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Dr. Dinesh  Hindka  Mbbs image

Dr. Dinesh Hindka Mbbs

1200 6Th Ave N
Saint Cloud MN 56303
320 525-5131
Medical School: Other - 1988
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: Yes
Participates In PQRS: Yes
Participates In EHR: Yes
License #: 47938
NPI: 1518949486
Taxonomy Codes:
207R00000X

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Awards & Recognitions

About Us

Practice Philosophy

Conditions

Dr. Dinesh Hindka is associated with these group practices

Procedure Pricing

HCPCS Code Description Average Price Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
HCPCS Code:99239 Description:Hospital discharge day Average Price:$270.25 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$100.86
HCPCS Code:99233 Description:Subsequent hospital care Average Price:$229.75 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$97.47
HCPCS Code:99214 Description:Office/outpatient visit est Average Price:$224.88 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$102.31
HCPCS Code:99238 Description:Hospital discharge day Average Price:$187.25 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$68.35
HCPCS Code:17000 Description:Destruct premalg lesion Average Price:$189.79 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$78.20
HCPCS Code:99232 Description:Subsequent hospital care Average Price:$160.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$68.06
HCPCS Code:G0202 Description:Screeningmammographydigital Average Price:$156.71 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$67.70
HCPCS Code:99213 Description:Office/outpatient visit est Average Price:$150.35 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$69.17
HCPCS Code:G0180 Description:MD certification HHA patient Average Price:$127.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$52.12
HCPCS Code:G0179 Description:MD recertification HHA PT Average Price:$95.25 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$40.41
HCPCS Code:93000 Description:Electrocardiogram complete Average Price:$58.50 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$18.72
HCPCS Code:99211 Description:Office/outpatient visit est Average Price:$52.83 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$19.66
HCPCS Code:96372 Description:Ther/proph/diag inj sc/im Average Price:$50.45 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$24.14
HCPCS Code:S0280 Description:Medical home, initial plan Average Price:$42.70 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$19.35
HCPCS Code:S0281 Description:Medical home, maintenance Average Price:$42.18 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$22.34
HCPCS Code:93010 Description:Electrocardiogram report Average Price:$25.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$8.29
HCPCS Code:71010 Description:Chest x-ray Average Price:$28.06 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$11.83
HCPCS Code:17003 Description:Destruct premalg les 2-14 Average Price:$20.75 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$6.96
HCPCS Code:85610 Description:Prothrombin time Average Price:$16.50 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$5.56
HCPCS Code:77052 Description:Comp screen mammogram add-on Average Price:$13.77 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$4.66
HCPCS Code:90662 Description:Flu vacc prsv free inc antig Average Price:$39.50 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$30.92
HCPCS Code:J3301 Description:Triamcinolone acet inj NOS Average Price:$4.44 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$1.69
HCPCS Code:Q2038 Description:Fluzone vacc, 3 yrs & >, im Average Price:$14.75 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$12.37
HCPCS Code:J3420 Description:Vitamin b12 injection Average Price:$1.63 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$0.53
HCPCS Code:G0008 Description:Admin influenza virus vac Average Price:$25.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$24.14

HCPCS Code Definitions

99211
Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, that may not require the presence of a physician or other qualified health care professional. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are minimal. Typically, 5 minutes are spent performing or supervising these services.
99214
Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 25 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
G0202
Screening mammography, producing direct digital image, bilateral, all views
77052
Computer-aided detection (computer algorithm analysis of digital image data for lesion detection) with further review for interpretation, with or without digitization of film radiographic images; screening mammography (List separately in addition to code for primary procedure)
99213
Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of low complexity. Counseling and coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of low to moderate severity. Typically, 15 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
S0280
Medical home program, comprehensive care coordination and planning, initial plan
G0179
Physician re-certification for medicare-covered home health services under a home health plan of care (patient not present), including contacts with home health agency and review of reports of patient status required by physicians to affirm the initial implementation of the plan of care that meets patient's needs, per re-certification period
G0180
Physician certification for medicare-covered home health services under a home health plan of care (patient not present), including contacts with home health agency and review of reports of patient status required by physicians to affirm the initial implementation of the plan of care that meets patient's needs, per certification period
Q2038
Influenza virus vaccine, split virus, when administered to individuals 3 years of age and older, for intramuscular use (fluzone)
J3301
Injection, triamcinolone acetonide, not otherwise specified, 10 mg
J3420
Injection, vitamin b-12 cyanocobalamin, up to 1000 mcg
96372
Therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic injection (specify substance or drug); subcutaneous or intramuscular
93000
Electrocardiogram, routine ECG with at least 12 leads; with interpretation and report
S0281
Medical home program, comprehensive care coordination and planning, maintenance of plan
93010
Electrocardiogram, routine ECG with at least 12 leads; interpretation and report only
17003
Destruction (eg, laser surgery, electrosurgery, cryosurgery, chemosurgery, surgical curettement), premalignant lesions (eg, actinic keratoses); second through 14 lesions, each (List separately in addition to code for first lesion)
17000
Destruction (eg, laser surgery, electrosurgery, cryosurgery, chemosurgery, surgical curettement), premalignant lesions (eg, actinic keratoses); first lesion
71010
Radiologic examination, chest; single view, frontal
G0008
Administration of influenza virus vaccine
99239
Hospital discharge day management; more than 30 minutes
99238
Hospital discharge day management; 30 minutes or less
99233
Subsequent hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed interval history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of high complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the patient is unstable or has developed a significant complication or a significant new problem. Typically, 35 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
99232
Subsequent hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused interval history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the patient is responding inadequately to therapy or has developed a minor complication. Typically, 25 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.

