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Postnatal outcomes of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX. - American journal of medical genetics. Part A
High quality information is critical for informed decision-making in pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidy. The goal of this study was to define the spectrum of outcomes in patients with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaic Turner syndrome in order to provide a better basis for genetic counseling at the time of intrauterine diagnosis. Phenotype data for twenty-five patients with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaicism were collected by retrospective chart review and, when possible, semi-structured telephone interview. Existing data from a cohort of 58 patients with postnatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaicism were used for comparison. Relative to those diagnosed postnatally, prenatal patients were more likely to have normal growth and normal secondary sexual development, less likely to manifest distinctive Turner syndrome features such as nuchal webbing and edema, and had significantly fewer renal defects. These differences underscore the need for a nuanced approach to prenatal counseling in cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Actionable exomic incidental findings in 6503 participants: challenges of variant classification. - Genome research
Recommendations for laboratories to report incidental findings from genomic tests have stimulated interest in such results. In order to investigate the criteria and processes for assigning the pathogenicity of specific variants and to estimate the frequency of such incidental findings in patients of European and African ancestry, we classified potentially actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all 4300 European- and 2203 African-ancestry participants sequenced by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). We considered 112 gene-disease pairs selected by an expert panel as associated with medically actionable genetic disorders that may be undiagnosed in adults. The resulting classifications were compared to classifications from other clinical and research genetic testing laboratories, as well as with in silico pathogenicity scores. Among European-ancestry participants, 30 of 4300 (0.7%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.1%) had a disruptive variant that was expected to be pathogenic, whereas 52 (1.2%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. For African-ancestry participants, six of 2203 (0.3%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.3%) had an expected pathogenic disruptive variant, whereas 13 (0.6%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling mammalian conservation score and the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion summary score of conservation, substitution, regulation, and other evidence were compared across pathogenicity assignments and appear to have utility in variant classification. This work provides a refined estimate of the burden of adult onset, medically actionable incidental findings expected from exome sequencing, highlights challenges in variant classification, and demonstrates the need for a better curated variant interpretation knowledge base.Â© 2015 Amendola et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Deep sequencing of multiple regions of glial tumors reveals spatial heterogeneity for mutations in clinically relevant genes. - Genome biology
The extent of intratumoral mutational heterogeneity remains unclear in gliomas, the most common primary brain tumors, especially with respect to point mutation. To address this, we applied single molecule molecular inversion probes targeting 33 cancer genes to assay both point mutations and gene amplifications within spatially distinct regions of 14 glial tumors.We find evidence of regional mutational heterogeneity in multiple tumors, including mutations in TP53 and RB1 in an anaplastic oligodendroglioma and amplifications in PDGFRA and KIT in two glioblastomas (GBMs). Immunohistochemistry confirms heterogeneity of TP53 mutation and PDGFRA amplification. In all, 3 out of 14 glial tumors surveyed have evidence for heterogeneity for clinically relevant mutations.Our results underscore the need to sample multiple regions in GBM and other glial tumors when devising personalized treatments based on genomic information, and furthermore demonstrate the importance of measuring both point mutation and copy number alteration while investigating genetic heterogeneity within cancer samples.
Five children with deletions of 1p34.3 encompassing AGO1 and AGO3. - European journal of human genetics : EJHG
Small RNAs (miRNA, siRNA, and piRNA) regulate gene expression through targeted destruction or translational repression of specific messenger RNA in a fundamental biological process called RNA interference (RNAi). The Argonaute proteins, which derive from a highly conserved family of genes found in almost all eukaryotes, are critical mediators of this process. Four AGO genes are present in humans, three of which (AGO 1, 3, and 4) reside in a cluster on chromosome 1p35p34. The effects of germline AGO variants or dosage alterations in humans are not known, however, prior studies have implicated dysregulation of the RNAi mechanism in the pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe five patients with hypotonia, poor feeding, and developmental delay who were found to have microdeletions of chromosomal region 1p34.3 encompassing the AGO1 and AGO3 genes. We postulate that haploinsufficiency of AGO1 and AGO3 leading to impaired RNAi may be responsible for the neurocognitive deficits present in these patients. However, additional studies with rigorous phenotypic characterization of larger cohorts of affected individuals and systematic investigation of the underlying molecular defects will be necessary to confirm this.
