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Identification of novel long non-coding RNAs in triple-negative breast cancer. - Oncotarget
Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) are characterized by particularly poor outcomes, and there are no established markers significantly associated with prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are subclass of noncoding RNAs that have been recently shown to play critical roles in cancer biology. However, little is known about their mechanistic role in TNBC pathogenesis. In this report, we investigated the expression patterns of lncRNAs from TNBC tissues and matched normal tissues with Agilent Human lncRNA array. We identified 1,758 lncRNAs and 1,254 mRNAs that were differentially expressed (â‰¥ 2-fold change), indicating that many lncRNAs are significantly upregulated or downregulated in TNBC. Among these, XR_250621.1 and NONHSAT125629 were the most upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs respectively. qRT-PCR was employed to validate the microarray analysis findings, and results were consistent with the data from the microarrays. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were applied to explore the potential lncRNAs functions, some pathways including microtubule motor activity and DNA replication were identified in TNBC pathogenesis. Our study revealed that a set of lncRNAs were differentially expressed in TNBC tissues, suggesting that they may play role in TNBC. These results shed light on lncRNAs' biological functions and provide useful information for exploring potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer.
TBX1 protein interactions and microRNA-96-5p regulation controls cell proliferation during craniofacial and dental development: implications for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. - Human molecular genetics
T-box transcription factor TBX1 is the major candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS, DiGeorge syndrome/Velo-cardio-facial syndrome), whose phenotypes include craniofacial malformations such as dental defects and cleft palate. In this study, Tbx1 was conditionally deleted or over-expressed in the oral and dental epithelium to establish its role in odontogenesis and craniofacial developmental. Tbx1 lineage tracing experiments demonstrated a specific region of Tbx1-positive cells in the labial cervical loop (LaCL, stem cell niche). We found that Tbx1 conditional knockout (Tbx1(cKO)) mice featured microdontia, which coincides with decreased stem cell proliferation in the LaCL of Tbx1(cKO) mice. In contrast, Tbx1 over-expression increased dental epithelial progenitor cells in the LaCL. Furthermore, microRNA-96 (miR-96) repressed Tbx1 expression and Tbx1 repressed miR-96 expression, suggesting that miR-96 and Tbx1 work in a regulatory loop to maintain the correct levels of Tbx1. Cleft palate was observed in both conditional knockout and over-expression mice, consistent with the craniofacial/tooth defects associated with TBX1 deletion and the gene duplication that leads to 22q11.2DS. The biochemical analyses of TBX1 human mutations demonstrate functional differences in their transcriptional regulation of miR-96 and co-regulation of PITX2 activity. TBX1 interacts with PITX2 to negatively regulate PITX2 transcriptional activity and the TBX1 N-terminus is required for its repressive activity. Overall, our results indicate that Tbx1 regulates the proliferation of dental progenitor cells and craniofacial development through miR-96-5p and PITX2. Together, these data suggest a new molecular mechanism controlling pathogenesis of dental anomalies in human 22q11.2DS.Â© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
GPR126 protein regulates developmental and pathological angiogenesis through modulation of VEGFR2 receptor signaling. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is essential for development, wound healing, and tumor progression. The VEGF pathway plays irreplaceable roles during angiogenesis, but how other signals cross-talk with and modulate VEGF cascades is not clearly elucidated. Here, we identified that Gpr126, an endothelial cell-enriched gene, plays an important role in angiogenesis by regulating endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Knockdown of Gpr126 in the mouse retina resulted in the inhibition of hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Interference of Gpr126 expression in zebrafish embryos led to defects in intersegmental vessel formation. Finally, we identified that GPR126 regulated the expression of VEGFR2 by targeting STAT5 and GATA2 through the cAMP-PKA-cAMP-response element-binding protein signaling pathway during angiogenesis. Our findings illustrate that GPR126 modulates both physiological and pathological angiogenesis through VEGF signaling, providing a potential target for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.Â© 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
APOBEC3G expression is correlated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis. - International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
Increased expression of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) in human primary colorectal tumors and hepatic metastasis has been detected. However, the clinical relevance of APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection. APOBEC3G expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded primary colon carcinoma and paired hepatic metastasis tissues from 136 patients with liver metastasis from colon carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection. The relation between APOBEC3G expression and clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in these 136 patients was retrospectively examined. The prognostic significance of negative or positive APOBEC3G expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Positive expression of APOBEC3G was correlated with liver metastasis of colon cancer. Univariate analysis indicated significantly worse overall survival (OS) for patients with a positive APOBEC3G expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis than for patients with a negative APOBEC3G expression. Multivariate analysis showed positive-APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis to be an independent prognostic factor for OS after hepatic resection (P = 0.000). Positive expression of APOBEC3G was statistically significantly associated with poor prognosis of colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis. APOBEC3G could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection.
