Zero Emerson Suite 112 Eo 112 Neuroendocrine
Boston MA 02114
Medical School: New York University School Of Medicine - 1975
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: Yes
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: Yes
License #: 43067
Taxonomy Codes:207R00000X 207RE0101X
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Effect of growth hormone treatment on diastolic function in patients who have developed growth hormone deficiency after definitive treatment of acromegaly. - Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
Although growth hormone (GH) replacement is prescribed for patients with hypopituitarism due to many etiologies, it is not routinely prescribed for patients with GH deficiency (GHD) after cure of acromegaly (acroGHD). This study was designed to investigate the effect of GH replacement on cardiac parameters in acroGHD.We prospectively evaluated for 12months 23 patients with acroGHD: 15 subjects on GH replacement and eight subjects not on GH replacement. Main outcome measures included LV mass corrected for body surface area (LVM/BSA) and measures of diastolic dysfunction (E/A ratio and deceleration time), as assessed by echocardiography.After 12months of follow-up, there were no differences between the GH-treated group and the untreated group in LVM/BSA (GH: 74.4Â±22.5g/m(2) vs untreated: 72.9Â±21.3g/m(2), p=0.89), E/A ratio (GH: 1.21Â±0.39 vs untreated: 1.08Â±0.39, p=0.50) or deceleration time (GH: 224.5Â±60.1ms vs untreated: 260Â±79.8ms, p=0.32). The overall degree of diastolic function was similar between the groups with 42.9% of untreated subjects and 50% of GH-treated subjects (p=0.76) classified as having normal diastolic function at follow-up.There were no significant differences in LVM/BSA or parameters of diastolic function in patients with a history of acromegaly treated for GHD as compared to those who were untreated. These data are reassuring with respect to cardiovascular safety with GH use after treatment for acromegaly, although further longer term study is necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of GH treatment in this population.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
FGF21 and the late adaptive response to starvation in humans. - The Journal of clinical investigation
In mice, FGF21 is rapidly induced by fasting, mediates critical aspects of the adaptive starvation response, and displays a number of positive metabolic properties when administered pharmacologically. In humans, however, fasting does not consistently increase FGF21, suggesting a possible evolutionary divergence in FGF21 function. Moreover, many key aspects of FGF21 function in mice have been identified in the context of transgenic overexpression or administration of supraphysiologic doses, rather than in a physiologic setting. Here, we explored the dynamics and function of FGF21 in human volunteers during a 10-day fast. Unlike mice, which show an increase in circulating FGF21 after only 6 hours, human subjects did not have a notable surge in FGF21 until 7 to 10 days of fasting. Moreover, we determined that FGF21 induction was associated with decreased thermogenesis and adiponectin, an observation that directly contrasts with previous reports based on supraphysiologic dosing. Additionally, FGF21 levels increased after ketone induction, demonstrating that endogenous FGF21 does not drive starvation-mediated ketogenesis in humans. Instead, a longitudinal analysis of biologically relevant variables identified serum transaminases - markers of tissue breakdown - as predictors of FGF21. These data establish FGF21 as a fasting-induced hormone in humans and indicate that FGF21 contributes to the late stages of adaptive starvation, when it may regulate the utilization of fuel derived from tissue breakdown.
Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa. - Radiology
Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age Â± standard deviation, 26 years Â± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (-100.1 to -46.7 HU vs -117.6 to -61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0-62.8 cm(2) vs 5.5-185.9 cm(2), P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = -0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = -0.34 to -0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42-0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = -0.44 to -0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat composition, with higher fat attenuation than that of control subjects, as well as low fat mass. VAT attenuation but not CSA is inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index, suggesting that fat attenuation may serve as a biomarker of prior and current disease status in AN. (Â©) RSNA, 2015.
