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[Association of preoperative platelet count with the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer]. - Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
To explore the association between preoperative platelet count and the outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).This study was conducted among a cohort of 486 CRC patients, who underwent surgery in Sichuan Provincial Cancer Hospital between January, 2010 and July, 2013 and were prospectively followed up for their outcomes. The association between preoperative platelet counts and clinicopathologic factors of the patients were analyzed. Survival analysis of the patients was performed using log-rank test, and the factors affecting the patients' outcomes were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model.In this cohort, preoperative platelet count was significantly associated with the tumor site, depth of tumor invasion (T), and distant metastasis (M) (all P<0.05). Log-rank tests showed that in patients with CRC and rectal cancer, the overall postoperative survival differed significantly between high and low preoperative platelet count groups (Î§(2)=8.813, P=0.003 and Î§(2)=5.110, P=0.024, respectively), but this difference was not observed in patients with colon cancer (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that CRC patients with a high preoperative platelet count had a higher risk of death compared to those with a low platelet level after adjustment for tumor site, tumor grade, TNM stage, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and preoperative CEA level (RR=1.814, 95%CI: 1.056-3.115). In subgroup analysis, preoperative platelet count was identified as an independent prognostic factor in patients with rectal cancer (RR=2.718, 95% CI: 1.132-6.526), but not in patients with colon cancer (RR=1.396, 95%CI: 0.705-2.765).As an independent prognostic factor in CRC patients, preoperative platelet count may serve as an important indicator for predicting the outcomes of rectal cancer, but its prognostic value for colon cancer needs further clarification.
Hetero-modification of TRAIL trimer for improved drug delivery and in vivo antitumor activities. - Scientific reports
Poor pharmacokinetics and resistance within some tumor cell lines have been the major obstacles during the preclinical or clinical application of TRAIL (tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). The half-life of TRAIL114-281 (114 to 281 amino acids) was revealed to be no more than 30â€‰minutes across species. Therefore maleimido activated PEG (polyethylene glycol) and MMAE (Monomethyl Auristatin E) were applied to site-specifically conjugate with the mutated cysteines from different monomers of TRAIL successively, taking advantage of steric effects involved within TRAIL mutant conjugations. As a result, TRAIL trimer was hetero-modified for different purposes. And the resulting PEG-TRAIL-vcMMAE conjugate exhibited dramatically improved half-life (11.54â€‰h), favourable in vivo targeting capability and antitumor activities while no sign of toxicity in xenograft models, suggesting it's a viable therapeutic and drug delivery strategy.
[Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing]. - Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban
Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field.
Production of polyclonal antibody to a recombinant non-structural protein Nsp1a of human astrovirus. - Journal of virological methods
Human astrovirus (HAstV) are important pathogens that cause acute viral diarrhea in infants. Little is known about the mechanisms of astrovirus-induced diarrhea. Previous studies have suggested that an apoptosis inducer may be encoded in the non-structural protein (nsP1a) of astrovirus and contribute to virus-induced diarrhea. To study the biological function of nsP1a and to gain further insight into nsP1a protein-host cell interactions, good quality antibodies must be produced. The nsP1agene of HAstV-1 was cloned into a bacterial expression vector Pgex-6P-1. The recombinant plasmid Pgex-6P-nsP1a was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and expressed as a fusion protein that contains N-terminal GST tags. The expressed recombinant protein was purified and used as an antigen to produce an nsP1a antiserum in rabbits. ELISA was used to detect the titer of specific antibodies. Specificity activity was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. The titer of specific antibodies was up to 1:30,000. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the polyclonal antibody could recognize specifically the HAstV-1 nsP1a protein.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Construction of high-quality Caco-2 three-frame cDNA library and its application to yeast two-hybrid for the human astrovirus protein-protein interaction. - Journal of virological methods
Human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells are widely used as an in vitro model of the human small intestinal mucosa. Caco-2 cells are host cells of the human astrovirus (HAstV) and other enteroviruses. High quality cDNA libraries are pertinent resources and critical tools for protein-protein interaction research, but are currently unavailable for Caco-2 cells. To construct a three-open reading frame, full length-expression cDNA library from the Caco-2 cell line for application to HAstV protein-protein interaction screening, total RNA was extracted from Caco-2 cells. The switching mechanism at the 5' end of the RNA transcript technique was used for cDNA synthesis. Double-stranded cDNA was digested by Sfi I and ligated to reconstruct a pGADT7-Sfi I three-frame vector. The ligation mixture was transformed into Escherichia coli HST08 premium electro cells by electroporation to construct the primary cDNA library. The library capacity was 1.0Ã—10(6)clones. Gel electrophoresis results indicated that the fragments ranged from 0.5kb to 4.2kb. Randomly picked clones show that the recombination rate was 100%. The three-frame primary cDNA library plasmid mixture (5Ã—10(5)cfu) was also transformed into E. coli HST08 premium electro cells, and all clones were harvested to amplify the cDNA library. To detect the sufficiency of the cDNA library, HAstV capsid protein as bait was screened and tested against the Caco-2 cDNA library by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. A total of 20 proteins were found to interact with the capsid protein. These results showed that a high-quality three-frame cDNA library from Caco-2 cells was successfully constructed. This library was efficient for the application to the Y2H system, and could be used for future research.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Species composition and diversity of parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids in different wheat agro-farming systems. - Journal of insect science (Online)
Insect communities depend on both their local environment and features of the surrounding habitats. Diverse plant communities may enhance the abundance and species diversity of local natural enemies, which is possible due to a higher abundance and species diversity in complex landscapes. This hypothesis was tested using cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids by comparing 18 spring wheat fields, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), in structurally-complex landscapes (dominated by semi-natural habitat, > 50%, n = 9) and structurally-simple landscapes dominated by arable landscape (dominated by crop land, > 80%, n = 9). The agricultural landscape structure had significant effects on the number of parasitoid and hyper-parasitoid species, as 26 species (17 parasitoids and 9 hyper-parasitoids) were found in the complex landscapes and 21 were found in the simple landscapes (14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids). Twenty-one species occurred in both landscape types, including 14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids species. The species diversity of parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids were significantly different between the complex and simple landscapes. In addition, arable fields in structurally-simple agricultural landscapes with little semi-natural habitats could support a lower diversity of cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids than structurally-complex landscapes. These findings suggest that cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids need to find necessary resources in structurally-complex landscapes, and generalizations are made concerning the relationship between landscape composition and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Overall, abundance, species richness, and species diversity increased with increasing plant diversity and landscape complexity in spring wheat fields and increasing amounts of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape.
