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Failure Analysis of Batteries Using Synchrotron-based Hard X-ray Microtomography. - Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Imaging morphological changes that occur during the lifetime of rechargeable batteries is necessary to understand how these devices fail. Since the advent of lithium-ion batteries, researchers have known that the lithium metal anode has the highest theoretical energy density of any anode material. However, rechargeable batteries containing a lithium metal anode are not widely used in consumer products because the growth of lithium dendrites from the anode upon charging of the battery causes premature cell failure by short circuit. Lithium dendrites can also form in commercial lithium-ion batteries with graphite anodes if they are improperly charged. We demonstrate that lithium dendrite growth can be studied using synchrotron-based hard X-ray microtomography. This non-destructive imaging technique allows researchers to study the growth of lithium dendrites, in addition to other morphological changes inside batteries, and subsequently develop methods to extend battery life.
Trail Making Test Elucidates Neural Substrates of Specific Poststroke Executive Dysfunctions. - Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation
Poststroke cognitive impairment is typified by prominent deficits in processing speed and executive function. However, the underlying neuroanatomical substrates of executive deficits are not well understood, and further elucidation is needed. There may be utility in fractionating executive functions to delineate neural substrates.One test amenable to fine delineation is the Trail Making Test (TMT), which emphasizes processing speed (TMT-A) and set shifting (TMT-B-A difference, proportion, quotient scores, and TMT-B set-shifting errors). The TMT was administered to 2 overt ischemic stroke cohorts from a multinational study: (1) a chronic stroke cohort (N=61) and (2) an acute-subacute stroke cohort (N=45). Volumetric quantification of ischemic stroke and white matter hyperintensities was done on magnetic resonance imaging, along with ratings of involvement of cholinergic projections, using the previously published cholinergic hyperintensities projections scale. Damage to the superior longitudinal fasciculus, which colocalizes with some cholinergic projections, was also documented.Multiple linear regression analyses were completed. Although larger infarcts (Î²=0.37, P<0.0001) were associated with slower processing speed, cholinergic hyperintensities projections scale severity (Î²=0.39, P<0.0001) was associated with all metrics of set shifting. Left superior longitudinal fasciculus damage, however, was only associated with the difference score (Î²=0.17, P=0.03). These findings were replicated in both cohorts. Patients with â‰¥2 TMT-B set-shifting errors also had greater cholinergic hyperintensities projections scale severity.In this multinational stroke cohort study, damage to lateral cholinergic pathways and the superior longitudinal fasciculus emerged as significant neuroanatomical correlates for executive deficits in set shifting.Â© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
LIMITED ELEVATIONS IN ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUG-INDUCED SERUM ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT) LEVELS IN A COHORT OF NIGERIANS ON TREATMENT FOR PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV INFECTION IN YENAGOA. - Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
This study, undertaken in a major tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was designed to examine the incidence of elevation in serum alanine aminotransference (ALT) in our patients who were on treatment for HIV/AIDS with some of them on antituberculosis drugs.Between January and December 2014, all admission records which include HIV status, Acid fast bacilli Status, Chest radiograph, CD4 cell count, degree of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis drugs treatment according to WHO definition using clinical findings and ALT levels at baseline (ALTI) and at 4 weeks into treatment with antituberculosis drugs (ALT2) of all the patients on HAART with some on antituberculosis drugs were retrieved and retrospectively analyzed.Of the total of 707 patients on HAART, 80 were on both HAART and anti-tuberculosis treatment.There was a statistically significant correlation between ALT I levels in the PTB negative and PTB positive cohort at baseline Ï‡2 10.725,d.f4,P = 0.030. After 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment and HAART ALT2 level in expectedly, generally showed downward trend with no statistically significant correlation between PTB status and ALT2 (Ï‡2 = 0.789, d.f2.P = 0.674) CONCLUSION: Anti-tuberculosis drug induced elevation in alanine amino transference is unexpectedly low in our patients on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV infection. This is a key finding that requires further studies.
