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Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers. - Clinical nutrition research
The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 Â± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 Â± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 Â± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth.
Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. - Clinical nutrition research
The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern.
Activation of Hepatic STAT3 Maintains Pulmonary Defense during Endotoxemia. - Infection and immunity
Pneumonia and infection-induced sepsis are worldwide public health concerns. Both pathologies elicit systemic inflammation and induce a robust acute-phase response (APR). Although APR activation is well regarded as a hallmark of infection, the direct contributions of liver activation to pulmonary defense during sepsis remain unclear. By targeting STAT3-dependent acute-phase changes in the liver, we evaluated the role of liver STAT3 activity in promoting host defense in the context of sepsis and pneumonia. We employed a two-hit endotoxemia/pneumonia model, whereby administration of 18 h of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg of body weight) was followed by intratracheal Escherichia coli (10(6) CFU) in wild-type mice or those lacking hepatocyte STAT3 (hepSTAT3(-/-)). Pneumonia alone (without endotoxemia) was effectively controlled in the absence of liver STAT3. Following endotoxemia and pneumonia, however, hepSTAT3(-/-) mice, with significantly reduced levels of circulating and airspace acute-phase proteins, exhibited significantly elevated lung and blood bacterial burdens and mortality. These data suggested that STAT3-dependent liver responses are necessary to promote host defense. While neither recruited airspace neutrophils nor lung injury was altered in endotoxemic hepSTAT3(-/-) mice, alveolar macrophage reactive oxygen species generation was significantly decreased. Additionally, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from this group of hepSTAT3(-/-) mice allowed greater bacterial growth ex vivo. These results suggest that hepatic STAT3 activation promotes both cellular and humoral lung defenses. Taken together, induction of liver STAT3-dependent gene expression programs is essential to countering the deleterious consequences of sepsis on pneumonia susceptibility.Copyright Â© 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
CD99 inhibits CD98-mediated Î²1 integrin signaling through SHP2-mediated FAK dephosphorylation. - Experimental cell research
The human CD99 protein is a 32-kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein, while CD98 is a disulfide-linked 125-kDa heterodimeric type II transmembrane glycoprotein. It has been previously shown that CD99 and CD98 oppositely regulate Î²1 integrin signaling, though the mechanisms by which this regulation occurs are not known. Our results revealed that antibody-mediated crosslinking of CD98 induced FAK phosphorylation at Y397 and facilitated the formation of the protein kinase CÎ± (PKCÎ±)-syntenin-focal adhesion kinase (FAK), focal adhesions (FAs), and IPP-Akt1-syntenin complex, which mediates Î²1 integrin signaling. In contrast, crosslinking of CD99 disrupted the formation of the PKCÎ±-syntenin-FAK complex as well as FA via FAK dephosphorylation. The CD99-induced dephosphorylation of FAK was apparently mediated by the recruitment of Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP2) to the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of its phosphatase activity. Further consequences of the activation of SHP2 included the disruption of FAK-talin and talin-Î²1 integrin interactions and attenuation in the formation of the IPP-Akt1-syntenin complex at the plasma membrane, which resulted in reduced cell-ECM adhesion. This report uncovers the molecular mechanisms underlying the inverse regulation of Î²1 integrin signaling by CD99 and CD98 and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to treat inflammation and cancer.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis Through Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression. - Journal of cancer prevention
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) against oxidative stress in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.Mice were treated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage in advance two weeks before inflammation was induced. Then, the mice were administered with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days and normal drinking water for 7 days between two DSS treatment. Disease activity index values, gut motility, and severity of the resulting oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of SQE was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma samples. Catalase activity and expressions levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), SOD1, and SOD2 were also detected in colon tissues.Administration of SQE significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis compared to the control (Ctrl) group. Levels of 8-oxo-dG, an oxidative DNA damage marker, were significantly lower in the SQE group compared to the untreated DSS Ctrl group. In the SQE (300 mg/kg) group, MDA levels were significantly lower, while SOD and catalase activity levels in the plasma samples were significantly higher compared with the DSS Ctrl group. The expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and Gpx1, were significantly higher, while the levels of SOD 1 expression were lower, in the colon tissues of the DSS Ctrl group compared with those of the Ctrl group. In contrast, administration of SQE significantly down-regulated SOD2 and Gpx1 expressions and up-regulated SOD1 expression.These results indicate that SQE efficiently suppresses oxidative stress in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and its action is associated with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes.