Medical Malpractice Cases

None Found

Medical Board Sanctions

None Found

Referrals

NPI
Doctor Name
Specialty
Count
1447236369
Pulmonary Disease
1,249
1144219056
Internal Medicine
1,145
1982658266
Internal Medicine
582
1164424974
Cardiac Electrophysiology
506
1417164005
Diagnostic Radiology
484
1740273374
Cardiac Electrophysiology
400
1457308645
Cardiac Electrophysiology
397
1891776837
Internal Medicine
396
1093760290
Hematology/Oncology
381
1609823699
Nephrology
355
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Hindka has made to other doctors

Publications

Evaluation of Vacuum Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Injury in Open Musculoskeletal Trauma. - Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR
The application of controlled levels of negative or sub atmospheric pressure for a prolonged period of time on a wound had shown to accelerate removal of excess fluid and promote hyperaemia, which eventually promote wound healing.The study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) therapy for soft tissue injury in open musculoskeletal trauma.Twenty cases of complex musculoskeletal wound involving different parts of body were included in this progressive randomized study. In patients, aggressive debridement was done before the application of VAC therapy. Controlled negative pressure was uniformly applied to the wound. Dressings were changed after every 4 to 5 days. The evaluation of results included healing rate of the wound, eradication of infection, complication rate, and number of secondary procedures.VAC therapy over the wound was administered for an average of 20.4 days ±6.72 days (range 14 to 42 days). There was decrease in wound size attained by VAC therapy ranged from 2.6 to 24.4cm(2), with an average reduction of 10.55 cm(2). Three wounds were infected at the start of VAC therapy. However, all patients were cleared of bacterial infection by the end of VAC therapy.VAC therapy using negative pressure promote Wound healing by increasing local capillary perfusion and increased rate of granulation tissue formation, decreases the duration of wound healing and requires fewer painful dressing change.
Eco-friendly drugs from the marine environment: spongeweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles are highly effective on Plasmodium falciparum and its vector Anopheles stephensi, with little non-target effects on predatory copepods. - Environmental science and pollution research international
Mosquitoes act as vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, representing a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide. The control of mosquito-borne diseases is facing a number of crucial challenges, including the emergence of artemisinin and chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium parasites, as well as the presence of mosquito vectors resistant to synthetic and microbial pesticides. Therefore, eco-friendly tools are urgently required. Here, a synergic approach relying to nanotechnologies and biological control strategies is proposed. The marine environment is an outstanding reservoir of bioactive natural products, which have many applications against pests, parasites, and pathogens. We proposed a novel method of seaweed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the spongeweed Codium tomentosum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, the 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) of C. tomentosum extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 255.1 (larva I) to 487.1 ppm (pupa). LC50 of C. tomentosum-synthesized AgNP ranged from 18.1 (larva I) to 40.7 ppm (pupa). In laboratory, the predation efficiency of Mesocyclops aspericornis copepods against A. stephensi larvae was 81, 65, 17, and 9 % (I, II, III, and IV instar, respectively). In AgNP contaminated environment, predation was not affected; 83, 66, 19, and 11 % (I, II, III, and IV). The anti-plasmodial activity of C. tomentosum extract and spongeweed-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of C. tomentosum were 51.34 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 65.17 μg/ml (CQ-r); C. tomentosum-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50 of 72.45 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 76.08 μg/ml (CQ-r). Furthermore, low doses of the AgNP inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi, using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Overall, C. tomentosum metabolites and spongeweed-synthesized AgNP may be potential candidates to develop novel and effective tools in the fight against Plasmodium parasites and their mosquito vectors. The employ of ultra-low doses of nanomosquitocides in synergy with cyclopoid crustaceans seems a promising green route for effective mosquito control programs.
Chandipura virus infection causing encephalitis in a tribal population of Odisha in eastern India. - The National medical journal of India
The sudden death of 10 children in a tribal village of Kandhamal district, Odisha in eastern India led to this investigation.We conducted a door-to-door survey to identify cases. Antibodies for Chandipura, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, chikungunya and West Nile viruses were tested by ELISA in probable cases. Chandipura virus RNA was tested from both human blood samples and sand flies by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We conducted vector surveys in domestic and peridomestic areas, and collected sand flies.Entomological investigations revealed the presence of Phlebotomus argentipes and Sergentomiya sp. Thirty-five patients presented with fever, 12 of them had altered sensorium including 4 who had convulsions. The blood samples of 21 patients were tested; four samples revealed Chandipura virusspecific IgM antibody.Chandipura virus infection causing encephalitis affected this tribal population in eastern India at 1212 m above sea level.Copyright 2015, NMJI.