Calpain-10 SNP43 and SNP19 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer: a matched case-control study. - Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
Insulin resistance (IR) is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Given that CRC and IR physiologically overlap and the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) is a candidate for IR, we explored the association between CAPN10 and CRC risk.Blood samples of 400 case-control pairs were genotyped, and the lifestyle and dietary habits of these pairs were recorded and collected. Unconditional logistic regression (LR) was used to assess the effects of CAPN10 SNP43 and SNP19, and environmental factors. Both generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) and the classification and regression tree (CART) were used to test gene-environment interactions for CRC risk.The GA+AA genotype of SNP43 and the Del/Ins+Ins/Ins genotype of SNP19 were marginally related to CRC risk (GA+AA: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.92-1.99; Del/Ins+Ins/ Ins: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 0.84-2.04). Notably, a high-order interaction was consistently identified by GMDR and CART analyses. In GMDR, the four-factor interaction model of SNP43, SNP19, red meat consumption, and smoked meat consumption was the best model, with a maximum cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and testing balance accuracy of 0.61 (P < 0.01). In LR, subjects with high red and smoked meat consumption and two risk genotypes had a 6.17-fold CRC risk (95% CI = 2.44-15.6) relative to that of subjects with low red and smoked meat consumption and null risk genotypes. In CART, individuals with high smoked and red meat consumption, SNP19 Del/Ins+Ins/Ins, and SNP43 GA+AA had higher CRC risk (OR = 4.56, 95%CI = 1.94-10.75) than those with low smoked and red meat consumption.Though the single loci of CAPN10 SNP43 and SNP19 are not enough to significantly increase the CRC susceptibility, the combination of SNP43, SNP19, red meat consumption, and smoked meat consumption is associated with elevated risk.
Screening effective short interfering RNA/short hairpin RNA for inhibition of human astrovirus ORF2 gene expression in cultured cells. - Archives of virology
In this study, we have evaluated four different 21-nt duplexes of small interfering RNA (siRNA-469, siRNA-852, siRNA-1802 and siRNA-1806) that specifically target the ORF2 gene of human astrovirus (HAstV) in inhibiting HAstV capsid protein expression in transfected BHK-21 cells. Furthermore, fluorescence analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot assays showed that pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shRNA inhibits ORF2 gene expression in Caco2 cells. The results indicate that siRNA/shRNA-469 and siRNA/shRNA-1802 can interfere with capsid protein expression in cell culture, and this provides a powerful tool for the study of HAstV gene functions and the biological properties of the capsid protein.
[The value of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein measurement in discriminating intestinal ischemia in patients with acute abdomen]. - Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
To assess the differential diagnostic value of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) in distinguishing intestinal ischemia patients from acute abdomen patients.A total of 151 patients with acute abdomen and 17 healthy controls from the PLA General Hospital were enrolled from November, 2009 to August, 2011. Serum I-FABP levels were measured by ELISA. According to the ROC curve, the cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated.Of the 151 acute abdomen patients, there were 24 intestinal ischemia patients and 127 without intestinal ischemia. Serum I-FABP level in intestinal ischemia group [(109.67 Â± 48.82) Âµg/L] was significantly higher than those in patients without intestinal ischemia [(36.78 Â± 11.25) Âµg/L] and healthy controls[(8.33 Â± 6.25) Âµg/L](all P values < 0.01). The serum I-FABP cut-off value for the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia was 87.52 Âµg/L. Serum I-FABP was efficient in terms of sensitivity (0.762), NPV(0.963), PLR(3.05) and NLR (0.24) in the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia.I-FABP is potentially useful for discriminating intestinal ischemia from acute abdomen.
Treatment of obesity by endoscopic gastric intramural injection of botulinum toxin A: a randomized clinical trial. - Hepato-gastroenterology
Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is an inhibitor of muscular contractions in both striated and smooth muscle. The purpose of this study was to observe the safety and efficacy of endoscopic injections of BTX-A into the gastric wall in obese patients.Twenty obese patients (BMI >28 kg/m2) were randomized into two groups: Group 1 (200 U BTX-A) and Group 2 (300 U BTX-A). For each patient, 20 puncture sites were selected into the gastric wall. Body weights and BMIs were recorded and gastric emptying times were determined before treatment and 1, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Blood samples for cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, motilin, peptide tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin levels were obtained before treatment and 1, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment.Nineteen patients completed the follow-up. Both groups showed significant body weight and BMI decrease (p<0.05) with decreased TG levels. The gastric emptying times were longer than those before treatment in both groups, especially at the 1-week point (p<0.05). A significant decrease in fasting ghrelin levels in all 19 obese patients was found after BTX-A administration 4 weeks later, and PYY levels in all 19 patients decreased, especially at the 12-week point. No severe complications were observed.Endoscopic multi-punctures of BTX-A including fundic injections may decrease body weight and BMI by delaying the gastric emptying time. The effect of BTX-A on ghrelin levels may also be involved in the reduction of appetite.
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