1786 Moon Lake Blvd Suite 104
Hoffman Estates IL 60194
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Rats respond where it counts. - Learning & behavior
Taniuchi, Sugihara, Wakashima, and Kamijo (2016) report the surprising finding that rats can transfer numerical discrimination to novel objects. Further experiments show that rat numerical discrimination is flexible, as it can both count homogeneous and heterogeneous objects and omit an odd object.
Clinical, autoimmune, and psychiatric parameters correlate with sleep disturbance in patients with systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. - Clinical and experimental rheumatology
Sleep disturbance is an important contributor to poor quality of life in rheumatic disorders. This study aims to test whether clinical, autoimmune and psychological factors are associated with sleep disturbance in systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and controls.101 female subjects (SSc=33, RA=34, healthy controls=34) participated in this observational, cross-sectional, parallel group study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Other assessments included the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Clinical parameters, therapeutic regimen, and serologic status were recorded.In SSc patients, PSQI scores were higher than in RA patients and controls. Linear regression analysis showed that in SSc patients PSQI scores was associated with BDI, disease duration, modified Rodnan skin score and VAS, while DAS28 and BDI were associated with PSQI scores in RA patients. Anti-Scl70 and ANA positive SSc patients showed higher PSQI scores compared to those ANA positive only, while no differences were observed in RA patients classified according to rheumatoid factor positivity. SSc patients treated with immunosuppressants had lower PSQI scores compared to those not on therapy, whereas only corticosteroid treatment was significantly associated with higher PSQI scores in RA patients. RA patients with disease activity higher than moderate (DAS28â‰¥3.2) had higher PSQI scores than those with lower than moderate (DAS28<3.2).Longitudinal studies are needed to identify disease-specific patterns associated with sleep disturbances and the influence on sleep function induced by immunosuppressive therapy among rheumatic patients.
Estimating the effects of land use at different scales on high ecological status in Irish rivers. - The Science of the total environment
High ecological status at river sites is an indicator of minimal disturbance from anthropogenic activities and the presence of ecologically important species and communities. However, a lack of clarity on what factors cause sites to lose high ecological status is limiting the ability to maintain the quality of these sites. Examination of ecological status records at 508 high status river sites throughout the Republic of Ireland revealed that 337 had fallen below high status at some point between 2001 and 2012 due to changes in invertebrate communities. A geographical information system was used to characterise land use and environmental variables in the catchment, riparian and reach areas upstream of the sites. The relationships between these variables at the three spatial scales and whether or not river sites had maintained high ecological status were then estimated by multiple logistic regression and propensity modelling. The results indicated that grassland at either catchment or riparian scales had a greater negative impact on high ecological status than at the reach scale. This effect appeared to be strongest for upland, steeply sloping rivers that are subject to high rainfall, possibly due to the presence of sensitive biota and/or a greater potential for erosion. These results highlighted the need for better management of grassland upstream of the high status sites, with a focus on river alterations and critical source areas of nutrients, sediments and pesticides that are hydrologically connected to the river. Sustainable management practices and land use planning in those areas will need to be considered carefully if the aim of maintaining high ecological status at river sites is to be achieved.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Non-Invasive Ultrasound Liver Ablation Using Histotripsy: Chronic Study in an InÂ Vivo Rodent Model. - Ultrasound in medicine & biology
Hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver cancer, has the fastest growing incidence among cancers in the United States. Current liver ablation methods are thermal-based and share limitations due to the heat sink effect from the blood flow through the highly vascular liver. Recently, our group has investigated histotripsy as a non-invasive liver cancer ablation method. Histotripsy is a non-thermal ultrasonic ablation method that fractionates tissue through the control of acoustic cavitation. Previous experiments in an inÂ vivo porcine model show that histotripsy can create well-confined lesions in the liver through ribcage obstruction without damaging the overlying ribs and other tissues. Histotripsy can also completely fractionate liver tissue surrounding major vessels while preserving the vessels. In this study, we investigate the long-term effects of histotripsy liver ablation in a rodent model. We hypothesize that the fractionated histotripsy lesion will be resorbed by the liver, resulting in effective tissue healing. To test this hypothesis, the livers of 20 healthy rats were treated with histotripsy using an 8-element 1-MHz histotripsy transducer. Rats were euthanized after 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28Â days (nÂ =Â 4). InÂ vivo and post mortem results showed histotripsy lesions were successfully generated through the intact abdomen in all 20 rats. Magnetic resonance imaging found primarily negative contrast on day 0, positive contrast on day 3 and rapid normalization of signal intensity thereafter (i.e., signal amplitude returned to baseline levels seen in healthy liver tissue). Histologically, lesions were completely fractionated into an acellular homogenate. The lesions had a maximum cross-sectional area of 17.2Â Â±Â 1.9Â mm(2) and sharp boundaries between the lesion and the healthy surrounding tissue after treatment. As the animals recovered after treatment, the histotripsy tissue homogenate was almost completely replaced by regenerated liver parenchyma, resulting in a small fibrous lesion (<1Â mm(2) maximum cross-section) remaining after 28Â d. The results of this study suggest that histotripsy has potential as a non-invasive liver ablation method for effective tissue removal.Copyright Â© 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitral Valve Replacement After Failed Mitral Ring Insertion With or Without Leaflet/Chordal Repair for Pure Mitral Regurgitation. - The American journal of cardiology
Mitral repair operations for correction of pure mitral regurgitation (MR) are generally quite successful. Occasionally, however, the reparative procedure incompletely corrects the MR or the MR recurs. From March 1993 to January 2016, twenty nine patients had mitral valve replacement after the initial mitral repair operation, and observations in them were analyzed. All 29 patients at the repair operation had an annular ring inserted and later (<1Â year in 6 and >1Â year in 21) mitral valve replacement. The cause of the MR before the repair operation appears to have been prolapse in 16 patients (55%), secondary (functional) in 12 (41%) (ischemic in 5), and infective endocarditis which healed in 1 (3%). At the replacement operation the excised anterior mitral leaflet was thickened in all 29 patients. Some degree of stenosis appeared to have been present in 16 of the 29 patients before the replacement operation, although only 10 had an echocardiographic or hemodynamic recording of a transvalvular gradient; at least 11 patients had restricted motion of the posterior mitral leaflet; 10, ring dehiscence; 2, severe hemolysis; and 2, left ventricular outflow obstruction. In conclusion, there are multiple reasons for valve replacement after earlier mitral repair. Uniformly, at the time of the replacement, the mitral leaflets were thickened by fibrous tissue. Measurement of the area enclosed by the 360Â° rings and study of the excised leaflet suggest that the ring itself may have contributed to the leaflet scarring and development of some transmitral stenosis.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duct Diameter and Size of Stones Predict Successful Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Endoscopic Clearance in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreaticolithiasis. - Pancreas
The need for endoscopic therapy before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) to facilitate pancreatic duct stone removal is unclear. Predictive factors associated with successful fragmentation and subsequent complete duct clearance are variable. We hypothesize pancreatic duct strictures and large stones, but not pre-SWL endotherapy, correlate with successful fragmentation and complete duct clearance.A retrospective cohort study of patients with pancreaticolithiasis who underwent SWL and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography between January 2009 and June 2014 was evaluated.Thirty-seven patients were treated. Technical success (TS) of fragmentation was achieved in 22 patients (60%). Technical success was associated with fewer stones and SWL sessions and smaller stone and duct size. By multivariate logistic regression, only duct dilation was associated with TS. Endoscopic success of complete duct clearance was achieved in 29 patients (80%). Endoscopic success was more frequent with stones 12 mm or less and with successful TS. By multivariate logistic regression, stones greater than 12 mm were associated with endoscopic failure.Pre-SWL endotherapy does not affect stone fragmentation. Patients with a dilated duct (>8 mm) and pancreatic stones 12 mm or greater were associated with unsuccessful TS and endoscopic success, respectively, and may benefit from early referral for surgical decompression.