Predictors of Hypopituitarism in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. - Journal of neurotrauma
Hypopituitarism may often occur in association with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Identification of reliable predictors of pituitary dysfunction is of importance in order to establish a rational testing approach. We searched the records of patients with TBI, who underwent neuroendocrine evaluation in our institution between 2007 and 2013. One hundred sixty-six adults (70% men) with TBI (median age: 41.6 years; range: 18-76) were evaluated at a median interval of 40.4 months (0.2-430.4).Of these, 31% had â‰¥1 pituitary deficiency, including 29% of patients with mild TBI and 35% with moderate/severe TBI. Growth hormone deficiency was the most common deficiency (21%); when body mass index (BMI)-dependent cutpoints were used, this was reduced to 15%. Central hypoadrenalism occurred in10%, who were more likely to have suffered a motor vehicle accident (MVA, pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), experienced post-traumatic seizures (pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), demonstrated any intracranial hemorrhage (pâ€‰=â€‰0.05), petechial brain hemorrhages (pâ€‰=â€‰0.017), or focal cortical parenchymal contusions (pâ€‰=â€‰0.02). Central hypothyroidism occurred in 8% and central hypogonadism in 12%; the latter subgroup had higher BMI (pâ€‰=â€‰0.03), were less likely to be working after TBI (pâ€‰=â€‰0.002), and had lower Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores (pâ€‰=â€‰0.03). Central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurred in 6%, who were more likely to have experienced MVA (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) or sustained moderate/severe TBI (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Patients with MVA and those with post-traumatic seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, petechial brain hemorrhages, and/or focal cortical contusions are at particular risk for serious pituitary dysfunction, including adrenal insufficiency and DI, and should be referred for neuroendocrine testing. However, a substantial proportion of patients without these risk factors also developed hypopituitarism.
Vertebral Strength and Estimated Fracture Risk Across the BMI Spectrum in Women. - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Somewhat paradoxically, fracture risk, which depends on applied loads and bone strength, is elevated in both anorexia nervosa and obesity at certain skeletal sites. Factor-of-risk (Î¦), the ratio of applied load to bone strength, is a biomechanically based method to estimate fracture risk; theoretically, higher Î¦ reflects increased fracture risk. We estimated vertebral strength (linear combination of integral volumetric bone mineral density [Int.vBMD] and cross-sectional area from quantitative computed tomography [QCT]), vertebral compressive loads, and Î¦ at L4 in 176 women (65 anorexia nervosa, 45 lean controls, and 66 obese). Using biomechanical models, applied loads were estimated for: 1) standing; 2) arms flexed 90Â°, holding 5â€‰kg in each hand (holding); 3) 45Â° trunk flexion, 5â€‰kg in each hand (lifting); 4) 20Â° trunk right lateral bend, 10â€‰kg in right hand (bending). We also investigated associations of Int.vBMD and vertebral strength with lean mass (from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, from QCT). Women with anorexia nervosa had lower, whereas obese women had similar, Int.vBMD and estimated vertebral strength compared with controls. Vertebral loads were highest in obesity and lowest in anorexia nervosa for standing, holding, and lifting (p < 0.0001) but were highest in anorexia nervosa for bending (p < 0.02). Obese women had highest Î¦ for standing and lifting, whereas women with anorexia nervosa had highest Î¦ for bending (p < 0.0001). Obese and anorexia nervosa subjects had higher Î¦ for holding than controls (p < 0.03). Int.vBMD and estimated vertebral strength were associated positively with lean mass (Râ€‰=â€‰0.28 to 0.45, p â‰¤ 0.0001) in all groups combined and negatively with VAT (Râ€‰=â€‰-[0.36 to 0.38], p < 0.003) within the obese group. Therefore, women with anorexia nervosa had higher estimated vertebral fracture risk (Î¦) for holding and bending because of inferior vertebral strength. Despite similar vertebral strength as controls, obese women had higher vertebral fracture risk for standing, holding, and lifting because of higher applied loads from higher body weight. Examining the load-to-strength ratio helps explain increased fracture risk in both low-weight and obese women. Â© 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.Â© 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Tumor suppression by MEG3 lncRNA in a human pituitary tumor derived cell line. - Molecular and cellular endocrinology
Human clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) account for approximately 40% of diagnosed pituitary tumors. Epigenetic mutations in tumor suppressive genes play an important role in NFA development. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and we hypothesized that it is a candidate tumor suppressor whose epigenetic silencing is specifically linked to NFA development. In this study, we introduced MEG3 expression into PDFS cells, derived from a human NFA, using both inducible and constitutively active expression systems. MEG3 expression significantly suppressed xenograft tumor growth in vivo in nude mice. When induced in culture, MEG3 caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. In addition, inactivation of p53 completely abolished tumor suppression by MEG3, indicating that MEG3 tumor suppression is mediated by p53. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that MEG3 is a lncRNA tumor suppressor in the pituitary and its inactivation contributes to NFA development.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Region-specific variation in the properties of skeletal adipocytes reveals regulated and constitutive marrow adipose tissues. - Nature communications
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) accumulates in diverse clinical conditions but remains poorly understood. Here we show region-specific variation in MAT adipocyte development, regulation, size, lipid composition, gene expression and genetic determinants. Early MAT formation in mice is conserved, whereas later development is strain dependent. Proximal, but not distal tibial, MAT is lost with 21-day cold exposure. Rat MAT adipocytes from distal sites have an increased proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and expression of Scd1/Scd2, Cebpa and Cebpb. Humans also have increased distal marrow fat unsaturation. We define proximal 'regulated' MAT (rMAT) as single adipocytes interspersed with active haematopoiesis, whereas distal 'constitutive' MAT (cMAT) has low haematopoiesis, contains larger adipocytes, develops earlier and remains preserved upon systemic challenges. Loss of rMAT occurs in mice with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4, whereas both rMAT and cMAT are preserved in mice with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 3. Consideration of these MAT subpopulations may be important for future studies linking MAT to bone biology, haematopoiesis and whole-body metabolism.
