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Parental depression and child cognitive vulnerability predict children's cortisol reactivity. - Development and psychopathology
Risk for depression is expressed across multiple levels of analysis. For example, parental depression and cognitive vulnerability are known markers of depression risk, but no study has examined their interactive effects on children's cortisol reactivity, a likely mediator of early depression risk. We examined relations across these different levels of vulnerability using cross-sectional and longitudinal methods in two community samples of children. Children were assessed for cognitive vulnerability using self-reports (Study 1; n = 244) and tasks tapping memory and attentional bias (Study 2; n = 205), and their parents were assessed for depression history using structured clinical interviews. In both samples, children participated in standardized stress tasks and cortisol reactivity was assessed. Cross-sectionally and longitudinally, parental depression history and child cognitive vulnerability interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity; associations between parent depression and elevated child cortisol activity were found when children also showed elevated depressotypic attributions as well as attentional and memory biases. Findings indicate that models of children's emerging depression risk may benefit from the examination of the interactive effects of multiple sources of vulnerability across levels of analysis.
Cognitive vulnerability to depression during middle childhood: Stability and associations with maternal affective styles and parental depression. - Personality and individual differences
Theories of cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) imply that CVD is early-emerging and trait-like; however, little longitudinal work has tested this premise in middle childhood, or examined theoretically relevant predictors of child CVD. We examined test-retest correlations of self-referent encoding task performance and self-reported attributional styles and their associations with parental characteristics in 205 seven-year-olds. At baseline, child CVD was assessed, structured clinical interviews were conducted with parents, and ratings of observed maternal affective styles were made. Children's CVD was re-assessed approximately one and two years later. Both measures of children's CVD were prospectively and concurrently associated with children's depressive symptoms and showed modest stability. Multilevel modeling indicated that maternal criticism and paternal depression were related to children's CVD. Findings indicate that even early-emerging CVD is a valid marker of children's depression risk.
Longitudinal Associations Between Reactive and Regulatory Temperament Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle Childhood. - Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53
Although a large literature has examined the role of temperament in adult and adolescent depression, few studies have investigated interactions between reactive and regulatory temperament traits in shaping depressive symptoms in children over time. Child temperament measures (laboratory observations and maternal reports) and depressive symptoms were collected from 205 seven-year-olds (46% boys), who were followed up 1 (NÂ =Â 181) and 2 (NÂ =Â 171) years later. Child participants were Caucasian (87.80%), Asian (1.95%), or other ethnicity (7.80%); 2.45% of the sample was missing ethnicity data. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate within- and between-person variance in intercepts and slopes of child depressive symptoms. A steeper increase in depressive symptoms was found for children lower in laboratory-assessed effortful control (EC). Lower mother-reported surgency and higher mother-reported NE predicted increases in child depressive symptoms in the context of lower mother-reported EC. Our findings implicate EC as having main and moderating effects related to depressive symptoms in middle childhood. We emphasize the importance of developing prevention programs that enhance EC-like abilities.
Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood. - Journal of abnormal psychology
Children's cortisol reactivity to stress is an important mediator of depression risk, making the search for predictors of such reactivity an important goal for psychopathologists. Multiple studies have linked maternal depression and childhood behavioral inhibition (BI) independently to child cortisol reactivity, yet few have tested multivariate models of these risks. Further, paternal depression and other child temperament traits, such as positive emotionality (PE), have been largely ignored despite their potential relevance. We therefore examined longitudinal associations between child fear/BI and PE and parental depression, and children's cortisol stress reactivity, in 205 7-year-olds. Paternal depression and child fear/BI predicted greater cortisol stress reactivity at a follow-up of 164 9-year-olds, and maternal depression and child PE interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity, such that higher child PE predicted lower cortisol reactivity in the context of maternal depression. Results highlight the importance of both parents' depression, as well as multiple facets of child temperament, in developing more comprehensive models of childhood cortisol reactivity to stress.PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
A lexicon of assessment and outcome measures for telemental health. - Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association
The purpose of this document is to provide initial recommendations to telemental health (TMH) professionals for the selection of assessment and outcome measures that best reflect the impacts of mental health treatments delivered via live interactive videoconferencing.The guidance provided here was created through an expert consensus process and is in the form of a lexicon focused on identified key TMH outcomes.Each lexical item is elucidated by a definition, recommendations for assessment/measurement, and additional commentary on important considerations. The lexicon is not intended as a current literature review of the field, but rather as a resource to foster increased dialogue, critical analysis, and the development of the science of TMH assessment and evaluation. The intent of this lexicon is to better unify the TMH field by providing a resource to researchers, program managers, funders, regulators and others for assessing outcomes.This document provides overall context for the key aspects of the lexicon.