Molecular Identification of Food Sources in Triatomines in the Brazilian Northeast: Roles of Goats and Rodents in Chagas Disease Epidemiology. - The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
We used the gut contents of triatomines collected from rural areas of CearÃ¡ State, northeastern Brazil, to identify their putative hosts via vertebrate cytb gene sequencing. Successful direct sequencing was obtained for 48% of insects, comprising 50 Triatoma brasiliensis, 7 Triatoma pseudomaculata, and 1 Rhodnius nasutus. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) procedure revealed that domestic animals, such as chickens (Gallus gallus) and goats (Capra hircus), are the main food source, including in sylvatic environment. Native hosts were also detected in peridomestic environment such as reptiles (Tropidurus sp. and Iguana iguana) and the Galea spixii rodent. The role of goats and Galea spixii in Chagas disease epidemiology calls for further studies, because these mammals likely link the sylvatic and domestic Trypanosoma cruzi cycles.Â© The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Differential expression of the chemosensory transcriptome in two populations of the stemborer Sesamia nonagrioides. - Insect biochemistry and molecular biology
Among the proposed mechanisms of local adaptation to different ecological environments, transcriptional changes may play an important role. In this study, we investigated whether such variability occurred within the chemosensory organs of a herbivorous insect, for which chemosensation guides most of its host preferences. A European and an African population of the noctuid Sesamia nonagrioides that display significant differences in their ecological preferences were collected on Zea mays and Typha domingensis, respectively. RNAseq were used between the two populations for digital expression profiling of chemosensory organs from larval antennae and palps. Preliminary data on adult female antennae and ovipositors were also collected. We found 6,550 differentially expressed transcripts in larval antennae and palps. Gene ontology enrichment analyses suggested that transcriptional activity was overrepresented in the French population and that virus and defense activities were overrepresented in the Kenyan population. In addition, we found differential expression of a variety of cytochrome P450s, which may be linked to the different host-plant diets. Looking at olfactory genes, we observed differential expression of numerous candidate odorant-binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, and one olfactory receptor, suggesting that differences in olfactory sensitivity participate in insect adaptation.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue. - PloS one
In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent's and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings) experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin) by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents' and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins' host selection principle (HHSP), neo-Hopkins' principle, and the concept of 'chemical legacy.'
Feasibility of Targeting PIK3CA Mutations in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. - Pathology oncology research : POR
PIK3CA is the only frequently-mutated, directly druggable oncogene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, it is unclear if a molecularly-driven intervention trial can be launched successfully, particularly within a single-institution setting secondary to the infrastructure necessary for mutation detection, mutation prevalence, and patient willingness to participate. This study aimed to evaluate 1) local frequency of PIK3CA activating mutations in HNSCC, 2) timeliness of our mutation-profiling clinical pathway, and 3) patients' willingness to enroll in a novel neoadjuvant drug trial. Tissue biopsies of 25 consecutive cases of HNSCC were tested for activating PIK3CA mutations at three mutational hotspots by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mutations prevalence and number of working days accrued in determining PIK3CA mutational status were calculated. In addition, 30 HNSCC patients were surveyed prospectively regarding their willingness to participate in a hypothetical drug trial. Survey data were summarized descriptively. 4 of 25 (16Â %) tumors harbored a PIK3CA activating mutation, including one at codon E542K, two at codon E545K/D, and one at codon H1047R. On average, this result was obtained in approximately 15 working days (range, 9-24 working days). The majority of patients surveyed (70Â %) indicated their willingness to participate in a targeted PIK3CA trial. This study provides evidence that within a single institution, PIK3CA activating mutations can be detected with expected frequency, with sufficient timeliness and sufficient patient interest to mount a targeted intervention trial that may lead to improved tumor response in selected HNSCC patients.