Accuracy of Late-Night Salivary Cortisol in Evaluating Postoperative Remission and Recurrence in Cushing's Disease. - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) is well-validated in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease (CD). The accuracy of LNSC during follow-up of patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) has not been fully characterized.We examined the accuracy of LNSC in establishing remission and identifying recurrence in postoperative patients with CD.This is a retrospective study.Records of patients with CD who underwent TSS by a single neurosurgeon in our tertiary center (2005-2014) were analyzed (N = 224). Patients were selected for further investigation (n = 165) if there was at least one available LNSC test obtained after TSS (either within 3 months or during long-term follow-up). Extracted data included demographic and clinical characteristics, magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory data (morning serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol [UFC], LNSC) .Remission was defined as nadir morning serum cortisol less than 5 mcg/dl and nadir 24-hour UFC less than 23 mcg. Recurrence was considered definite if confirmed surgically or prompted radiotherapy.Surgical remission occurred in 89% of 89 patients with available LNSC data. LNSC, obtained within 3 months of TSS, established remission with 94% sensitivity and 80% specificity at a cutpoint of 1.9 nmol/l (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90). At a median follow-up of 53.5 months, LNSC established recurrence (75% sensitivity and 95% specificity) at a cutpoint of 7.4 nmol/l (AUC = 0.87), and 24-hour UFC established recurrence (68% sensitivity and 100% specificity) at a cutpoint of 1.6-fold above normal (AUC = 0.82).LNSC may accurately establish remission after TSS and identify recurrence more accurately than 24-hour UFC during long-term follow-up.
Cortisol Measures Across the Weight Spectrum. - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
There are conflicting reports of increased vs decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in obesity; the most consistent finding is an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and morning cortisol. In anorexia nervosa (AN), a low-BMI state, cortisol measures are elevated.This study aimed to investigate cortisol measures across the weight spectrum.This was a cross-sectional study at a clinical research center.This study included 60 women, 18-45 years of age: overweight/obese (OB; N = 21); AN (N = 18); and normal-weight controls (HC; N = 21).HPA dynamics were assessed by urinary free cortisol, mean overnight serum cortisol obtained by pooled frequent sampling every 20 minutes from 2000-0800 h, 0800 h serum cortisol and cortisol-binding globulin, morning and late-night salivary cortisol, and dexamethasone-CRH testing. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Cortisol measures demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with BMI, nadiring in the overweight-class I obese range, and were similarly associated with visceral adipose tissue and total fat mass. Mean cortisol levels were higher in AN than OB. There were weak negative linear relationships between lean mass and some cortisol measures. Most cortisol measures were negatively associated with postero-anterior spine and total hip BMD.Cortisol measures are lowest in overweight-class I obese women-lower than in lean women. With more significant obesity, cortisol levels increase, although not to as high as in AN. Therefore, extreme underweight and overweight states may activate the HPA axis, and hypercortisolemia may contribute to increased adiposity in the setting of caloric excess. Hypercortisolemia may also contribute to decreased BMD and muscle wasting in the setting of both caloric restriction and excess.
Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses. - Psychiatry research
Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Massachusetts General Hospital 55 Fruit Street
Massachusetts General Hospital 55 Fruit Street
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