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The Hyperactivity of Efferent Auditory System in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions Study. - Psychiatry investigation
Electrophysiological studies, which are mostly focused on afferent pathway, have proven that auditory processing deficits exist in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, reports on the suppressive effect of efferent auditory pathway on cochlear outer hair cells among schizophrenia patients are limited. The present, case-control, study examined the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in patients with schizophrenia.Participants were twenty-three healthy controls and sixteen schizophrenia patients with normal hearing, middle ear and cochlear outer hair cells function. Absolute non-linear and linear TEOAEs were measured in both ears by delivering clicks stimuli at 80 dB SPL and 60 dB SPL respectively. Subsequently, contralateral suppression was determined by subtracting the absolute TEOAEs response obtained at 60 dBpe SPL during the absence and presence of contralateral white noise delivered at 65 dB HL. No attention tasks were conducted during measurements.We found no significant difference in absolute TEOAEs responses at 80 dB SPL, in either diagnosis or ear groups (p>0.05). However, the overall contralateral suppression was significantly larger in schizophrenia patients (p<0.05). Specifically, patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly increased right ear contralateral suppression compared to healthy control (p<0.05).The present findings suggest increased inhibitory effect of efferent auditory pathway especially on the right cochlear outer hair cells. Further studies to investigate increased suppressive effects are crucial to expand the current understanding of auditory hallucination mechanisms in schizophrenia patients.
Systemic and coronary levels of CRP, MPO, sCD40L and PlGF in patients with coronary artery disease. - BMC research notes
Biomarkers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the differences in level of several biomarkers, i.e. C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor, between acute coronary syndrome and chronic stable angina patients. The relationship between these biomarkers in the coronary circulation and systemic circulation was also investigated.A total of 79 patients were recruited in this study. The coronary blood was sampled from occluded coronary artery, while the peripheral venous blood was withdrawn from antecubital fossa. The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor and plasma concentration of myeloperoxidase were measured using ELISA method.The systemic level of the markers measured in the peripheral venous blood was significantly increased in acute coronary syndrome compared to chronic stable angina patients. The concentrations of the C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase and soluble CD40 ligand taken from peripheral vein were closely similar to the concentration found in coronary blood of ACS patients. The level of placental growth factor was significantly higher in coronary circulation than its systemic level.The concentration of these C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor were significantly increased in acute coronary syndrome patients. The concentration of the markers measured in the systemic circulation directly reflected those in the local coronary circulation. Thus, these markers have potential to become a useful tool in predicting plaque vulnerability in the future.
Chemotherapy Induced Acute Pericarditis in a Child. - Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
A9 years boy diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was started on chemotherapy protocol including 5-fluorouracil. After 90 hours of 5-fluorouracil infusion, he developed severe retrosternal chest pain. Electrocardiography showed signs of acute pericarditis and was managed with ibuprofen and 5-fluorouracil was discontinued. The 5-fluorouracil rarely causes cardiac complications such as angina pectoris and pericarditis in adult patients. We report acute myopericarditis in a child caused by 5-fluorouracil, which is a very rare complication of 5-fluorouracil in pediatric age group.
Evaluation of auditory hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia: A validation study of the Malay version of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS). - Psychiatry research
The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is the most widely used validated scale to measure the specific symptoms of auditory hallucination and delusion. The aim of this study was to validate and to examine the psychometric properties of the auditory hallucination component of the Malay PSYRATS (MyPSYRATS). The research was done in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) among 51 schizophrenia inpatients and outpatients who had experienced or reported verbal auditory hallucination. The psychometric properties of MyPSYRATS (auditory hallucination) were studied and a comparison was made between the psychometric properties obtained and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The internal consistency of MyPSYRATS was good as revealed by Cronbach's alpha value. Factor analysis replicated three components (emotional, cognitive, and physical) similar to the factorial structure of the original auditory hallucination scale. However, two items were regrouped under the emotional component. Spearman's rank-order correlation showed a significant positive relationship between the total score of auditory hallucinations and PANSS auditory hallucinations item (P3). In conclusion, the auditory hallucination domain of MyPSYRATS is a reliable and valid assessment tool for further clinical applications.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Psychosis post corona radiata and lentiform nucleus infarction. - BMJ case reports
Complications of stroke can include neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, post-stroke psychosis is rare. We report a case where an acute presentation of psychosis, depression and fluctuating cognitive impairment in a middle-aged man turned out to be related to a silent brain infarction. The patient had a background of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with glycated haemoglobin level of 9.0-11.0%, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. His CT brain results showed multifocal infarct with hypodensities at bilateral lentiform nucleus and bilateral corona radiata. His strong genetic predisposition of psychosis and a history of brief psychotic disorder with complete remission 3 years prior to the current presentation might possibly contribute to his post-stroke atypical neuropsychiatric presentation, and posed diagnostic challenges. He showed marked improvement with risperidone 6 mg nocte, chlorpromazine 50 mg nocte and fluvoxamine of 200 mg nocte. The need of comprehensive treatments to modify his stroke risk factors was addressed.2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Perception of hypertension management by patients and doctors in Asia: potential to improve blood pressure control. - Asia Pacific family medicine
Hypertension is one of the world's most common health conditions and is a leading risk factor for mortality. Although blood pressure can be modified, there is a large proportion of patients whose blood pressure remains uncontrolled. The aim of this study, termed Edvantage 360Â°, was to gain a deeper understanding of hypertension management in Asia from the perspective of patients and doctors, and to propose strategies to improve blood pressure control.Conducted in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand, Edvantage 360Â° was a mixed-methods observational study that used both qualitative and quantitative elements: qualitative interviews and focus groups with patients (Nâ€‰=â€‰110), quantitative interviews with patients (Nâ€‰=â€‰709), and qualitative interviews with doctors (Nâ€‰=â€‰85).This study found that, although there is good understanding of the causes and consequences of hypertension among Asian patients, there is a lack of urgency to control blood pressure. Doctors and patients have different expectations of each other and a divergent view on what constitutes successful hypertension management. We also identified a fundamental gap between the beliefs of doctors and patients as to who should be most responsible for the patients' hypertension management. In addition, because patients find it difficult to comply with lifestyle modifications (often because of a decreased understanding of the changes required), adherence to medication regimens may be less of a limiting factor than doctors believe.Doctors may provide better care by aligning with their patients on a common understanding of successful hypertension management. Doctors may also find it helpful to provide a more personalized explanation of any needed lifestyle modifications. The willingness of the doctor to adjust their patient interaction style to form a 'doctor-patient team' is important. In addition, we recommend that doctors should not attribute ineffectiveness of the treatment plan to patient non-adherence to medications, but rather adjust the medication regimen as needed.
