2723 Austin St
Houston TX 77004
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Disordered eating behaviors in university students in Hanoi, Vietnam. - Journal of eating disorders
The aim of the study was to examine disordered eating behaviors in university students in Vietnam.A total of 244 female university students participated, and 203 data could be analyzed. The Body Mass Index, the SCOFF screening questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 were used to explore disordered eating behaviors.45.3% of the participants were underweight, 53.2% were normal weight and 1.5% were overweight. 48.8% of students reported two or more yes-responses on the SCOFF screening questionnaire which indicates a high possibility of having eating disorder symptoms. The mean score for underweight subjects (Mâ€‰=â€‰14.79, SDâ€‰=â€‰6.81) indicated a lower level on the drive for thinness scale of the EDI-2 compared to normal weight subjects (Mâ€‰=â€‰24.65, SDâ€‰=â€‰6.86) and overweight subjects (Mâ€‰=â€‰31.33, SDâ€‰=â€‰6.66). Additionally, underweight subjects (Mâ€‰=â€‰27.24, SDâ€‰=â€‰7.57) were less dissatisfied with their body than normal weight subjects (Mâ€‰=â€‰35.94, SDâ€‰=â€‰8.67) and overweight subjects (Mâ€‰=â€‰43.33, SDâ€‰=â€‰11.24). A significant positive correlation appeared between the BMI and the EDI-2. The SCOFF questionnaire showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the BMI and the EDI-2.Despite some limitations the current study shows a tendency in young females in urban Vietnam to be underweight and to develop disordered eating symptoms such as drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. However, more studies using the SCOFF and the EDI-2 would be needed to verify these findings.
Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester and metabolite effects on rat epididymal stromal vascular fraction differentiation of adipose tissue. - Environmental research
Plastics are generally mixed with additives like plasticizers to enhance their flexibility, pliability, and elasticity proprieties. Plasticizers are easily released into the environment and are absorbed mainly through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. One of the main classes of plasticizers, phthalates, has been associated with endocrine and reproductive diseases. In 2002, 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) was introduced in the market for use in plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, and it received final approval from the European Food Safety Authority in 2006. At present, there is limited knowledge about the safety and potential metabolic and endocrine-disrupting properties of DINCH and its metabolites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of DINCH and its active metabolites, cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA) and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid mono isononyl ester (MINCH), on rat primary stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue. DINCH and its metabolite, CHDA, were not able to directly affect SVF differentiation. However, exposure of SVF to 50 Î¼M and 100 Î¼M concentrations of MINCH affected the expression of Cebpa and Fabp4, thus inducing SVF preadipocytes to accumulate lipids and fully differentiate into mature adipocytes. The effect of MINCH was blocked by the specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-Î± antagonist, GW6471. Taken together, these results suggest that MINCH is a potent PPAR-Î± agonist and a metabolic disruptor, capable of inducing SVF preadipocyte differentiation, that may interfere with the endocrine system in mammals.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Disruption of rat testis development following combined in utero exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein and antiandrogenic plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. - Biology of reproduction
Fetal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) is thought to contribute to reported idiopathic increases in adult male reproductive abnormalities. Although humans are exposed to myriad EDs from conception to adulthood, few studies have evaluated the effects of combined EDs on male reproduction. In the present study, we demonstrate that simultaneous gestational exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein and the antiandrogenic plasticizer di-(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induces long-term alterations in testis development and function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged from Gestational Day 14 to birth with corn oil, genistein, DEHP, or their mixture at 10 mg/kg/day, a dose selected from previous dose-response studies using single chemicals for its lack of long-term testicular effects. Hormonal and testicular end points were examined in adult male offspring. Serum testosterone levels were unchanged. However, significant increases were observed in testis weight and in the expression of mast cell markers in testes from adult rats exposed gestationally to combined compounds. The ED mixture also altered the mRNA expression of Sertoli cell makers Wt1 and Amh and germ cell markers cKit and Sox17, measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), suggesting long-term disruption in testis function and spermatogenesis. Alterations in germ cell markers might reflect direct effects on fetal gonocytes or indirect effects via primary targeting of somatic cells, as suggested by differentially regulated Leydig cell associated genes (Hsd3b, Anxa1, Foxa3, and Pdgfra), determined by gene expression array, qPCR, and protein analyses. The two chemicals, when given in combination, induced long-term reproductive toxicity at doses not previously reported to produce any conspicuous long-term effects. Our study therefore highlights a need for a more comprehensive evaluation of the effects of ED mixtures.Â© 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Cell-permeable parkin proteins suppress Parkinson disease-associated phenotypes in cultured cells and animals. - PloS one
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of complex etiology characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. Parkin, a tightly regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in both PD and Parkinsonian syndromes induced by acute exposures to neurotoxic agents. The present study assessed the potential of cell-permeable parkin (CP-Parkin) as a neuroprotective agent. Cellular uptake and tissue penetration of recombinant, enzymatically active parkin was markedly enhanced by the addition of a hydrophobic macromolecule transduction domain (MTD). The resulting CP-Parkin proteins (HPM13 and PM10) suppressed dopaminergic neuronal toxicity in cells and mice exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDH) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These included enhanced survival and dopamine expression in cultured CATH.a and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and protection against MPTP-induced damage in mice, notably preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells with enhanced dopamine expression in the striatum and midbrain, and preservation of gross motor function. These results demonstrate that CP-Parkin proteins can compensate for intrinsic limitations in the parkin response and provide a therapeutic strategy to augment parkin activity in vivo.