Structure of observed temperament in middle childhood. - Journal of research in personality
Although much is known about the structure of adult temperament and personality, significantly less is known about the structure of child temperament. We examined the structure of child temperament in 205 seven-year-olds using observational measures. Exploratory factor analysis identified factors representing positive emotionality/sociability, disinhibition/anger, fear/behavioral inhibition, and sadness. The predictive validity of these dimensions was evaluated by examining their associations with children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms: positive emotionality/sociability showed positive associations with ADHD symptoms, disinhibition/anger showed positive associations with externalizing symptoms, fear/behavioral inhibition showed negative associations with ADHD and CD symptoms, and sadness showed positive associations with both internalizing and externalizing problems. These associations were consistent with extant literature on temperament and psychopathology, supporting the validity of the structure obtained.
Challenges, solutions, and best practices in telemental health service delivery across the pacific rim-a summary. - Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association
The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, in conjunction with the American Telemedicine Association's Annual Mid-Year Meeting, conducted a 1-day workshop on how maturing and emerging processes and applications in the field of telemental health (TMH) can be expanded to enhance access to behavioral health services in the Pacific Rim. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together experts in the field of TMH from the military, federal agencies, academia, and regional healthcare organizations serving populations in the Pacific Rim. The workshop reviewed current technologies and systems to better understand their current and potential applications to regional challenges, including the Department of Defense and other federal organizations. The meeting was attended by approximately 100 participants, representing military, government, academia, healthcare centers, and tribal organizations. It was organized into four sessions focusing on the following topic areas: (1) Remote Screening and Assessment; (2) Post-Deployment Adjustment Mental Health Treatment; (3) Suicide Prevention and Management; and (4) Delivery of Training, Education, and Mental Health Work Force Development. The meeting's goal was to discuss challenges, gaps, and collaborative opportunities in this area to enhance existing or create new opportunities for collaborations in the delivery of TMH services to the populations of the Pacific Rim. A set of recommendations for collaboration are presented.
Evaluation of supplemental nutrition assistance program education: application of behavioral theory and survey validation. - Journal of nutrition education and behavior
Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) evaluation and development and validation of an evaluation tool used to measure TTM constructs is described.Surveys were collected from parents of children receiving food at Summer Food Service Program sites prior to SNAP-Ed participation.Item analysis of survey data (n = 149) suggests the survey is valid and reliable. Structural Equation Modeling confirmed the use of the TTM constructs in predicting SNAP-Ed participants' fruit and vegetable consumption. Perceived barriers (P = .04) and self-efficacy (P = .006) were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, whereas perceived benefits were not.Application of theory and survey validation can enhance SNAP-Ed evaluation.Copyright Â© 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A computerized, tailored intervention to address behaviors associated with PTSD in veterans: rationale and design of STR(2)IVE. - Translational behavioral medicine
Combat exposure among military personnel results in increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, substance use, and related health risks. PTSD symptoms require innovative approaches to promote effective coping postdeployment. PTSD's nature and scope requires an approach capable of integrating multiple health risks while reaching large populations. This article provides the rationale and approach to adapt and evaluate a Pro-Change computerized tailored intervention (CTI) targeted at behavioral sequelae (i.e., smoking, stress, and depression) for veterans with or at risk for PTSD. The three-phase approach includes: 1) focus groups to review and, subsequently, adapt content of the existing CTI programs; 2) usability testing; and 3) feasibility testing using a three-month pre-postdesign. Effective, theory-based, real-time, multiple behavior interventions targeting veterans' readiness to quit smoking, manage stress, and depression are warranted to provide potential health impact, opportunities for learning veteran-specific issues, and advance multiple health behavior change knowledge.
Perseveration and the status of 3-year-olds' knowledge in a card-sorting task: evidence from studies involving congruent flankers. - Journal of experimental child psychology
Infants and young children often perseverate despite apparent knowledge of the correct response. Two Experiments addressed questions concerning the status of such knowledge in the context of a card-sorting task. In Experiment 1, three groups of 3-year-olds sorted bivalent cards one way and then were instructed to switch and sort the same cards using new rules under varying conditions of support offered by congruent flankers. Although formal aspects of the task such as higher-order rule use, stimulus redescription, and dimensional shifting remained constant across all conditions, use of the new rules increased with parametric increases in environmental support for the use of the new rules. In Experiment 2, 3-year-olds were more likely to switch and use new rules when test stimuli were flanked by congruent flankers rather than neutral flankers, even though both conditions made equivalent demands on attentional inhibition. Thus, in both experiments, children's knowledge of the new rules proved to be adequate under less demanding conditions but inadequate under more demanding conditions. These findings are consistent with the idea that children's knowledge is graded in strength rather than present or absent.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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