Review of risk factors for human echinococcosis prevalence on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China: a prospective for control options. - Infectious diseases of poverty
Echinococcosis is a major parasitic zoonosis of public health importance in western China. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Health estimated that 380,000 people had the disease in the region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly co-endemic with both alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). In the past years, the Chinese government has been increasing the financial support to control the diseases in this region. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significant risk factors of the diseases by reviewing studies done in the region in the past decade to help policymakers design appropriate control strategies.Selection criteria for which literature to review were firstly defined. Medline, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and Google Scholar were systematically searched for literature published between January 2000 and July 2011. Significant risk factors found by single factor and/or multiple factors analysis were listed, counted, and summarized. Literature was examined to check the comparability of the data; age and sex specific prevalence with same data structures were merged and used for further analysis.A variety of assumed social, economical, behavioral, and ecological risk factors were studied on the Plateau. Those most at risk were Tibetan herdsmen, the old and female in particular. By analyzing merged comparable data, it was found that females had a significant higher prevalence, and a positive linearity relationship existed between echinococcosis prevalence and increasing age. In terms of behavioral risk factors, playing with dogs was mostly correlated with CE and/or AE prevalence. In terms of hygiene, employing ground water as the drinking water source was significantly correlated with CE and AE prevalence. For definitive hosts, dog related factors were most frequently identified with prevalence of CE or/and AE; fox was a potential risk factor for AE prevalence only. Overgrazing and deforestation were significant for AE prevalence only.Tibetan herdsmen communities were at the highest risk of echinococcosis prevalence and should be the focus of echinococcosis control. Deworming both owned and stray dogs should be a major measure for controlling echinococcosis; treatment of wild definitive hosts should also be considered for AE endemic areas. Health education activities should be in concert with the local people's education backgrounds and languages in order to be able to improve behaviors. Further researches are needed to clarify the importance of wild hosts for AE/CE prevalence, the extent and range of the impacts of ecologic changes (overgrazing and deforestation) on the AE prevalence, and risk factors in Tibet.
Transarterial chemoembolization for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective study of a 5-year experience in a single institution. - Hepato-gastroenterology
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the mainstay of management for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the survival rates of patients with unresectable HCC following TACE performed in a single center.The authors retrospectively assessed the electronic medical records of 512 patients in whom HCC was newly diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2012 at a single tertiary medical center. Patients with decompensated hepatic function were excluded. Hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy was performed using one drug or combinations of oxaliplatin, fluorouracil and doxorubicin. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival (OS). Survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method.A total of 512 HCC patients (425 men and 87 women; mean age, 58.9 years; age range, 38.3-86.1 years) were treated with TACE in a single center. The overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 62%, 43%, and 37%, respectively. The overall median survival time from the start of TACE treatment was 15 months.TACE is an effective minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of HCC patients.
Syringocystadenoma papilliferum in the right lower abdomen: a case report and review of literature. - OncoTargets and therapy
Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is an uncommon benign adnexal tumor of the skin. It is frequently seen in association with other benign adnexal lesions, such as nevus sebaceous, apocrine nevus, tubular apocrine adenoma, apocrine hidrocystoma, apocrine cystadenoma, and clear cell syringoma. The unusual reported locations of SCAP include the head and neck, the buttock, the vulva, the scrotum, the pinna, the eyelid, the outer ear canal, the forehead, the back, the scalp, the thigh, the nipple, the axilla, and the postoperative scar. The occurrence of SCAP in the right lower abdomen is distinctly uncommon. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 41-year-old man with SCAP occurring in the right lower abdomen that did not develop malignancy, despite a long disease course and an absence of medical treatment. The clinical and histopathologic features and the differential diagnosis of SCAP are also discussed.
