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Pittsford NY 14534
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Evidence-based patient safety advisory: patient assessment and prevention of pulmonary side effects in surgery. Part 2. Patient and procedural risk factors. - Plastic and reconstructive surgery
Several factors may increase a patient's risk for perioperative pulmonary complications. This practice advisory provides an overview of the preoperative steps that should be performed to ensure appropriate patient selection and patient safety with regard to pulmonary complications. Procedural and patient-related risk factors are discussed, as are recommendations for perioperative management and strategies for minimizing complications.
Evidence-based patient safety advisory: patient assessment and prevention of pulmonary side effects in surgery. Part 1. Obstructive sleep apnea and obstructive lung disease. - Plastic and reconstructive surgery
Obstructive sleep apnea and obstructive lung disease may increase a patient's risk of perioperative pulmonary complications. This practice advisory provides an overview of the preoperative steps that should be performed to ensure appropriate patient selection and the safety of patients with these conditions. Also discussed are recommendations for perioperative management and strategies for minimizing complications.
Benthic nutrient sources to hypereutrophic upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. - Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC
Three collecting trips were coordinated in April, May, and August 2006 to sample the water column and benthos of hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (OR, USA) through the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. A pore-water profiler was designed and fabricated to obtain the first high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients of macro- and micronutrients for diffusive-flux determinations. A consistently positive benthic flux for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was observed with solute release from the sediment, ranging between 0.4 and 6.1 mg/m(2)/d. The mass flux over an approximate 200-km(2) lake area was comparable in magnitude to riverine inputs. An additional concern related to fish toxicity was identified when dissolved ammonium also displayed consistently positive benthic fluxes of 4 to 134 mg/m(2)/d, again comparable to riverine inputs. Although phosphorus was a logical initial choice by water quality managers for the limiting nutrient when nitrogen-fixing cyanophytes dominate, initial trace-element results from the lake and major inflowing tributaries suggested that the role of iron limitation on primary productivity should be investigated. Dissolved iron became depleted in the lake water column during the course of the algal bloom, while dissolved ammonium and SRP increased. Elevated macroinvertebrate densities, at least of the order of 10(4) individuals/m(2), suggested that the diffusive-flux estimates may be significantly enhanced by bioturbation. In addition, heat-flux modeling indicated that groundwater advection of nutrients could also significantly contribute to internal nutrient loading. Accurate environmental assessments of lentic systems and reasonable expectations for point-source management require quantitative consideration of internal solute sources.
Workgroup report: Implementing a national occupational reproductive research agenda--decade one and beyond. - Environmental health perspectives
The initial goal of occupational reproductive health research is to effectively study the many toxicants, physical agents, and biomechanical and psychosocial stressors that may constitute reproductive hazards in the workplace. Although the main objective of occupational reproductive researchers and clinicians is to prevent recognized adverse reproductive outcomes, research has expanded to include a broader spectrum of chronic health outcomes potentially affected by reproductive toxicants. To aid in achieving these goals, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, along with its university, federal, industry, and labor colleagues, formed the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) in 1996. NORA resulted in 21 research teams, including the Reproductive Health Research Team (RHRT). In this report, we describe progress made in the last decade by the RHRT and by others in this field, including prioritizing reproductive toxicants for further study; facilitating collaboration among epidemiologists, biologists, and toxicologists; promoting quality exposure assessment in field studies and surveillance; and encouraging the design and conduct of priority occupational reproductive studies. We also describe new tools for screening reproductive toxicants and for analyzing mode of action. We recommend considering outcomes such as menopause and latent adverse effects for further study, as well as including exposures such as shift work and nanomaterials. We describe a broad domain of scholarship activities where a cohesive system of organized and aligned work activities integrates 10 years of team efforts and provides guidance for future research.
DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropane. - Mutation research
1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propyl bromide) (CAS No. 106-94-5) is an alternative to ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons that has a variety of potential applications as a degreasing agent for metals and electronics, and as a solvent vehicle for spray adhesives. Its isomer, 2-brompropane (2-BP; isopropyl bromide) (CAS No. 75-26-3) impairs antioxidant cellular defenses, enhances lipid peroxidation, and causes DNA damage in vitro. The present study had two aims. The first was to assess DNA damage in human leukocytes exposed in vitro to 1- or 2-BP. DNA damage was also assessed in peripheral leukocytes from workers with occupational exposure to 1-BP. In the latter assessment, start-of- and end-of-work week blood and urine samples were collected from 41 and 22 workers at two facilities where 1-BP was used as a solvent for spray adhesives in foam cushion fabrication. Exposure to 1-BP was assessed from personal-breathing zone samples collected for 1-3 days up to 8h per day for calculation of 8h time weighted average (TWA) 1-BP concentrations. Bromide (Br) was measured in blood and urine as a biomarker of exposure. Overall, 1-BP TWA concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 271 parts per million (ppm) at facility A, and from 4 to 27 ppm at facility B. The highest exposures were to workers classified as sprayers. 1-BP TWA concentrations were statistically significantly correlated with blood and urine Br concentrations. The comet assay was used to estimate DNA damage. In vitro, 1- or 2-BP induced a statistically significant increase in DNA damage at 1mM. In 1-BP exposed workers, start-of- and end-of-workweek comet endpoints were stratified based on job classification. There were no significant differences in DNA damage in leukocytes between workers classified as sprayers (high 1-BP exposure) and those classified as non-sprayers (low 1-BP exposure). At the facility with the high exposures, comparison of end-of-week values with start-of-week values using paired analysis revealed non-sprayers had significantly increased comet tail moments, and sprayers had significantly increased comet tail moment dispersion coefficients. A multivariate analysis included combining the data sets from both facilities, log transformation of 1-BP exposure indices, and the use of multiple linear regression models for each combination of DNA damage and exposure indices including exposure quartiles. The covariates were gender, age, smoking status, facility, and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTT1) polymorphisms. In the regression models, start-of-week comet tail moment in leukocytes was significantly associated with serum Br quartiles. End-of-week comet tail moment was significantly associated with 1-BP TWA quartiles, and serum Br quartiles. Gender, facility, and GSTM1 had a significant effect in one or more models. Additional associations were not identified from assessment of dispersion coefficients. In vitro and in vivo results provide limited evidence that 1-BP exposure may pose a small risk for increasing DNA damage.
Sweet's syndrome presenting as acute hand infection. - Plastic and reconstructive surgery
Sweet's syndrome, originally described as an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, belongs to a class of skin lesions that histologically have intense epidermal and/or dermal inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils without evidence of infection or vasculitis. Skin lesions of Sweet's syndrome most commonly present on the face, trunk, upper extremities, and hands. The presenting lesions are often confused with infections because of their clinical appearance.A retrospective search of the electronic medical record was performed to identify patients with Sweet's syndrome from 1996 to the present. These records were then reviewed to identify those patients who had Sweet's syndrome that involved the hands.A total of 103 patients with Sweet's syndrome have been seen and treated at Scott and White Memorial Hospital since 1996. Of these, 49 patients had lesions on the hands. The presentation, treatment, and outcomes of several of these patients are presented.As physicians responsible for the treatment of hand lesions, it is important to consider the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome because these wounds are unresponsive to antibiotics, do not benefit from dÃ©bridement, and instead, require treatment with steroids.
