6Â±2.48 nM respectively. The MPCAB exhibited inhibition of cell viability, DNA synthesis, induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. The docking and interaction studies confirmed the binding potential of MPCAB with Bcl-2 than Bcl-xL and Bcl-w proteins. These results strongly suggest that the MPCAB induces apoptosis in A549 and MDA MB-231 cancer cells through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway via activation of caspase-3 and down regulation of Bcl-2 protein.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Compliance to anti-rabies vaccination in post-exposure prophylaxis. - Indian journal of public health
Complete post-exposure prophylaxis is necessary to prevent rabies among all animal bite victims. It is essential for the bite victims to complete the full course of vaccination as recommended for complete protection. The present study was conducted to determine the compliance rate for anti-rabies vaccination by both intramuscular route and intradermal route and to determine the major constraints. The study was done at two municipal corporation hospitals in Bangalore, India. The compliance rate for intramuscular rabies vaccination was 60.0% and for intradermal rabies vaccination 77.0%. The major constraints were loss of wages, forgotten dates, cost incurred and distance from the hospital. Hence, the present study showed that the compliance to anti-rabies vaccination for post-exposure prophylaxis is low and is a cause of concern, as animal bite victims who do not complete the full course of vaccination are still at risk of developing rabies.
Effect of Asparagus racemosus (shatavari) extract on physicochemical and functional properties of milk and its interaction with milk proteins. - Journal of food science and technology
The effects of interaction of Asparagus racemosus (shatavari) with milk constituents and physico-chemical and functional characteristics of milk was studied. Addition of freeze dried aqueous shatavari extract at a concentration of 1 g /100 ml of milk showed a decrease in pH, rennet coagulation time and an increase in acidity, viscosity and heat stability at maximum. The extract also imparted brown colour to milk and showed an increase in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values but a decrease in L* (lightness) value. Proteins in milk were modified by reaction with shatavari extract. The derivatives formed were characterized in terms of SDS-PAGE. Electrophoretic pattern of sodium caseinate and whey containing 1% shatavari herb extract did not show any difference in band pattern i.e. there was no difference in mobility based on size of the proteins, but the intensity (width) of bands differed.
Antigenicity and immunogenicity of a trimeric envelope protein from an Indian clade C HIV-1 isolate. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from India mainly belong to clade C and are quite distinct from clade C isolates from Africa in terms of their phylogenetic makeup, serotype, and sensitivity to known human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Because many of these properties are associated with the envelope proteins of HIV-1, it is of interest to study the envelope proteins of Indian clade C isolates as part of the ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV-1. To this end, we purified trimeric uncleaved gp145 of a CCR5 tropic Indian clade C HIV-1 (93IN101) from the conditioned medium of 293 cells. The purified protein was shown to be properly folded with stable structure by circular dichroism. Conformational integrity was further demonstrated by its high affinity binding to soluble CD4, CD4 binding site antibodies such as b12 and VRC01, quaternary epitope-specific antibody PG9, and CD4-induced epitope-specific antibody 17b. Sera from rabbits immunized with gp145 elicited high titer antibodies to various domains of gp120 and neutralized a broad spectrum of clade B and clade C HIV-1 isolates. Similar to other clade B and clade C envelope immunogens, most of the Tier 1 neutralizing activity could be absorbed with the V3-specific peptide. Subsequent boosting of these rabbits with a clade B HIV-1 Bal gp145 resulted in an expanded breadth of neutralization of HIV-1 isolates. The present study strongly supports the inclusion of envelopes from Indian isolates in a future mixture of HIV-1 vaccines.Â© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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