Protein inhibitors of activated STAT (Pias1 and Piasy) differentially regulate pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) transcriptional activity. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Protein inhibitors of activated STAT (Pias) proteins can act independent of sumoylation to modulate the activity of transcription factors and Pias proteins interacting with transcription factors can either activate or repress their activity. Pias proteins are expressed in many tissues and cells during development and we asked if Pias proteins regulated the pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) homeodomain protein, which modulates developmental gene expression. Piasy and Pias1 proteins are expressed during craniofacial/tooth development and directly interact and differentially regulate PITX2 transcriptional activity. Piasy and Pias1 are co-expressed in craniofacial tissues with PITX2. Yeast two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments demonstrate Piasy and Pias1 interactions with the PITX2 protein. Piasy interacts with the PITX2 C-terminal tail to attenuate its transcriptional activity. In contrast, Pias1 interacts with the PITX2 C-terminal tail to increase PITX2 transcriptional activity. The E3 ligase activity associated with the RING domain in Piasy is not required for the attenuation of PITX2 activity, however, the RING domain of Pias1 is required for enhanced PITX2 transcriptional activity. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays reveal PITX2 interactions with Piasy and Pias1 in the nucleus. Piasy represses the synergistic activation of PITX2 with interacting co-factors and Piasy represses Pias1 activation of PITX2 transcriptional activity. In contrast, Pias1 did not affect the synergistic interaction of PITX2 with transcriptional co-factors. Last, we demonstrate that Pias proteins form a complex with PITX2 and Lef-1, and PITX2 and Î²-catenin. Lef-1, Î²-catenin, and Pias interactions with PITX2 provide new molecular mechanisms for the regulation of PITX2 transcriptional activity and the activity of Pias proteins.
Polymorphisms of the FAS and FASL genes and risk of breast cancer. - Oncology letters
FAS and its ligand FASL are crucial in apoptotic cell death. Loss of FAS and gain of aberrant FASL expression are common features of malignant transformation. This study was designed to investigate whether the functional polymorphisms of FAS -1377G/A (rs2234767) and FASL -844T/C (rs763110) affect the risk of developing breast cancer. Genotypes were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay in 436 breast cancer patients and 496 healthy controls. In this study, as compared to the wild-type homozygote and heterozygote, the distribution of the FAS -1377GG, GA and AA genotypes among breast cancer patients were significantly different from those among healthy controls (P=0.011), with the AA genotype being more prevalent among patients than the controls (P=0.003). Similarly, the frequencies of the FASL -844TT, TC and CC genotypes also significantly differed among breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P<0.001), with the CC genotype being significantly over-represented in breast cancer patients compared with the controls (P<0.001). In the unconditional logistic regression model following adjustment for age, the subjects carrying the FAS -1377AA genotype had a 1.75-fold increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-2.69] for development of breast cancer compared with patients carrying the GG genotype. Similarly, in the recessive model, the FASL -844CC genotype significantly increased the risk of breast cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.92 (95% CI 1.46-2.54) compared with the TT or TT + TC genotypes. Our results suggest that functional polymorphisms in the death pathway genes FAS and FASL significantly contribute to the occurrence of breast cancer.
Heparanase enhances nerve-growth-factor-induced PC12 cell neuritogenesis via the p38 MAPK pathway. - The Biochemical journal
Heparanase is involved in the cleavage of the HS (heparan sulfate) chain of HSPGs (HS proteoglycans) and hence participates in remodelling of the ECM (extracellular matrix) and BM (basement membrane). In the present study we have shown that NGF (nerve growth factor) promoted nuclear enrichment of EGR1 (early growth response 1), a transcription factor for heparanase, and markedly induced heparanase expression in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. K252a, an antagonist of the NGF receptor TrkA (tyrosine kinase receptor A), decreased heparanase protein expression induced by NGF in PC12 cells. Suramin, a heparanase inhibitor, decreased heparanase in PC12 cells and blocked NGF-induced PC12 neuritogenesis. Stable overexpression of heparanase activated p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) by phosphorylation and enhanced the neurite outgrowth induced by NGF, whereas knock down of heparanase impaired this process. However, overexpression of latent pro-heparanase with a Y156A mutation still led to enhanced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 suppressed the promotion of NGF-induced neuritogenesis by the wild-type and mutant heparanase. The impaired differentiation by knock down of heparanase could be restored by transfection of wild-type or mutant heparanase in PC12 cells. The results of the present study suggest that heparanase, at least in the non-enzymatic form, may promote NGF-induced neuritogenesis via the p38 MAPK pathway.
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