Practice advisory on liposuction. - Plastic and reconstructive surgery
COMMITTEE STATEMENT: At the 69th annual meeting of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) in October of 2000, the ASPS Board of Directors convened the Task Force on Patient Safety in Office-Based Surgery Facilities. The task force was assembled in the wake of several highly publicized patient deaths involving plastic surgery and increasing state legislative and regulatory activity of office-based surgery facilities. In response to the increased scrutiny of the office-based surgery setting, the task force produced two practice advisories: "Procedures in the Office-Based Surgery Setting" and "Patient Selection in the Office-Based Surgery Setting." Since the task force's inception, professional and public awareness of patient safety issues has continued to grow. This heightened interest resulted in an increased need for plastic surgeons to communicate their views on the topic. To meet this challenge, the task force evolved into the Committee on Patient Safety, allowing the committee to address topics affecting the safety and welfare of plastic surgery patients, regardless of the facility setting. The "Practice Advisory on Liposuction" is the first advisory developed since the committee was formed. It was a lengthy and painstaking process for the committee, which included representatives from related plastic surgery organizations as well as the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). Committee members included Ronald E. Iverson, M.D., chair; Jeffery L. Apfelbaum, M.D., ASA representative; Bruce L. Cunningham, M.D., ASPS/Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation (PSEF) Joint Outcomes Task Force representative; Richard A. D'Amico, M.D., ASPS representative; Victor L. Lewis, Jr., M.D., ASPS Health Policy Analysis Committee representative; Dennis J. Lynch, M.D., ASPS representative; Noel B. McDevitt, M.D., ASPS Deep Vein Thrombosis Task Force representative; Michael F. McGuire, M.D., The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) representative; Louis Morales, Jr., M.D., American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons representative; Calvin R. Peters, M.D., Florida Ad Hoc Commission on Patient Safety representative; Robert Singer, M.D., American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities representative; Thomas Ray Stevenson, M.D., American College of Surgeons representative; Rebecca S. Twersky, M.D., ASA representative; Ronald H. Wender, M.D., ASA representative; and James A. Yates, ASAPS representative. The authors thank members of the committee for the insights they brought to this process. The final document represents their significant contributions to these efforts. They would also like to recognize DeLaine Schmitz and Pat Farrell of the ASPS staff for their work on and support of this project.
NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of N,N-Dimethylformamide (CAS No. 68-12-2) Administered by Inhalation to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. - Toxicity report series
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), a colorless liquid with a high boiling point, is a solvent used in a large number of industrial processes. Male and female F344/N rats (30/sex/group) and B6C3F1 mice (10/sex/group) were exposed to DMF vapors at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 ppm, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks in whole body exposure inhalation studies. In addition to histopathology, sperm morphology, and vaginal cytology, which were evaluated in both species, the studies examined clinical pathology, cardiovascular, and renal function in rats only. In genetic toxicity studies, DMF was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA1537, or TA98, with or without S9 activation, nor did it induce germ cell mutations in male Drosophila melanogaster treated by feeding or injection. No induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations was noted in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells treated in vitro with DMF, with or without an S9 metabolic activation system. In one laboratory, a marginal increase in mutant colonies was observed after treatment of mouse lymphoma L5178Y/TK+/- cells with DMF in the absence of S9; results from studies in 2 other laboratories were negative. In the 13-week studies, all rats survived exposures to DMF. Body weight gains were reduced by 50-65% in rats exposed at 800 ppm and to a lesser extent in the 400 ppm group. Evidence of hepatocellular injury was noted as early as day 4, based on increases in activities of liver-specific enzymes in serum in rats of both sexes exposed at 200-800 ppm. Serum cholesterol levels were increased at all exposure concentrations. Relative liver weights were increased in male rats exposed at 100 ppm and higher concentrations, and in female rats at all concentrations. Minimal to moderate centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis was seen in rats of both sexes exposed at 400 and 800 ppm; the lesion was more severe in females. There were no clear, adverse effects seen in urinalyses, in electrocardiographic studies, or in male reproductive system evaluations that could be related to DMF exposure. Hematologic studies showed mild hemoconcentration in males and females. Prolonged diestrus was observed in females exposed at 800 ppm. Among mice exposed to DMF for 13 weeks, there was no chemically related mortality. Body weight gains were approximately 30% less than controls in females exposed at 800 ppm. Relative liver weights were increased in males and females at all exposure concentrations. Centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy (minimal to mild) was found in all groups of male mice exposed to DMF, and in female mice exposed at 100 ppm and higher concentrations. The length of the estrous cycle in mice increased with increasing DMF exposure. In summary, DMF-related effects were seen in the liver of both rats and mice, with rats being more severely affected. For rats of both sexes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 200 ppm, based on the absence of liver histopathology, although liver function assays and liver weights showed changes at all exposure levels (as low as 50 ppm). For mice, hepatocellular hypertrophy or increased liver weights occurred at all exposure concentrations. Synonyms: DMF, DMFA.
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