Dr. Gerald  Schmidt  Lp image

Dr. Gerald Schmidt Lp

600 Reed St Suite 115
Mankato MN 56001
507 254-4060
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: LP1560
NPI: 1629020821
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Speciation and mobility of arsenic in agricultural lime. - Journal of environmental quality
Agricultural liming materials are used to correct soil acidity and to improve plant growth and microbial functionality. A relatively low-grade agricultural lime was found to contain up to 125 mg kg(-1) arsenic (As), which is above any fertilizing materials code threshold. The color of the milled material is brown due to ample oxide dendrites. Microprobe elemental maps confirmed that these accessory oxide mineral phases are responsible for the elevated As concentrations in the limestone. The black Mn-bearing dendrites contain minor amounts of As, whereas the brown Fe-bearing dendrites contain the major part of the As inventory, with an Fe/As molar ratio around 100. Because the elemental maps represent only a few sample regions of interest (ROI), the results are corroborated by a bulk five-step sequential extraction of the lime, which suggests that a majority of the As is bound to acid-reducible phases. Because repartitioning of the As oxyanion during extraction cannot be ruled out, X-ray absorption spectroscopy with micrometer resolution (micro-XAS) was used as a solid-state speciation analysis approach. The micro-XAS results at the Fe K-edge for the selected ROIs revealed the brown dendrites to consist of ferrihydrite and goethite, whereas those at the As K-edge revealed that the pentavalent As species arsenate predominates, with As-Fe distance and coordination indicating binding as a mononuclear inner-spheric adsorbate complex. Batch experiments with soil exposed to submerged conditions of up to 41 d revealed a negligible As release rate from the lime (approximately 40 ng kg(-1) d(-1)). The results of this study corroborate regulatory codes that set the permissible As content in agricultural lime relative to the respective Fe content.
Adsorption mechanism of arsenate by zirconyl-functionalized activated carbon. - Journal of colloid and interface science
Arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)] sorption at the solid-water interface of activated carbon impregnated with zirconyl nitrate (Zr-AC) was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and surface complexation modeling. The XAS data at the Zr K-edge suggest that the structure of the zirconyl nitrate coating is built from chains of edge-sharing ZrO8 trigonal dodecahedra bound to each other through two double hydroxyl bridges. The 8-fold coordination of each Zr atom is completed by four O atoms, which share a bit less than the two theoretically possible bidentate nitrate groups. On impregnation, two of the O atoms may lose their nitrate group and be transformed to hydroxyl groups ready for binding to carboxylic or phenolic ligands at the AC surface. As K-edge XANES results showed the presence of only As(V) on adsorption regardless of the initial As oxidation state. Oxidation to As(V) is probably mediated by available carbon species on the AC surface as found by batch titration. Zr K-edge EXAFS data indicate that arsenate tetrahedra form monodentate mononuclear surface complexes with free hydroxyl groups of zirconyl dodecahedra, whereby each bidentate nitrate group is exchanged by up to two arsenate groups. The inner-sphere arsenate binding to the Zr-AC surface sites constrained with the spectroscopic results was used in the formulation of a surface complexation model to successfully describe the adsorption behavior of arsenate in the pH range between 4 and 12. The results suggest therefore that Zr-AC is an effective adsorbent for arsenic removal due to its high surface area and the presence of high affinity surface hydroxyl groups.

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600 Reed St Suite 115 Mankato, MN 56001
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