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Gillette WY 82718
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Summary of abbreviated impactor measurement workshop organized by the European Pharmaceutical Aerosol Group. - Therapeutic delivery
This year, the Drugs Delivery to the Lungs 21 conference broke new ground with the first half-day devoted to a workshop focusing on experimental aspects of the abbreviated impactor measurement concept. The workshop had the following objectives: to define what further needs to be done experimentally to establish abbreviated impactor measurement; and to identify the pathway towards adoption of existing methods into the pharmacopeias, as the next step towards what is hoped will eventually be acceptance by the key regulatory agencies in Europe, Canada and the USA.
Drug delivery to the Lungs 21. - Therapeutic delivery
Drug Delivery to the Lungs 21 was focused exclusively on delivery technologies of medicines for the treatment of diseases that are 'local' to the respiratory tract or for wider 'systemic' distribution. Therefore, the range of diseases that can be treated via delivering drugs to the lungs is large and diverse. This diversity means that the delivery technologies (device and/or formulation) are also very varied. Moreover, the patient is critically involved when using drug-delivery technologies to the lungs as their inhalation and 'user' characteristics are pivotal in ensuring that the correct dose is given and reaches the appropriate part of the respiratory tract. Thus, Drug Delivery to the Lungs 21 was a wide-ranging conference, ideal for an overview of current and future inhaled-delivery technologies. The conference was split into various themed sections and supported by approximately 65 posters. Furthermore, the conference was preceded by a workshop organized by the European Pharmaceutical Aerosol Group on abbreviated impactor measurement, which is a tool currently of much interest in assessing aerosol products (see separate summary). The conference initiated a number of innovations this year, including a Facebook page on which delegates and organizers could follow and 'chat' about conference proceedings.
Cascade impactor (CI) mensuration--an assessment of the accuracy and precision of commercially available optical measurement systems. - AAPS PharmSciTech
Multi-stage cascade impactors (CIs) are the preferred measurement technique for characterizing the aerodynamic particle size distribution of an inhalable aerosol. Stage mensuration is the recommended pharmacopeial method for monitoring CI "fitness for purpose" within a GxP environment. The Impactor Sub-Team of the European Pharmaceutical Aerosol Group has undertaken an inter-laboratory study to assess both the precision and accuracy of a range of makes and models of instruments currently used for optical inspection of impactor stages. Measurement of two Andersen 8-stage 'non-viable' cascade impactor "reference" stages that were representative of jet sizes for this instrument type (stages 2 and 7) confirmed that all instruments evaluated were capable of reproducible jet measurement, with the overall capability being within the current pharmacopeial stage specifications for both stages. In the assessment of absolute accuracy, small, but consistent differences (ca. 0.6% of the certified value) observed between 'dots' and 'spots' of a calibrated chromium-plated reticule were observed, most likely the result of treatment of partially lit pixels along the circumference of this calibration standard. Measurements of three certified ring gauges, the smallest having a nominal diameter of 1.0 mm, were consistent with the observation where treatment of partially illuminated pixels at the periphery of the projected image can result in undersizing. However, the bias was less than 1% of the certified diameter. The optical inspection instruments evaluated are fully capable of confirming cascade impactor suitability in accordance with pharmacopeial practice.
Minimizing variability of cascade impaction measurements in inhalers and nebulizers. - AAPS PharmSciTech
The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to suggest ways to minimize the influence of such factors. To accomplish this task, the authors constructed a cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagram for a CI measurement and considered the influence of each root cause based on industry experience and thorough literature review. The results illustrate the intricate network of underlying causes of CI variability, with the potential for several multi-way statistical interactions. It was also found that significantly more quantitative information exists about impactor-related causes than about operator-derived influences, the contribution of drug assay methodology and product-related causes, suggesting a need for further research in those areas. The understanding and awareness of all these factors should aid in the development of optimized CI methods and appropriate quality control measures for aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of pharmaceutical aerosols, in line with the current regulatory initiatives involving quality-by-design (QbD).
Product Quality Research Institute evaluation of cascade impactor profiles of pharmaceutical aerosols. Part 3. Final report on a statistical procedure for determining equivalence. - AAPS PharmSciTech
The purpose of this article is to report final results of the evaluation of a chi-square ratio test proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for demonstrating equivalence of aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) profiles of nasal and orally inhaled drug products. A working group of the Product Quality Research Institute previously published results demonstrating some limitations of the proposed test. In an effort to overcome the test's limited discrimination, the group proposed a supplemental test, a population bioequivalence (PBE) test for impactor-sized mass (ISM). In this final report the group compares the chi-square ratio test to the ISM-PBE test and to the combination of both tests. The basis for comparison is a set of 55 realistic scenarios of cascade impactor data, which were evaluated for equivalence by the statistical tests and independently by the group members. In many instances, the combined application of these 2 tests appeared to increase the discriminating ability of the statistical procedure compared with the chi-square ratio test alone. In certain situations the chi-square ratio test alone was sufficient to determine equivalence of APSD profiles, while in other situations neither of the tests alone nor their combination was adequate. This report describes all of these scenarios and results. In the end, the group did not recommend a statistical test for APSD profile equivalence. The group did not investigate other in vitro tests, in vivo issues, or other statistical tests for APSD profile comparisons. The studied tests are not intended for routine quality control of APSD.
