20 York St Ynhh West Pavilion - 2Nd Floor
New Haven CT 06510
Medical School: Other - 1987
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: Yes
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 042752
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Dr. Dinesh Pashankar is associated with these group practices
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Prevalence and Clinical, Endoscopic, and Pathological Features of Duodenitis in Children. - Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Although gastritis and esophagitis are well studied in children, there is very limited literature on duodenitis in children. We aimed to assess the prevalence, etiology, clinical, endoscopic, and pathological features in a large cohort of unselected children with duodenitis.We reviewed the pathology reports of all the upper endoscopies performed at our institution during 5 years to identify children with duodenitis. Biopsy sections were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of duodenitis. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic data, and the presence of associated gastritis and esophagitis were noted in all of the children with duodenitis. The etiology of duodenitis was correlated with the patients' clinical diagnosis.Out of 2772 children who had endoscopy, 352 had duodenitis with the prevalence rate of 12.7%. Gastritis was seen in 64% of children with duodenitis compared with 46% of children without duodenitis (Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001). Common indications for endoscopy in children with duodenitis were abdominal pain, positive celiac serology, and diarrhea. The most common etiology was celiac disease (32%), followed by Crohn disease (13%), ulcerative colitis (3%), and Helicobacter pylori infection (6%). In 63% of cases, the endoscopic appearance of duodenum was normal. Cryptitis, villous changes, and cellular infiltration were noted on histology.Prevalence of duodenitis is 12.7% in children undergoing endoscopy. Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease are common causes of duodenitis. Associated gastritis is common in children with duodenitis, and the correlation of endoscopic appearance with histology is poor.
Obesity and gastrointestinal disorders in children. - Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Obesity in children has become a global pandemic during the last decade. Recent studies have reported an association between obesity and functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In addition, obesity is also becoming increasingly recognized at diagnosis of organic GI diseases such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. An awareness of all possible complications and associations of obesity by the practicing physician is crucial to provide comprehensive care to obese children. This article reviews the present data on the association between obesity and various common GI disorders. The possible mechanisms and the clinical significance of this association are also discussed.
Histopathology of duodenal mucosal lesions in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease: statistical analysis to identify distinctive features. - Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
Histopathologic lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGT) are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Pediatric patients have a higher incidence of IBD-associated gastritis and duodenitis than do adults. This study aimed to identify histopathologic features of duodenal lesions in the pediatric population that are characteristic of IBD, compared to duodenal pathology of different etiopathogenesis. We performed a retrospective analysis of UGT biopsies from pediatric patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of duodenitis (0-18 years of age) over a 7-year period. We identified 40 cases of duodenitis associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and 10 cases associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and compared the histopathologic characteristics of the duodenitis with age-matched controls consisting of 40 cases duodenitis associated with celiac disease and 40 non-Helicobacter pylori-associated (NOS) etiology duodenitis cases. The histologic features that were evaluated included presence of granulomas, duodenal cryptitis, erosion, lamina propria eosinophils, villous blunting, increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), and crypt hyperplasia, among others. Additionally, we evaluated the presence of associated gastritis in all of these groups. Statistical analysis to identify significant differences was performed using Kruskal-Wallis testing. Cryptitis was the most distinctive feature of IBD-associated duodenitis. Granulomas were exceptionally rare. The severity of villous blunting and presence of IELs was significantly different in the IBD versus the celiac group. There is a significant overlap with duodenal lesions of different etiopathogenesis, including villous blunting and eosinophilia. With the exclusion of granulomas, cryptitis seems the most distinctive feature of the duodenal lesions associated with IBD.
Individual exome analysis in diagnosis and management of paediatric liver failure of indeterminate aetiology. - Journal of hepatology
In children with liver failure, as many as half remain of indeterminate aetiology. This hinders timely consideration of optimal treatment options. We posit that a significant subset of these children harbour known inherited metabolic liver diseases with atypical presentation or novel inborn errors of metabolism. We investigated the utility of whole-exome sequencing in three children with advanced liver disease of indeterminate aetiology.Patient 1 was a 10 year-old female diagnosed with Wilson disease but no detectable ATP7B mutations, and decompensated liver cirrhosis who underwent liver transplant and subsequently developed onset of neurodegenerative disease. Patient 2 was a full-term 2 day-old male with fatal acute liver failure of indeterminate aetiology. Patient 3 was an 8 year-old female with progressive syndromic cholestasis of unknown aetiology since age 3 months.Unbiased whole-exome sequencing of germline DNA revealed homozygous mutations in MPV17 and SERAC1 as the disease causing genes in patient 1 and 2, respectively. This is the first demonstration of SERAC1 loss-of-function associated fatal acute liver failure. Patient 1 expands the phenotypic spectrum of the MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. Patient 3 was found to have syndromic cholestasis due to bi-allelic NOTCH2 mutations.Our findings validate the application of whole-exome sequencing in the diagnosis and management of children with advanced liver disease of indeterminate aetiology, with the potential to enhance optimal selection of treatment options and adequate counselling of families. Moreover, whole-exome sequencing revealed a hitherto unrecognized phenotypic spectrum of inherited metabolic liver diseases.Copyright Â© 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Role of polyethylene glycol in childhood constipation. - Clinical pediatrics
Constipation is a common and chronic problem in children worldwide. Long-term use of laxatives is necessary for successful treatment of chronic constipation. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent studies report the efficacy and safety of PEG for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of its excellent patient acceptance, PEG is being used widely in children for constipation. In this commentary, we review the recently published pediatric literature on the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance of PEG. We also assess the role of PEG in childhood constipation by comparing it with other laxatives in terms of efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and cost.Â© The Author(s) 2013.
