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The sequence divergence in cytochrome C oxidase I gene of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito and its comparison with four other Culex species. - Mitochondrial DNA
The genetic diversity of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito based on the standard barcode region of cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) gene fragment was studied in the present study. The COI gene sequences of Cx. quinquefasciatus were also compared with four other species of Genus Culex (i.e. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. theileri). Our data set included sequences of Culex mosquitoes from 16 different countries of world. The average intraspecific and interspecific divergences recorded were 0.67% and 8.27%, respectively. The clades for five species were clearly separated except Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. It is concluded that the DNA barcoding is effective and reliable tool for the identification of selected Culex species but create little problem in case of sister species.
Prosthesis-patient mismatch causes a significantly increased risk of operative mortality in aortic valve replacement. - The heart surgery forum
Small aortic prosthesis can lead to prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM). Implanting such small prosthesis remains a controversial issue. This study was done to investigate whether or not PPM causes an increased operative mortality in aortic valve replacement (AVR).Two-hundred-two consecutive patients undergoing primary AVR in a tertiary hospital were included. The sample was grouped according to the aortic valve prosthesis size: â‰¤21 mm (small) and >21 mm (standard). The effect of variables on outcomes was determined by univariate and multivariable regression analyses.PPM was found significantly more among patients with AVR â‰¤ 21 mm (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the likelihood of mortality also was significantly higher in these patients (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis demonstrated small prosthesis size, urgent operation, PPM, female gender, and NYHA Class IV as significant predictors of mortality. Multivariate regression identified female gender, PPM, and urgent operation as the key independent predictors of mortality.PPM and female gender are significant predictors of mortality. Care should be taken to prevent PPM by implanting larger prosthesis especially in females.
IL-13 gene polymorphisms and their association with atopic asthma and rhinitis in Pakistani patients. - Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is known to be a key regulator in immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis, mucus hypersecretion and airway hyperresponsiveness. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-13 are associated with allergic phenotypes in several ethnically diverse populations.This study was performed in 214 atopic patients (asthma n=108, allergic rhinitis n=106) and sex-matched healthy controls (n=120). Genotyping of IL-13 gene polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method.A statistically significant association of the A-1512C polymorphism in IL13 gene was observed with atopy (p<0.001; Ï‡2=19.0). Upon stratification of the data into asthma and AR association was revealed with both asthma (p=0.01; Ï‡2=8.80) and AR (p<0.001; Ï‡2=24.3) in Pakistani patients. Higher odds ratio (OR 95% CI) was observed for AR 3.42 (2.04-5.76) relative to asthma 2.40 (1.41-4.09) for the C allele compared to controls.In conclusion the study provides the evidence A-1512C polymorphisms in IL-13 is a risk factor for asthma and AR.
Notch activation on effector T cells increases their sensitivity to Treg cell-mediated suppression through upregulation of TGF-Î²RII expression. - European journal of immunology
Notch proteins play an important role in embryonic development and cell-fate decisions. Notch influences also the activation and differentiation of peripheral T cells. Here, we investigated whether Notch signaling modulates the response of effector T cells to regulatory T (Treg) cells. Pre-exposure of CD4(+) CD25(-) effector T cells to the Notch ligands Delta-4 and Jagged-1, but not Delta-1, increases significantly effector T-cell sensitivity to Treg cell-mediated suppression through upregulation of TGF-Î²RII expression and increased levels of the phosphorylated form of the Smad 3 protein. This effect is relieved by anti-TGF-Î² Abs. We demonstrate that HES (hairy and enhancer of split), the main transcription factor downstream of Notch, induces strong transactivation of TGF-ÃŸRII by binding the TGF-Î²RII promoter through its DNA-binding domain. Thus, the crosstalk between Notch and the TGF-Î² pathway leads to potentiation of the suppressive effect of Treg cells.Â© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Genetic diversity in cytochrome c oxidase I gene of Anopheles mosquitoes. - Mitochondrial DNA
Genetic diversity in cytochrome c oxidase I (coxI) among 7 species of Anopheles mosquitoes from Pakistan, and 37 species from different geographical regions of the world, was recorded. Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) analysis revealed a clear gap between intraspecific and interspecific distances of 7 species from Pakistan. However, genetic distances of 37 Anopheles species failed to adequately differentiate species in a global context. Intraspecific and interspecific divergences for 7 Anopheles species of Pakistan varied from 0.0% to 2.5% (mean = 0.49%) and 8% to 22.3% (meanâ€‰=â€‰12.77%), respectively. Similarly, intraspecific distances for 37 species from different parts of world ranged from 0.0% to 11.2% (meanâ€‰=â€‰0.65%) while values of interspecific divergences ranged from 3.4% to 35% (meanâ€‰=â€‰11.75%). Although phylogenetic tree revealed separate clades for 7 Anopheles species of Pakistan, it failed to produce separate clades for 37 species of the world. It is concluded that although standard barcode region is helpful for identifying Anopheles mosquitoes, combination of multi-locus approaches and morphology may be required to accurately identify species in this genus.
Plants as Antileishmanial Agents: Current Scenario. - Phytotherapy research : PTR
Leishmaniasis is a clinical manifestation caused by the parasites of the genus Leishmania. Plants are reservoirs of bioactive compounds, which are known to be chemically balanced, effective and least injurious as compared with synthetic medicines. The current resistance and the toxic effects of the available drugs have brought the trend to assess the antileishmanial effect of various plant extracts and their purified compound/s, which are summarized in this review. Moreover, it also highlights various traditional remedies used by local healers against leishmaniasis. A systematic cross-sectional study for antileishmanial activity of natural products was carried out using multiple literature databases. The records retrieved since 2000 till year 2016 were analysed and summarized in the form of comprehensive tables and graphs. Natural products are potential source of new and selective agents that can significantly contribute to primary healthcare and probably are promising substitutes of chemicals for the treatment of protozoan diseases like leishmaniasis. Where the researchers prefer to use alcoholic solvents for the extraction of antileishmanial agents from plants, most of the studies are limited to in vitro conditions majorly on using promastigote forms of Leishmania. Thus, there is a need to carry out such activities in vivo and in host macrophages. Further, there is a need of mechanistic studies that can help taking few of the promising pure compounds to clinical level. Copyright Â© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright Â© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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