Combination therapy in hypertension: an Asia-Pacific consensus viewpoint. - Current medical research and opinion
Hypertension incurs a significant healthcare burden in Asia-Pacific countries, which have suboptimal rates of blood pressure (BP) treatment and control. A consensus meeting of hypertension experts from the Asia-Pacific region convened in Hanoi, Vietnam, in April 2013. The principal objectives were to discuss the growing problem of hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region, and to develop consensus recommendations to promote standards of care across the region. A particular focus was recommendations for combination therapy, since it is known that most patients with hypertension will require two or more antihypertensive drugs to achieve BP control, and also that combinations of drugs with complementary mechanisms of action achieve BP targets more effectively than monotherapy. The expert panel reviewed guidelines for hypertension management from the USA and Europe, as well as individual Asia-Pacific countries, and devised a treatment matrix/guide, in which they propose the preferred combination therapy regimens for patients with hypertension, both with and without compelling indications. This report summarizes key recommendations from the group, including recommended antihypertensive combinations for specific patient populations. These strategies generally entail initiating therapy with free drug combinations, starting with the lowest available dosage, followed by treatment with single-pill combinations once the BP target has been achieved. A single reference for the whole Asia-Pacific region may contribute to increased consistency of treatment and greater proportions of patients achieving BP control, and hence reducing hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.
The use of medications in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease in the Asian region. - Current medical research and opinion
Cardiovascular diseases, to which coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant contributor, are a leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the years ahead, it is estimated that approximately half of the world's cardiovascular burden will occur in the Asian region. Currently there is a large gap in secondary prevention, with unrealized health gains resulting from underuse of evidence-based medications, including beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, and lipid-lowering drugs. Despite the almost universal recommendation for these drugs in unstable CAD, their under-prescription is well documented for patients with acute heart failure, non-obstructive CAD, and for secondary prevention of CAD.This article reviews the burden of CAD in Asian countries together with guidelines supporting evidence-based medication use from a secondary prevention perspective.The MEDLINE database was searched from 2000 to 2013, inclusive, for country-specific data related to CAD and supplemented with unpublished registry data.In the post-discharge setting following hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes, medication prescription rates were low. Beta-blocker prescription rates ranged from 49% in China to 99% in Singapore, ACE-inhibitor/ARB prescription rates ranged from 28% in China to 96% in Singapore, and lipid-lowering therapy rates ranged from 47% in China to 97% in Singapore. Aspirin/antiplatelet drug prescription rates ranged from 86% in Indonesia to 99.5% in Singapore. Recommendations are provided to improve patient outcomes and reduce the disease burden in Asia.Despite recommendations issued in international and national guidelines, use of CAD medications in Asia remains suboptimal. In the absence of clear contraindications, all patients with unstable CAD should receive these agents as secondary prevention. This averts the need to target drug use according to risk, with high-risk features paradoxically associated with under-prescribing of such drugs.
The use of the Burden Assessment Scale with families of a pediatric population. - Community mental health journal
The emotional, financial and social impact on caregivers of those with pediatric psychiatric, emotional and behavioral disorders has been poorly documented. This study sought to begin to remedy this by determining the utility of the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS) with this population. 300 parents seeking services within a major Canadian city were interviewed using the BAS and a follow up questionnaire on the clarity, comprehensiveness and acceptability of the BAS. The BAS was clear, acceptable and comprehensive for >80% of participants. Factor analysis revealed four factors compared to the original five factors found with adults. The BAS had a utility with this population and would be a valuable addition to standard information gathered but use of the total score only is recommended.
Waist circumference and not body mass index as the outcome of a group weight intervention for patients with severe mental illness. - Comprehensive psychiatry
Most weight interventions among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) used body mass index (BMI) as outcome measure but excluded waist circumference (WC) although the latter is a stronger predictor of obesity complications. This study aimed to assess a weight-management program consisting of education, exercise and behavioural techniques for patients with SMI using weight parameters including WC as the outcome measures.A group intervention was carried out as part of psychiatric outpatient community service. It used structured modules on diet, exercise and related topics comprising of education and exercises sessions with a total of 12-week duration. The participants were outpatients with SMI recruited through referrals to the program by the treating doctor. The participants' body weight, BMI and WC were measured at the baseline, fortnightly and at the end of the program.A total of 27 patients participated in the program which was carried out in 6 cycles. The pre- and post-intervention comparisons analysis of the weight parameters found a significant reduction in the WC (mean=3.878 cm+5.165, p=0.001) while no significant changes were recorded in body weight and BMI.Small but significant loss in WC and possibly weight maintenance were achieved using this non-pharmacological intervention. Modest loss in WC may have an impact on reducing the risk of obesity-related health risks.Â© 2014.
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