Polyethylene glycol: a game-changer laxative for children. - Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Constipation is a common problem in children worldwide. It can also be a chronic problem persisting for many months to years. Successful treatment of constipation requires long-term use of laxatives. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol. Compared with other laxatives, polyethylene glycol (with and without electrolytes) is a relatively new laxative used during the last decade. Recent studies report excellent efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of excellent patient acceptance, polyethylene glycol has become a preferred choice of laxative for many practitioners. This article reviews the recently published pediatric literature on biochemistry, efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and pharmacoeconomics of polyethylene glycol.
Celiac disease in a child with ulcerative colitis: a possible genetic association. - Journal of clinical gastroenterology
Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease are both immune-mediated enteropathies. It is rare for both celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease to occur together in an individual patient. This association has been reported in adults, however, very rarely in children. Here, we report an unusual case of an 8-year-old child with a history of anemia and failure to thrive who presented with bloody diarrhea. His evaluation showed anemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and positive celiac antibodies. Endoscopic evaluation revealed partial duodenal villous atrophy and pancolitis. He was diagnosed with celiac disease and UC and responded well to a gluten-free diet and steroid/mesalamine therapy. The patient's genetic testing revealed markers showing susceptibility for both celiac disease and UC. It is important to be aware of this association as both conditions can present with similar clinical features, however, require different therapeutic approaches.
Acute necrotizing pancreatitis in children. - The Journal of pediatrics
To describe the etiologic factors, course, and outcome of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in children.We performed a retrospective study of children with necrotizing pancreatitis diagnosed during the last 21 years at Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital. Computed tomography (CT) criteria were used to diagnose necrotizing pancreatitis and to assess severity index. Charts were reviewed to collect demographics, etiology, details of hospital stay, complications, and outcome.Seven children (mean age, 11.6 years; range, 4-17.8 years) had necrotizing pancreatitis. Etiologic factors were medications, diabetes, and gallstones. All had prolonged hospitalization (9-40 days; mean, 20 days) and 5 patients required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. During the hospital stay, patients developed complications involving the respiratory, hematologic, renal, metabolic, and circulatory systems. All patients had aggressive supportive medical therapy, and none required surgery. There were no deaths attributable to pancreatitis. Late complications after hospital discharge occurred in 5 patients and included pseudocysts, transient hyperglycemia, diabetes, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The CT severity index correlated with the risk of complications.A cute necrotizing pancreatitis has a variable etiology in children. CT scan is useful in the diagnosis and assessment of severity. Necrotizing pancreatitis in children is associated with severe acute and late complications and requires intensive medical therapy.Copyright Â© 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Risk factors associated with biliary pancreatitis in children. - Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Little is known about risk factors for biliary pancreatitis in children. We characterized cases of pediatric biliary pancreatitis, compared biliary with nonbiliary cases, examined differences in presentation between younger and older children, and studied features distinguishing gallstone- from sludge-induced pancreatitis.We evaluated 76 episodes of biliary pancreatitis from 271 cases of acute pancreatitis in children admitted to a tertiary care hospital from 1994 to 2007.Of the 76 cases, 55% had gallstones, 21% had sludge, and 24% had structural defects. Hispanic children had 2.85 (P = 0.01) and 5.59 (P = 0.003) times higher probability for biliary pancreatitis than white and black children, respectively. Median serum amylase and lipase in children with biliary pancreatitis were 64% and 49% higher, respectively, compared with other causes (P < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression, aspartate aminotransferase was an independent predictor of biliary pancreatitis (odds ratio 6.69, P = 0.001). When comparing gallstone- with sludge-induced causes, obesity was an independent predictor (38% more prevalent, P < 0.01) of gallstone cases.Hispanic ethnicity is a risk factor and aspartate aminotransferase is a biomarker for biliary pancreatitis over other causes. Furthermore, obesity can distinguish gallstone- from sludge-induced pancreatitis. These findings may spur prospective studies to determine the optimal evaluation and management of children with biliary pancreatitis.
Acute constipation in children receiving chemotherapy for cancer. - Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
Constipation occurs in children receiving chemotherapy for cancer but there are no data about prevalence, risk factors, and severity of constipation in this group of children.We prospectively studied 61 children receiving chemotherapy for cancer. We administered questionnaires to children and parents and collected data on demographics, chemotherapy, and bowel movement pattern during chemotherapy. We used North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition criteria for the diagnosis of constipation. Parental perception of constipation as a problem and impact on lifestyle during chemotherapy were assessed on a 0 to 3 scale with 0 being no problem, 1 minor, 2 significant, and 3 being a major problem.Thirty-five children (57%) had acute constipation lasting for 2 or more weeks during chemotherapy. Several risk factors were analyzed and only combined use of vincristine and opiates emerged as significant risk factor for the development of constipation. In children with constipation, 15 of 35 parents (43%) perceived constipation as a major/significant problem and 8 children and their parents (23%) perceived constipation having a major/significant impact on lifestyle during chemotherapy.Acute constipation was diagnosed in 57% of children receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Combined use of vincristine and opiates was associated with the development of constipation. Constipation can be a significant problem with a negative impact on lifestyle during chemotherapy and needs aggressive management.
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