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[The assessment of right ventricular function in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a Meta-analysis]. - Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue
To explore the clinical value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging ( CMRI ) in assessment of right ventricular function in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension ( PAH ).The PubMed/MEDLINE,Wanfang data, CNKI ( from January 2001 to April 2015 ) were searched. The search terms were pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular function, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. An inclusion criterion was the patients suffering from PAH, and the healthy volunteers were served as controls. The study was designed as randomized controlled trial. All the subjects investigated had received CMRI. The end of the trial included right ventricular end diastolic volume ( RVEDV ), right ventricular end systolic volume ( RVESV ) and right ventricular ejection fraction ( RVEF ). Meta analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.0 software provided by Cochrane Collaboration, and the publication bias was analyzed by the funnel plot analysis.Five papers involving 381 patients met the criteria. It was showed by Meta-analysis that compared with healthy control group, RVEDV was increase in PAH group [weighted mean difference ( WMD ) = 33.96, 95% confidence interval ( 95%CI ) = 20.80-47.12, P < 0.000 01 ], RVESV was increased ( WMD = 41.91, 95% CI = 29.63-54.19, P < 0.000 01 ), and RVEF was decrease ( WMD = -20.09, 95%CI = -22.65 to -17.52, P < 0.000 01 ).CMRI can be used to evaluate the right ventricular function of patients with PAH, and it has important significance in the evaluation of right ventricular function in patients with PAH.
IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO SERINE PROTEASES AND THEIR POTENTIAL INVOLVEMENT IN PROPHENOLOXIDASE ACTIVATION IN Plutella xylostella. - Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology
The proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is a humoral defense mechanism in insects and crustaceans. Phenoloxidase (PO) is produced as an inactive precursor namely, proPO and is activated via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO-activating proteinase. The current research reports two novel serine proteinase genes (PxSP1-768 bp and PxSP2-816 bp) from Plutella xylostella, encoding 255 and 271 amino acid residues, respectively. Tissue distribution analyses by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed the resultant genes to be primarily expressed in the hemocytes, while quantitative-RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that transcription level of PxSP1 and PxSP2 increased significantly after injection of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana. Purified recombinant fusion proteins of PxSP2 and PxSP1 were injected to New Zealand white rabbits and polyclonal antibodies were generated with the titers of 1:12,800. After silencing the expression of PxSP2 by RNAi, the PO activity decreased significantly. The results show that PxSP2 is involved in prophenoloxidase activation in P. xylostella.Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A splicing isoform of TEAD4 attenuates the Hippo-YAP signalling to inhibit tumour proliferation. - Nature communications
Aberrant splicing is frequently found in cancer, yet the biological consequences of such alterations are mostly undefined. Here we report that the Hippo-YAP signalling, a key pathway that regulates cell proliferation and organ size, is under control of a splicing switch. We show that TEAD4, the transcription factor that mediates Hippo-YAP signalling, undergoes alternative splicing facilitated by the tumour suppressor RBM4, producing a truncated isoform, TEAD4-S, which lacks an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, but maintains YAP interaction domain. TEAD4-S is located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, acting as a dominant negative isoform to YAP activity. Consistently, TEAD4-S is reduced in cancer cells, and its re-expression suppresses cancer cell proliferation and migration, inhibiting tumour growth in xenograft mouse models. Furthermore, TEAD4-S is reduced in human cancers, and patients with elevated TEAD4-S levels have improved survival. Altogether, these data reveal a splicing switch that serves to fine tune the Hippo-YAP pathway.
Arsenic Metabolism and Toxicity Influenced by Ferric Iron in Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract and the Roles of Gut Microbiota. - Environmental science & technology
Iron (Fe) is a common trace element in drinking water. However, little is known about how environmental concentrations of Fe affect the metabolism and toxicity of arsenic (As) in drinking water. In this study, influence of Fe at drinking water-related concentrations (0.1, 0.3, and 3 mg Fe (total)/L) on As metabolism and toxicity, and the roles of gut microbiota during this process were investigated by using in vitro Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). Results showed that Fe had ability to decrease bioaccessible As by coflocculation in small intestine. 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L Fe significantly increased As methylation in simulated transverse and descending colon. Gut microbiota played an important role in alteration of As species, and Fe could affect As metabolism by changing the gut microbiota. Bacteroides, Clostridium, Alistipes, and Bilophila had As resistance and potential ability to methylate As. Cytotoxicity assays of effluents from simulated colons showed that the low levels of Fe decreased As toxicity on human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which might be due to the increase of methylated As. When assessing the health risk of As in drinking water, the residual Fe should be considered.
Optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine. - Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
A simple, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS) method has been developed and validated for quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine. The sample preparation was carried out by one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The paraquat was separated with a HILIC column in 10min. Detection was performed using Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer by Targeted-MS/MS scan mode. Methodological parameters, such as ammonium formate concentration, formic acid concentration, spray voltage, capillary temperature, heater temperature and normalized collision energy were optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of LOQ-1000ng/mL. LOD was 0.1 and 0.3ng/mL, LOQ was 0.3 and 0.8ng/mL for urine and plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <7.97% and 4.78% for plasma and urine. The accuracies were within the range 93.51-100.90%. The plasma and urine matrices had negligible relative matrix effect in this study. This method was successfully applied to determine paraquat concentration in plasma samples with hemoperfusion from 5 suspected paraquat poisoning patients.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons. - Virology
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human Î²3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Establishing the reference intervals of NK cell functions in healthy adults. - Human immunology
Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Establishing the reference intervals (RIs) of NK cell functions would be valuable in assessing the immune status of hosts. We evaluated the NK cell activity in healthy adults. We further established and validated the RIs of representative NK cell functions. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the cytokine production and CD107a degranulation of NK cells. Levels of soluble IFN-Î³ in the culture supernatants were evaluated by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the intracellular IFN-Î³ production of NK cells was positively correlated with CD107a expression and soluble IFN-Î³ levels. There were no significant differences in NK cell functions between different age and gender groups. The mean values and RIs of representative NK cell functions are as following: IFN-Î³(+) NK cells (%): 28.09 (11.3-51.95); CD107a(+) NK cells (%): 17.90 (9.852-27.56); soluble IFN-Î³ (pg/ml): 330.4 (41.38-717.8). In addition, the intracellular IFN-Î³ production and degranulation activity of NK cells in patients with colorectal cancer were significantly lower than that in healthy adults. Our study has established the RIs of NK cell functions in healthy adults, which might be used for monitoring the immune status of the hosts.Copyright Â© 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High-throughput sequencing reveals differential expression of miRNAs in pre-hierarchal follicles of laying and brooding geese. - Physiological genomics
Broodiness is the primary factor influencing egg production in geese, in which several genes and miRNAs participate. Detailed spatiotemporal profiles of miRNAs encompassing follicle development levels, however, are lacking. In this study, we collected preovulatory follicles (classified as small white follicles, SWF; large white follicles, BWF; and small yellow follicles, SYF) from brooding and laying geese and aimed to analyze miRNA during folliculogenesis. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were used to identify the miRNAs involved in follicle development. The let7 family, mir-10 family and mir-143 family were abundant in these libraries, and they have been suggested to play a housekeeping role during folliculogenesis. Conjoint comparisons revealed 23 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated miRNAs (in at least two comparisons of follicles during brooding and laying, P<0.1) in the laying stage. Unlike reproduction pathways reported for ovaries, GO and KEGG analysis suggested pathways for cell apoptosis and proliferation, such as the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, axon guidance, pathways in cancer, tight junctions, focal adhesion, the MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and the Wnt signaling pathway in folliculogenesis. This study revealed the miRNAs that were directly involved in follicular atresia, and our results added to the understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs during specific stages of follicle development.Copyright Â© 2016, Physiological Genomics.
Effects of chitin nano-whiskers on the antibacterial and physicochemical properties of maize starch films. - Carbohydrate polymers
We investigated the effects of chitin nano-whiskers (CNWs) on the antibacterial and physiochemical properties of maize starch-based films. The microstructures, crystalline structures, and thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimeter, and texture profile analysis. The tensile strength of the maize starch films increased from 1.64MPa to 3.69MPa (P<0.05) after CNW reinforcement with up to 1%. The water vapor permeability of the nanocomposite films decreased from 5.32Ã—10(-12) to 2.22Ã—10(-12)gm(-1)s(-1)Pa(-1) with the CNW content increasing from 0% to 2%. The onset temperature, peak temperature and the gelatinization enthalpy of the films containing CNWs were higher than those of the pure starch films. Furthermore, the nanocomposite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes but not against Gram-negative Escherichia coli.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Altered Brain Activities Associated with Neural Repetition Effects in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients. - Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) manifest impaired explicit memory. However, studies on implicit memory such as repetition effects in persons with MCI have been limited. In the present study, 17 MCI patients and 16 healthy normal controls (NC) completed a modified delayed-match-to-sample task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We aim to examine the neural basis of repetition; specifically, to elucidate whether and how repetition-related brain responses are altered in participants with MCI. When repeatedly rejecting distracters, both NC and MCI showed similar behavioral repetition effects; however, in both whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses of functional data, persons with MCI showed reduced repetition-driven suppression in the middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus. Further, individual difference analysis found that activation in the left middle occipital gyrus was positively correlated with rejecting reaction time and negatively correlated with accuracy rate, suggesting it could predict repetition behavioral performance. These findings provide new evidence to support the view that neural mechanisms of repetition effect are altered in MCI, who manifest compensatory repetition-related brain activities along with their neuropathology.
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