Studies of the human oropharyngeal airspaces using magnetic resonance imaging IV--the oropharyngeal retention effect for four inhalation delivery systems. - Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the oropharyngeal region from 20 adult volunteers using four model inhalation devices (varying mouthpiece diameters, airflow resistances) and tidal breathing was carried out. Statistical analysis (convex hull method) selected 12 scans from 80 data sets representing the extremes of all dimensions in the population. Twelve physical mouth-throat models were made by stereolithography using the exact scan data. The aim was to produce models with varying dimensions to span the adult population, and to investigate if oropharyngeal dimensions affected throat retention for different delivery systems. In an in vitro analysis, the models were used to determine the retention effect of the oropharyngeal airspaces when drug aerosols were administered from four inhalation delivery systems: a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI), two different dry powder inhalers (DPIs A and B), and a nebulizer. The aims of this work were to determine the key parameters governing mouth-throat retention and whether retention was dependent on the delivery system used. Characterizing the throat models by measuring 51 different dimensional variables enabled determination of the most influential variables for dose retention for each inhalation delivery system. Throat model retention was found to be dependent on the delivery system (pMDI approximately DPI(A) > DPI(B) > Neb.). The most influential variable was the total throat model volume. Throat models representing high, median, and low oropharyngeal filtration in healthy adults have been identified.
Laser diffractometry as a technique for the rapid assessment of aerosol particle size from inhalers. - Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine
The rapid assessment of aerosols produced by medicinal inhalers is highly desirable from several standpoints, including the assurance of product quality, the development of new delivery systems, and the need to meet an increasing requirement by regulatory bodies for reliable in vitro performance data. Particle size analysis has traditionally been undertaken by cascade impactor on account of the direct assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) (APIs) that is possible by this method. However, laser diffractometry is less labor-intensive, more rapid, and can be a less invasive procedure. The technique provides meaningful results; as long as precautions are taken to validate that the measurements are an accurate reflection of the distribution of API mass as a function of particle or droplet size. We begin the review by examining the underlying theory of the laser diffraction method. After a brief description of current laser diffractometers used in inhaler measurements, we continue by examining the range of applications by inhaler class. We then examine the basis upon which inhaler measurements made by laser-diffractometry can be compared with equivalent particle size distribution data from compendial techniques. We conclude the assessment of the technique by developing guidelines for its valid application as a component of the range of in vitro methods that are available for inhaler performance assessment.
Using multidetector CT for preoperative vascular evaluation of liver neoplasms: technique and results. - AJR. American journal of roentgenology
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of CT angiography using multidetector CT (MDCT) for preoperative vascular evaluation in candidates who were scheduled for liver neoplasm resection.Forty-two consecutive subjects with malignant liver tumors scheduled for resection were studied with multiphase MDCT. The first 22 subjects underwent both multiphase MDCT angiography and catheter angiography before surgery. The subsequent 20 subjects underwent only preoperative CT angiography. Postprocessing was performed, and the images were analyzed for the depiction of arterial, portal vein, and hepatic vein anatomy and for the identification of important vascular variants. The postprocessing findings were compared and correlated with the findings from catheter angiography (22/42) or intraoperative sonography (42/42) and surgery (42/42).Arterial anomalies were detected on the images of 17 of 42 patients, including a replaced right hepatic artery in five, replaced left hepatic artery in six, accessory right and left hepatic arteries in two, common trunk for the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries in one, and early bifurcation of the celiac artery in one. In 22 patients in whom catheter angiography confirmation was available, the number of arteries and almost all the significant anomalies were correctly identified on CT angiography (accuracy, 97%; sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 100%). In the subset of 20 patients who underwent MDCT angiography without catheter angiography confirmation, all clinically relevant information was provided by CT angiography. The portal and hepatic vein anatomy and the relationships of the liver tumors to the neighboring venous structures were shown on CT.Multidetector CT provides valuable preoperative information about hepatic vascular architecture and can be used as a noninvasive alternative to catheter angiography before oncologic liver surgery.
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