1425 S Main St
Walnut Creek CA 94596
Medical School: Other - Unknown
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License #: A91258
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The T cell receptor triggering apparatus is composed of monovalent or monomeric proteins. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Understanding the component stoichiometry of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggering apparatus is essential for building realistic models of signal initiation. Recent studies suggesting that the TCR and other signaling-associated proteins are preclustered on resting T cells relied on measurements of the behavior of membrane proteins at interfaces with functionalized glass surfaces. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we show that, compared with the apical surface, the mobility of TCRs is significantly reduced at Jurkat T cell/glass interfaces, in a signaling-sensitive manner. Using two biophysical approaches that mitigate these effects, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and two-color coincidence detection microscopy, we show that, within the uncertainty of the methods, the membrane components of the TCR triggering apparatus, i.e. the TCR complex, MHC molecules, CD4/Lck and CD45, are exclusively monovalent or monomeric in human T cell lines, implying that TCR triggering depends only on the kinetics of TCR/pMHC interactions. These analyses also showed that constraining proteins to two dimensions at the cell surface greatly enhances random interactions versus those between the membrane and the cytoplasm. Simulations of TCR-pMHC complex formation based on these findings suggest how unclustered TCR triggering-associated proteins might nevertheless be capable of generating complex signaling outputs via the differential recruitment of cytosolic effectors to the cell membrane.
Neuronal expression of the Ccm2 gene in a new mouse model of cerebral cavernous malformations. - Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Cerebral cavernous malformations are vascular defects of the central nervous system consisting of clusters of dilated vessels that are subject to frequent hemorrhaging. The genes mutated in three forms of autosomal dominant cerebral cavernous malformations have been cloned, but it remains unclear which cell type is ultimately responsible for the lesion. In this article we describe mice with a gene trap insertion in the Ccm2 gene. Consistent with the human phenotype, heterozygous animals develop cerebral vascular malformations, although penetrance is low. Beta-galactosidase activity in heterozygous brain and in situ hybridization in wild-type brain revealed Ccm2 expression in neurons and choroid plexus but not in vascular endothelium of small vessels in the brain. The expression pattern of Ccm2 is similar to that of the Ccm1 gene and its interacting protein ICAP1 (Itgb1bp1). These data suggest that cerebral cavernous malformations arise as a result of defects in the neural parenchyma surrounding the vascular endothelial cells in the brain.
Mutations in a gene encoding a novel protein containing a phosphotyrosine-binding domain cause type 2 cerebral cavernous malformations. - American journal of human genetics
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are congenital vascular anomalies of the central nervous system that can result in hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, recurrent headaches, and focal neurologic deficits. Mutations in the gene KRIT1 are responsible for type 1 CCM (CCM1). We report that a novel gene, MGC4607, exhibits eight different mutations in nine families with type 2 CCM (CCM2). MGC4607, similar to the KRIT1 binding partner ICAP1alpha, encodes a protein with a phosphotyrosine-binding domain. This protein may be part of the complex pathway of integrin signaling that, when perturbed, causes abnormal vascular morphogenesis in the brain, leading to CCM formation.
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1425 S Main St Walnut Creek, CA 94596
1425 S Main St The Permanente Medical Group, Dpmt Of Pulmonology
1855 San Miguel Dr Suite 4
1425 S Main St Emergency Medicine Department
2196 Londonderry Ct