Massive Diffuse Calcification of the Ascending Aorta and Minimal Focal Calcification of the Abdominal Aorta in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. - The American journal of cardiology
A 41-year-old woman, the mother of 3 offspring, with likely heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, had been asymptomatic until age 38 when angina pectoris and exertional dyspnea appeared leading to the discovery of severe multivessel coronary artery disease and a massively calcified ascending aorta. Coronary bypass grafting using the right and left internal mammary arteries did not alleviate the symptoms. Evidence of overt heart failure subsequently appeared and that led to heart transplantation at age 41. She died 22Â days later. The occurrence of massive diffuse calcification of the ascending aorta and minimal focal calcification of the abdominal aorta is rare and in the patient described it appears to be the consequence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Memory systems in the rat: effects of reward probability, context, and congruency between working and reference memory. - Animal cognition
The interaction of working and reference memory was studied in rats on an eight-arm radial maze. In two experiments, rats were trained to perform working memory and reference memory tasks. On working memory trials, they were allowed to enter four randomly chosen arms for reward in a study phase and then had to choose the unentered arms for reward in a test phase. On reference memory trials, they had to learn to visit the same four arms on the maze on every trial for reward. Retention was tested on working memory trials in which the interval between the study and test phase was 15Â s, 15Â min, or 30Â min. At each retention interval, tests were performed in which the correct WM arms were either congruent or incongruent with the correct RM arms. Both experiments showed that congruency interacted with retention interval, yielding more forgetting at 30Â min on incongruent trials than on congruent trials. The effect of reference memory strength on the congruency effect was examined in Experiment 1, and the effect of associating different contexts with working and reference memory on the congruency effect was studied in Experiment 2.
Frequency of Massive Cardiac Adiposity (Floating Heart) in the Native Hearts of Patients Having Heart Transplantation at a Single Texas Hospital (2013 to 2015) and Comparison of Various Clinical and Morphologic Variables in the Patients With Massive Versu - The American journal of cardiology
Body weight continues to increase worldwide due primarily to the increase in body fat. This study analyzes the frequency of massive adiposity at hearts of patients who underwent heart transplantation (HT) determined by the ability of the heart to float in a container of 10% formaldehyde (because adipose tissue is lighter than myocardium) and compares certain characteristics of those patients with and without floating hearts. The hearts studied at HT during a 3-year period (2013 to 2015) at Baylor University Medical Center were carefully "cleaned" and weighed by the same individual and tested as to their ability to float in a container of formaldehyde, an indication of severe cardiac adiposity. Of the 220 hearts studied, 84 (38%) floated in a container of formaldehyde and 136 (62%) did not. Comparison of the 84 patients with floating hearts to the 136 with nonfloating hearts showed a significant difference in ages, but a nonsignificant difference in gender, body mass index, frequency of systemic hypertension, or diabetes mellitus. The odds of a heart being a floating one was increased in patients with a diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathy (unadjusted odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.70). The frequency of massive cardiac adiposity in the native hearts of patients having HT (38%) is striking and appears to have increased in frequency in the recent decades.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Using a Learning Collaborative Strategy With Office-based Practices to Increase Access and Improve Quality of Care for Patients With Opioid Use Disorders. - Journal of addiction medicine
Rapidly escalating rates of heroin and prescription opioid use have been widely observed in rural areas across the United States. Although US Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for opioid use disorders exist, they are not routinely accessible to patients. One medication, buprenorphine, can be prescribed by waivered physicians in office-based practice settings, but practice patterns vary widely. This study explored the use of a learning collaborative method to improve the provision of buprenorphine in the state of Vermont.We initiated a learning collaborative with 4 cohorts of physician practices (28 total practices). The learning collaborative consisted of a series of 4 face-to-face and 5 teleconference sessions over 9 months. Practices collected and reported on 8 quality-improvement data measures, which included the number of patients prescribed buprenorphine, and the percent of unstable patients seen weekly. Changes from baseline to 8 months were examined using a p-chart and logistic regression methodology.Physician engagement in the learning collaborative was favorable across all 4 cohorts (85.7%). On 6 of the 7 quality-improvement measures, there were improvements from baseline to 8 months. On 4 measures, these improvements were statistically significant (Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001). Importantly, practice variation decreased over time on all measures. The number of patients receiving medication increased only slightly (3.4%).Results support the effectiveness of a learning collaborative approach to engage physicians, modestly improve patient access, and significantly reduce practice variation. The strategy is potentially generalizable to other systems and regions struggling with this important public health problem.
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1786 Moon Lake Blvd Suite 104 Hoffman Estates, IL 60194
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1786 Moon Lake Blvd Suite 104
1555 Barrington Rd Suite 3450