Periostin is a novel therapeutic target that predicts and regulates glioma malignancy. - Neuro-oncology
Periostin is a secreted matricellular protein critical for epithelial-mesenchymal transition and carcinoma metastasis. In glioblastoma, it is highly upregulated compared with normal brain, and existing reports indicate potential prognostic and functional importance in glioma. However, the clinical implications of periostin expression and function related to its therapeutic potential have not been fully explored.Periostin expression levels and patterns were examined in human glioma cells and tissues by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry and correlated with glioma grade, type, recurrence, and survival. Functional assays determined the impact of altering periostin expression and function on cell invasion, migration, adhesion, and glioma stem cell activity and tumorigenicity. The prognostic and functional relevance of periostin and its associated genes were analyzed using the TCGA and REMBRANDT databases and paired recurrent glioma samples.Periostin expression levels correlated directly with tumor grade and recurrence, and inversely with survival, in all grades of adult human glioma. Stromal deposition of periostin was detected only in grade IV gliomas. Secreted periostin promoted glioma cell invasion and adhesion, and periostin knockdown markedly impaired survival of xenografted glioma stem cells. Interactions with Î±vÎ²3 and Î±vÎ²5 integrins promoted adhesion and migration, and periostin abrogated cytotoxicity of the Î±vÎ²3/Î²5 specific inhibitor cilengitide. Periostin-associated gene signatures, predominated by matrix and secreted proteins, corresponded to patient prognosis and functional motifs related to increased malignancy.Periostin is a robust marker of glioma malignancy and potential tumor recurrence. Abrogation of glioma stem cell tumorigenicity after periostin inhibition provides support for exploring the therapeutic impact of targeting periostin.Â© The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Actionable, pathogenic incidental findings in 1,000 participants' exomes. - American journal of human genetics
The incorporation of genomics into medicine is stimulating interest on the return of incidental findings (IFs) from exome and genomeÂ sequencing. However, no large-scale study has yet estimated the number of expected actionable findings per individual; therefore, we classified actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 500 European- and 500 African-descent participants randomly selected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project. The 1,000 individuals were screened for variants in 114 genes selected by an expert panel for their association with medically actionable genetic conditions possibly undiagnosed in adults. Among the 1,000 participants, 585 instances of 239 unique variants were identified as disease causing in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The primary literature supporting the variants' pathogenicity was reviewed. Of the identified IFs, only 16 unique autosomal-dominant variants in 17 individuals were assessed to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and one participant had two pathogenic variants for an autosomal-recessive disease. Furthermore, one pathogenic and four likely pathogenic variants not listed as disease causing in HGMD were identified. These data can provide an estimate of the frequency (âˆ¼3.4% for European descent and âˆ¼1.2% for African descent) of the high-penetrance actionable pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in adults. The 23 participants with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were disproportionately of European (17) versus African (6) descent. The process of classifying these variants underscores the need for a more comprehensive and diverse centralized resource to provide curated information on pathogenicity for clinical use to minimize health disparities in genomic medicine.Copyright Â© 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Posttranslational modification and conformational state of heat shock protein 90 differentially affect binding of chemically diverse small molecule inhibitors. - Oncotarget
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone in eukaryotes that facilitates the conformational maturation and function of a diverse protein clientele, including aberrant and/or over-expressed proteins that are involved in cancer growth and survival. A role for Hsp90 in supporting the protein homeostasis of cancer cells has buoyed interest in the utility of Hsp90 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. Despite the fact that all clinically evaluated Hsp90 inhibitors target an identical nucleotide-binding pocket in the N domain of the chaperone, the precise determinants that affect drug binding in the cellular environment remain unclear, and it is possible that chemically distinct inhibitors may not share similar binding preferences. Here we demonstrate that two chemically unrelated Hsp90 inhibitors, the benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin and the purine analog PU-H71, select for overlapping but not identical subpopulations of total cellular Hsp90, even though both inhibitors bind to an amino terminal nucleotide pocket and prevent N domain dimerization. Our data also suggest that PU-H71 is able to access a broader range of N domain undimerized Hsp90 conformations than is geldanamycin and is less affected by Hsp90 phosphorylation, consistent with its broader and more potent anti-tumor activity. A more complete understanding of the impact of the cellular milieu on small molecule inhibitor binding to Hsp90 should facilitate their more effective use in the clinic.
Swe1Wee1-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Hsp90 regulates distinct facets of chaperone function. - Molecular cell
Saccharomyces WEE1 (Swe1), the only "true" tyrosine kinase in budding yeast, is an Hsp90 client protein. Here we show that Swe1(Wee1) phosphorylates a conserved tyrosine residue (Y24 in yeast Hsp90 and Y38 in human Hsp90alpha) in the N domain of Hsp90. Phosphorylation is cell-cycle associated and modulates the ability of Hsp90 to chaperone a selected clientele, including v-Src and several other kinases. Nonphosphorylatable mutants have normal ATPase activity, support yeast viability, and productively chaperone the Hsp90 client glucocorticoid receptor. Deletion of SWE1 in yeast increases Hsp90 binding to its inhibitor geldanamycin, and pharmacologic inhibition/silencing of Wee1 sensitizes cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitor-induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrate that Hsp90 chaperoning of distinct client proteins is differentially regulated by specific posttranslational modification of a unique subcellular pool of the chaperone, and they provide a strategy to increase the cellular potency of Hsp90 inhibitors.
Technical considerations for noncoplanar proton-beam therapy of patients with tumors proximal to the optic nerve. - Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen RoÌˆntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
To investigate technical feasibilities of noncoplanar proton-beam therapy (PBT) on dose reduction to critical organs.The degree of mechanical precision, rotational limitations of the gantry and the treatment couch were evaluated, and dose-volume histograms were compared for noncoplanar and coplanar PBT. Following these studies, three patients with tumors proximal to the optic nerve underwent noncoplanar PBT.Noncoplanar PBT offered advantage in dose reduction to the optic nerve when compared to coplanar therapy. This advantage was more significant if the tumor reduced in size during treatment. None experienced radiation injury to the optic nerve during a short follow-up time of 7-12 months.Noncoplanar PBT appears to reduce doses to organs at risk.
Proton beam therapy for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer at the university of tsukuba. - International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
To evaluate in a retrospective review the role of proton beam therapy for patients with medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).From November 2001 to July 2008, 55 medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with proton beam therapy. A total of 58 (T1/T2, 30/28) tumors were treated. The median age of study participants was 77 years (range, 52-86 years). A total dose of 66 GyE in 10 fractions was given to peripherally located tumors and 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions to centrally located tumors.The rates (95% confidence interval) of overall and progression-free survival of all patients and of local control of all tumors at 2 years were 97.8% (93.6-102.0%), 88.7% (77.9-99.5%), and 97.0% (91.1-102.8%), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in progression-free rate between T1 and T2 tumors (p = 0.87). Two patients (3.6%) had deterioration in pulmonary function, and 2 patients (3.6%) had Grade 3 pneumonitis.Proton beam therapy was effective and well tolerated in medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC.2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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