VEGFD regulates blood vascular development by modulating SOX18 activity. - Blood
Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGFD) is a potent pro-lymphangiogenic molecule during tumor growth and is considered a key therapeutic target to modulate metastasis. Despite roles in pathological neo-lymphangiogenesis, the characterization of an endogenous role for VEGFD in vascular development has remained elusive. Here, we used zebrafish to assay for genetic interactions between the Vegf/Vegf-receptor pathway and SoxF transcription factors and identified a specific interaction between Vegfd and Sox18. Double knockdown zebrafish embryos for Sox18/Vegfd and Sox7/Vegfd exhibit defects in arteriovenous differentiation. Supporting this observation, we found that Sox18/Vegfd double but not single knockout mice displayed dramatic vascular development defects. We find that VEGFD-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling modulates SOX18-mediated transcription, functioning at least in part by enhancing nuclear concentration and transcriptional activity in vascular endothelial cells. This work suggests that VEGFD-mediated pathologies include or involve an underlying dysregulation of SOXF-mediated transcriptional networks.
PTRF/Cavin-1 decreases prostate cancer angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. - Oncotarget
Caveolae are specialized plasma membrane subdomains implicated in cellular functions such as migration, signalling and trafficking. Caveolin-1 and polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 are essential for caveola formation. Caveolin-1 is overexpressed and secreted in prostate tumors and promotes aggressiveness and angiogenesis. In contrast, a lack of PTRF expression is reported in prostate cancer, and ectopic PTRF expression in prostate cancer cells inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. We experimentally manipulated PTRF expression in three prostate cancer cell lines, namely the caveolin-1 positive cells PC3 and DU145 and the caveolin-1-negative LNCaP cells, to evaluate angiogenesis- and lymphangiogenesis-regulating functions of PTRF. We show that the conditioned medium of PTRF-expressing prostate cancer cells decreases ECs proliferation, migration and differentiation in vitro and ex vivo. This can occur independently from caveolin-1 expression and secretion or caveola formation, since the anti-angiogenic effects of PTRF were detected in caveolin-1-negative LNCaP cells. Additionally, PTRF expression in PC3 cells significantly decreased blood and lymphatic vessel densities in orthotopic tumors in mice. Our results suggest that the absence of PTRF in prostate cancer cells contributes significantly to tumour progression and metastasis by promoting the angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis potential of the cancer cells, and this could be exploited for therapy.