D-Xylose suppresses adipogenesis and regulates lipid metabolism genes in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. - Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
D-Xylose, a natural pentose, has been reported to reduce postprandial glucose levels, although its effect on lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Therefore, this study hypothesized that d-xylose, as an alternative sweetener, suppresses adipogenesis and lipid metabolism by regulating blood lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, and related gene expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a normal diet, a 60% HFD diet, or an HFD with 5% or 10% of the total sucrose content supplemented with d-xylose (Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 diets, respectively). Weight gain, food intake, and serum lipid levels for each group were measured. After 12 weeks, histopathology of liver sections and assays of gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in visceral fat and liver tissues were analyzed. Body weight gain; fasting blood glucose levels; weights of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues; and serum biochemical markers, including total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-/high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, were significantly lowered in the Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 groups. In addition, d-xylose supplementation resulted in the down-regulation of adipogenesis-related genes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte protein 2, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein Î± in visceral adipose tissues. Histopathologically, Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 supplementation reduced HFD-induced fat accumulation in the liver and decreased expressions of fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Î³. D-Xylose supplementation also enhanced lipid oxidation by increasing expressions of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A; cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily a, polypeptide 10; and acyl-CoA oxidase. In conclusion, our finding suggests that d-xylose may help prevent or attenuate the progression of obesity-related metabolic disorders by alleviating adipogenesis and dyslipidemia and improving lipid oxidation.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of pregnancy in asthma on health care use and perinatal outcomes. - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
It is generally known that pregnancy in asthmatic patients increases the risk of asthma exacerbations and poor perinatal outcomes. However, the effect of pregnancy in asthmatic patients on health care use is not known well. In addition, its effect on perinatal outcomes is still controversial because of study limitations caused by ethical issues. National Health Insurance claim data are an ideal resource for studying real-world health care use patterns of asthma.We sought to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on asthma in terms of asthma-related health care use and prescription patterns in concert with the effect of asthma exacerbations on adverse pregnancy outcomes.Among all asthmatic patients in the Korean National Health Insurance claim database from January 2009 to December 2013, pregnant women who delivered in 2011 with pre-existing asthma were enrolled. Analyses included asthma-related health care use and prescription patterns compared between pregnant asthmatic women and nonpregnant female asthmatic control subjects, as well as within the pregnant subjects from before pregnancy throughout postpartum periods. In addition, the association between asthma exacerbation during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes was assessed.A total of 3,357 pregnant asthmatic patients were compared with 50,355 nonpregnant asthmatic patients, and 10,311 pregnant patients were included to determine the effect of asthma exacerbations on adverse pregnancy outcome in the study. Pregnant asthmatic patients underwent more asthma-related hospitalizations (1.3% vs 0.8%, PÂ =Â .005) but had significantly fewer outpatient visits and prescriptions for most asthma medications than nonpregnant asthmatic patients. The proportion of patients ever hospitalized gradually increased throughout pregnancy (first trimester, 0.2%; second trimester, 0.5%; and third trimester, 0.7%; PÂ =Â .018). The prevalence of asthma exacerbation during pregnancy was 5.3%, and the patients who had acute exacerbation during pregnancy had significantly higher asthma-related health care use in terms of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and emergency department and outpatient visits within 1Â year before delivery than those who had not. However, asthma exacerbation during pregnancy was not significantly related to adverse perinatal outcomes, except for cesarean section (27.1% vs 18.9%, PÂ <Â .001). All exacerbations were managed with systemic corticosteroids, and the patients who ever experienced acute exacerbations maintained asthma medications, including inhaled corticosteroid-based inhalers, throughout the pregnancy period.Pregnancy profoundly affects asthma-related health care use but to a different degree depending on whether the patient experienced an exacerbation. Asthma exacerbation during pregnancy is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes while managed appropriately with systemic corticosteroids. However, further studies are needed to clarify the effect of asthma control on perinatal outcome and delivery method.Copyright Â© 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of the gut microbiota profile in breast-fed and formula-fed Korean infants using pyrosequencing. - Nutrition research and practice
Feeding in infancy is the most significant determinant of the intestinal microbiota in early life. The aim of this study was to determine the gut microbiota of Korean infants and compare the microbiota obtained between breast-fed and formula-fed Korean infants.We analyzed the microbial communities in fecal samples collected from twenty 4-week old Korean (ten samples in each breast-fed or formula-fed) infants using pyrosequencing.The fecal microbiota of the 4-week-old Korean infants consisted of the three phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. In addition, five species, including Bifidocbacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius, Strepotococcus lactarius, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and Lactobacillus gasseri were common commensal intestinal microbiota in all infants. The predominant intestinal microbiota in the breast-fed infants (BFI) included the phylum Actinobacteria (average 70.55%), family Bifidobacteriacea (70.12%), genus Bifidobacterium (70.03%) and species Bifidobacterium longum (69.96%). In the microbiota from the formula-fed infants (FFI), the proportion of the phylum Actinobacteria (40.68%) was less, whereas the proportions of Firmicutes (45.38%) and Proteobacteria (13.85%) as well as the diversity of each taxonomic level were greater, compared to those of the BFI. The probiotic species found in the 4-week-old Korean infants were Bifidobacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius, and Lactobacillus gasseri. These probiotic species accounted for 93.81% of the microbiota from the BFI, while only 63.80% of the microbiota from the FFI. In particular, B. longum was more abundant in BFI (69.96%) than in FFI (34.17%).Breast milk supports the growth of B. longum and inhibits others. To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first attempt to analyze the gut microbiota of healthy Korean infants according to the feeding type using pyrosequencing. Our data can be used as a basis for further studies to investigate the development of intestinal microbiota with aging and disease status.
Integration of Quercetin-Iron Complexes into Phosphatidylcholine or Phosphatidylethanolamine Liposomes. - Applied biochemistry and biotechnology
It is well known that flavonoids can chelate transition metals. Flavonoid-metal complexes exhibit a high antioxidative and therapeutic potential. However, the complexes are frequently hydrophobic ones and low soluble in water, which restricts their medical applications. Integration of these complexes into liposomes may increase their bioavailability and therapeutic effect. Here, we studied the interaction of quercetin-iron complexes with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) multilamellar liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed that quercetin-iron complexes did not interact with liposomes. Quercetin however could penetrate lipid bilayers, when added to liposomes at a temperature above lipid melting. Iron cations added later penetrated into the lipid bilayers and produced complexes with quercetin in the liposomes. The quercetin-iron entry in POPE liposomes was improved when the suspension was heated above the temperature of the bilayer-hexagonal HII phase transition of the lipid. The approach proposed facilitates the integration of quercetin-iron complexes into liposomes and may promote their use in medicine.
Urbanization of scrub typhus disease in South Korea. - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population.Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene.Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one's own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 Â± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia.We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention.
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300 Longwood Ave Children's Hosp Boston, Dept Of Inf Dis, Enders 7Th Flr
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