Cardiac dosimetric evaluation of deep inspiration breath-hold level variances using computed tomography scans generated from deformable image registration displacement vectors. - Medical dosimetry : official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
There is a reduction in cardiac dose for left-sided breast radiotherapy during treatment with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) when compared with treatment with free breathing (FB). Various levels of DIBH may occur for different treatment fractions. Dosimetric effects due to this and other motions are a major component of uncertainty in radiotherapy in this setting. Recent developments in deformable registration techniques allow displacement vectors between various temporal and spatial patient representations to be digitally quantified. We propose a method to evaluate the dosimetric effect to the heart from variable reproducibility of DIBH by using deformable registration to create new anatomical computed tomography (CT) scans. From deformable registration, 3-dimensional deformation vectors are generated with FB and DIBH. The obtained deformation vectors are scaled to 75%, 90%, and 110% and are applied to the reference image to create new CT scans at these inspirational levels. The scans are then imported into the treatment planning system and dose calculations are performed. The average mean dose to the heart was 2.5Gy (0.7 to 9.6Gy) at FB, 1.2Gy (0.6 to 3.8Gy, p < 0.001) at 75% inspiration, 1.1Gy (0.6 to 3.1Gy, p = 0.004) at 90% inspiration, 1.0Gy (0.6 to 3.0Gy) at 100% inspiration or DIBH, and 1.0Gy (0.6 to 2.8Gy, p = 0.019) at 110% inspiration. The average mean dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was 19.9Gy (2.4 to 46.4Gy), 8.6Gy (2.0 to 43.8Gy, p < 0.001), 7.2Gy (1.9 to 40.1Gy, p = 0.035), 6.5Gy (1.8 to 34.7Gy), and 5.3Gy (1.5 to 31.5Gy, p < 0.001), correspondingly. This novel method enables numerous anatomical situations to be mimicked and quantifies the dosimetric effect they have on a treatment plan.Copyright Â© 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recreational phenethylamine poisonings reported to a French poison control center. - Drug and alcohol dependence
Over the last decade, use of phenethylamines has become increasingly prevalent. This study aimed to describe typical aspects of phenethylamine poisoning in order to better inform patient care.Phenethylamine poisoning cases reported to the Poison Control Center of Angers, France, from January, 2007 to December, 2013 were examined. Clinical findings were examined in 105 patients, including phenethylamine used, symptoms and final outcome. Patients were predominantly male (80%), with mean age 26Â±8 years.MDMA (38%), amphetamine (18%) and methamphetamine (14%) were the most commonly reported. Synthetic cathinones (10%) and the 2C series (7%) were also found. Substances most commonly associated with phenethylamine poisoning were cannabis (27%), ethanol (20%) and cocaine (9%). The most frequently reported symptoms included anxiety and hallucinations (49%), mydriasis and headache (41%), tachycardia (40%) and hypertension (15%). Complications such as seizures (7%), cardiac arrest (5%), toxic myocarditis (1%) and hemorrhagic stroke (1%) were also observed. Of the cases, the Poison Severity Score was: null or low, 66%, moderate, 21%, severe or fatal, 13%. Of the patients, 77% received hospital care and 12.4% were admitted to an intensive care unit. Analytical confirmations were obtained for all severe cases. While 93% of patients recovered, there were 5 deaths and 2 patients presented with neurological sequelae.Phenethylamine poisonings may be severe in young and healthy individuals. Physicians, toxicologists and analysts should be aware of new phenethylamine consumption trends in order to inform management of patient care and to contribute to a more responsive drug policy.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Developmental neurotoxicity of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene with thyroxine deficit: Sensitivity of glia and dentate granule neurons in the absence of behavioral changes. - Toxics
Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate biological processes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and can be altered with environmental exposures. Developmental exposure to the dioxin-like compound, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB), induced a dose response deficit in serum T4 levels with no change in 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine or thyroid stimulating hormone. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged (corn oil, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg TCAB/kg/day) two weeks prior to cohabitation until post-partum day 3 and male offspring from post-natal day (PND)4-21. At PND21, the high dose showed a deficit in body weight gain. Conventional neuropathology detected no neuronal death, myelin disruption, or gliosis. Astrocytes displayed thinner and less complex processes at 1.0 and 10 mg/kg/day. At 10 mg/kg/day, microglia showed less complex processes, unbiased stereology detected fewer hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and dentate granule neurons (GC) and Golgi staining of the cerebellum showed diminished Purkinje cell dendritic arbor. At PND150, normal maturation of GC number and Purkinje cell branching area was not observed in the 1.0 mg/kg/day dose group with a diminished number and branching suggestive of effects initiated during developmental exposure. No effects were observed on post-weaning behavioral assessments in control, 0.1 and 1.0mg/kg/day dose groups. The demonstrated sensitivity of hippocampal neurons and glial cells to TCAB and T4 deficit raises support for considering additional anatomical features of brain development in future DNT evaluations.
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1829 S Brand Blvd Glendale, CA 91204
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1219 S Central Ave
1510 S Central Ave # 620
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