The effect of intracellular protein delivery on the anti-tumor activity of recombinant human endostatin. - Biomaterials
Endostatin (ES), a 20 kDa protein derived from the carboxy-terminus of collagen XVIII is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, but clinical development has been hindered by poor clinical efficacy and insufficient functional information from which to design agents with improved activity. The present study investigated protein uptake by cells as a determinant of ES activity. We developed a cell-permeable ES protein (HM73ES) with enhanced capacity to enter cells by adding a macromolecule transduction domain (MTD). HM73ES inhibited angiogenesis-associated phenotypes in cultured endothelial cells [as assessed by tube formation, wound-healing, cell proliferation and survival assays]. These effects were accompanied by reductions in MAPK signaling (ERK phosphorylation), and in Î²-Catenin, c-Myc, STAT3, and VEGF protein expression. The cell-permeable ES displayed greater tissue penetration in mice and suppressed the growth of human tumor xenografts to a significantly greater extent than ES protein without the MTD sequence. Our results suggest that anti-angiogenic activities of native ES are limited at the level of protein uptake and/or subcellular localization, and that much of the activity of ES against tumors depends on one or more intracellular functions. This study will inform future efforts to understand ES function(s) and suggest strategies for improving ES-based cancer therapeutics.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antitumor activity of cell-permeable RUNX3 protein in gastric cancer cells. - Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Limited therapeutic options highlight the need to understand the molecular changes responsible for the disease and to develop therapies based on this understanding. The goal of this study was to develop cell-permeable (CP-) forms of the RUNT-related transcription factor 3, RUNX3-a candidate tumor suppressor implicated in gastric and other epithelial cancers-to study the therapeutic potential of RUNX3 in the treatment of gastric cancer.We developed novel macromolecule transduction domains (MTD) which were tested for the ability to promote protein uptake by mammalian cells and tissues and used to deliver of biologically active RUNX3 into human gastric cancer cells. The therapeutic potential CP-RUNX3 was tested in the NCI-N87 human tumor xenograft animal model.RUNX3 fusion proteins, HM(57)R and HM(85)R, containing hydrophobic MTDs enter gastric cancer cells and suppress cell phenotypes (e.g., cell-cycle progression, wounded monolayer healing, and survival) and induce changes in biomarker expression (e.g., p21(Waf1) and VEGF) consistent with previously described effects of RUNX3 on TGF-Î² signaling. CP-RUNX3 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous human gastric tumor xenografts. The therapeutic response was comparable with studies augmenting RUNX3 gene expression in tumor cell lines; however, the protein was most active when administered locally, rather than systemically (i.e., intravenously).These results provide further evidence that RUNX3 can function as a tumor suppressor and suggest that practical methods to augment RUNX3 function could be useful in treating of some types of gastric cancer.
Antitumor activity of cell-permeable p18(INK4c) with enhanced membrane and tissue penetration. - Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Practical methods to deliver proteins systemically in animals have been hampered by poor tissue penetration and inefficient cytoplasmic localization of internalized proteins. We therefore pursued the development of improved macromolecule transduction domains (MTDs) and tested their ability to deliver therapeutically active p18(INK4c). MTD103 was identified from a screen of 1,500 signal peptides; tested for the ability to promote protein uptake by cells and tissues; and analyzed with regard to the mechanism of protein uptake and the delivery of biologically active p18(INK4c) into cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of cell-permeable MTD103p18(INK4c) (CP-p18(INK4c)) was tested in the HCT116 tumor xenograft model. MTD103p18(INK4c) appeared to traverse plasma membranes directly, was transferred from cell-to-cell and was therapeutically effective against cancer xenografts, inhibiting tumor growth by 86-98% after 5 weeks (P < 0.05). The therapeutic responses to CP-p18(INK4c) were accompanied by high levels of apoptosis in tumor cells. In addition to enhancing systemic delivery of CP-p18(INK4c) to normal tissues and cancer xenografts, the MTD103 sequence delayed protein clearance from the blood, liver and spleen. These results demonstrate that macromolecule intracellular transduction technology (MITT), enabled by MTDs, may provide novel protein therapies against cancer and other diseases.
Genetic ablation of SOX18 function suppresses tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis of melanoma in mice. - Cancer research
The lymphatic vasculature provides a major route for tumor metastasis and inhibiting neolymphangiogenesis induced by tumors can reduce metastasis in animal models. Developmental biology studies have identified the transcription factor SOX18 as a critical switch for lymphangiogenesis in the mouse embryo. Here, we show that SOX18 is also critical for tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis, and we show that suppressing SOX18 function is sufficient to impede tumor metastasis. Immunofluorescence analysis of murine tumor xenografts showed that SOX18 is reexpressed during tumor-induced neolymphangiogenesis. Tumors generated by implantation of firefly luciferase-expressing B16-F10 melanoma cells exhibited a reduced rate of metastasis to the regional draining lymph node in Sox18-deficient mice, as assessed by live bioluminescence imaging. Lower metastatic rates correlated with reduced tumoral lymphatic vessel density and diameter and with impaired drainage of peritumoral injected liposomes specific for lymph vessels from the sentinel lymph nodes. Overall, our findings suggested that SOX18 induction is a key step in mediating tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis, and they identify SOX18 as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic blockade.
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2723 Austin St Houston, TX 77004
1200 Binz Street Suite 1100
1200 Binz St Ste 635