Prevalence and predictors of infertility-specific stress in women diagnosed with primary infertility: A clinic-based study. - Journal of human reproductive sciences
According to the existing literature on infertility, stress appears to be inevitably associated with infertility diagnosis and treatment in sub-fertile individuals. The epidemiological data on the prevalence and predictors of infertility-specific stress in cultural specific scenario are scarce. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of infertility-specific stress and identify predictors of infertility-specific stress in women diagnosed with primary infertility.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 infertile married women, diagnosed with primary infertility. The tools used for the assessment were "semi-structured questionnaire" compiled by the authors, "ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders (Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines)," and "Psychological Evaluation Test for infertility."Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 15). Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regressions between stress and the predictor variables.The prevalence of stress among women was 80%. Univariate analysis revealed that predictors of stress were years of marital life, duration of infertility, infertility type, history of gynecological surgery, cycles of ovulation induction with timed intercourse and intra-uterine inseminations, present and past psychiatric morbidity, coping difficulties, gynecological diagnosis, and severity of premenstrual dysphoria. Multivariate analysis showed leading associations of stress with infertility type and coping difficulties.
Diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases in dogs by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography. - Veterinary world
The objective of this study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of the urinary bladder in different disease conditions.The present study was conducting on total 10clinical cases of the urinary bladder in dogs. The ultrasound (US) machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having a four-dimensional volumetric probe.In the present study, the inflamed thickened wall was clearly visible with the distinction of different layers of the urinary bladder wall in some of the cases of cystitis using 2D ultrasonography. In 3D sonogram, the urinary bladder was visualized as a large anechoic structure with no distinction of different layers of the bladder wall. The cystoliths were clearly visible as hyperechoic structures with distal acoustic shadow in 2D sonogram and appeared as a bright echogenic area in 3D sonogram. In case of urinary bladder neoplasia in 2D ultrasonogram, the bladder lumen was found to be occluded with a large growth imaged as focal anechoic areas in the tissue of mixed echogenicity with small hyperechoic dots in this tissue parenchyma. In 3D ultrasonogram, a tissue of mixed echogenicity of pus was also observed.From the present study it was concluded that 2D and 3D ultrasonography is very helpful for diagnosis of different clinical conditions of the urinary bladder such as cystitis, cystoliths, and urinary bladder neoplasia. The cavity of urinary bladder was more clearly visualized in 3D ultrasonography, but the distinction of different layers of the bladder wall was visualized only in 2D ultrasonography. The distinct shadow of pus and cystoliths were visible in 2D ultrasonogram. The visualization of pus in 3D ultrasonography was done for the first time in present study.
Gilbert's syndrome in healthy blood donors what next?? - Asian journal of transfusion science
This study was done in a tertiary care hospital having bed strength of more than 700 beds at SDM Medical College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, located in Northern Karnataka.The study was done to ascertain prevalence of Gilbert's syndrome in healthy blood donors and review the literature about feasibility of utilizing blood components from Gilbert's syndrome donors.The study was done for 18 months and 7030 whole blood units were collected and all the units were subjected to mandatory transfusion-transmitted screening and all the plasma bags which were icteric on visual inspection were subjected to hematological and biochemical investigations to rule out other causes of hyperbilirubinemia.Seven thousand and thirty units were collected and 445 (6.3%) were discarded due to various reasons. Of them, 50 units (0.71%) had Gilbert's syndrome. All had unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and other hematological and liver function tests were within normal range. Statistical analysis was done to find mean, median, and standard deviation from mean and standard error of mean with lower and upper confidence limits.Majority of blood donors whose plasma is icteric are suffering from Gilbert's syndrome (GS). This disease does not cause any harm to donor or patient but raises a lot of concern as many severe disorders also manifest in similar way. The available literature shows that all blood components can be used from donors suffering from GS. There should be introspection. Proper guidelines are to be framed about the use and discarding of blood components in donors with GS.
Biochemical and histopathological responses of the Swiss albino mice treated with uranyl nitrate and its recovery. - Renal failure
Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal ubiquitous in the natural environment. In its chemical form, it is known to induce nephrotoxicity both in human and in animals. Its toxicity is dose and time dependent, also varies with form of uranium. In the present study, we assessed the nephrotoxicity induced by a single dose of uranyl nitrate (UN) in mice at different time intervals and recovery from its toxicity. Two doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight of uranyl nitrate was injected intraperitoneally and animals were sacrificed after 1, 3, 5, 14, and 28 d of administration. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of post-UN dosing in comparison to control were evaluated. Tubular damage to about 75% was observed after 3 d (4 mg/kg) and the biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased. Progression of tubular damage was not found after 5 d. Dose-dependent recovery of uranyl nitrate-treated animals was observed after 14 and 28 d of dosing. The concentration of uranium retained in kidney correlates with biochemical and histopathological analysis.
Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India. - The Indian journal of medical research
Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract.Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules.Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results.The column separated 9 [th] fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is identified and validated, it may be synthesized and formulated as a product.
A Hospital Based Study Regarding Awareness of Association Between Glycosylated Haemoglobin and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals. - Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common microvascular complications seen in diabetic patients after a long term of uncontrolled glycaemic status as assessed by glycosylated Haemoglobin A (HbA1c). Hence awareness of glycaemic control is necessary to prevent vision threatening complications.To assess the awareness regarding association between glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) and diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients and to assess the impact of lack of this knowledge on the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR).This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ophthalmology OPD on 200 adult diabetic patients, between November 2012 and January 2013, who were assessed for their knowledge regarding association between HbA1c and its impact on the progress of DR. The study was done with the help of a semi structured questionnaire which included demographic details, literacy levels, diabetic status and awareness of HbA1c.Cochran Armitage test for trend, Fisher Exact test, chi-square for trend and Student's t test.Among the 200 diabetic individuals attending our OPD, 180 (90%) were aware of the importance of blood sugar levels and its fluctuation in type 2 diabetes. Only 23 (11.5%) were aware of HbA1c whereas 10 (5%) misinterpreted it as levels of haemoglobin, 3 (1.5%) did not completely comprehend. About 164 (82%) patients were not aware of the significance or the terminology of HbA1c. Out of the 200 patients, 58 patients showed presence of some grade of DR. Amongst these 58 patients, 7(12.1%) were aware of HbA1c and all the11 patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME) were aware of the risk factors of elevated blood sugar levels but ignorant of HbA1c. Among the remaining 142 individuals who showed no signs of DR, 16 (27.5%) were aware of and comprehended the role of HbA1c.Our study highlights the gross ignorance of role of HbA1c in the progress of DR among diabetic individuals. It is a known fact that the risk of DR reduces by 35% for every 1% reduction in HbA1c. Hence a strict control of blood sugar level with regular monitoring of HbA1c can help diabetic individuals in prevention of progress of DR, thus preventing severe vision loss.
Earthworm-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: A potent tool against hepatocellular carcinoma, Plasmodium falciparum parasites and malaria mosquitoes. - Parasitology international
The development of parasites and pathogens resistant to synthetic drugs highlighted the needing of novel, eco-friendly and effective control approaches. Recently, metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards cancer cells and Plasmodium parasites. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (EW-AgNP) using Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms as reducing and stabilizing agents. EW-AgNP showed plasmon resonance reduction in UV-vis spectrophotometry, the functional groups involved in the reduction were studied by FTIR spectroscopy, while particle size and shape was analyzed by FESEM. The effect of EW-AgNP on in vitro HepG2 cell proliferation was measured using MTT assays. Apoptosis assessed by flow cytometry showed diminished endurance of HepG2 cells and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. EW-AgNP were toxic to Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae, LC50 were 4.8ppm (I), 5.8ppm (II), 6.9ppm (III), 8.5ppm (IV), and 15.5ppm (pupae). The antiplasmodial activity of EW-AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. EW-AgNP IC50 were 49.3μg/ml (CQ-s) and 55.5μg/ml (CQ-r), while chloroquine IC50 were 81.5μg/ml (CQ-s) and 86.5μg/ml (CQ-r). EW-AgNP showed a valuable antibiotic potential against important pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Concerning non-target effects of EW-AgNP against mosquito natural enemies, the predation efficiency of the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis towards the II and II instar larvae of A. stephensi was 68.50% (II) and 47.00% (III), respectively. In EW-AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was boosted to 89.25% (II) and 70.75% (III), respectively. Overall, this research highlighted the EW-AgNP potential against hepatocellular carcinoma, Plasmodium parasites and mosquito vectors, with little detrimental effects on mosquito natural enemies.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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1200 6Th Ave N Saint Cloud, MN 56303
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