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Direct Observation Assessment of Milestones: Problems with Reliability. - The western journal of emergency medicine
Emergency medicine (EM) milestones are used to assess residents' progress. While some milestone validity evidence exists, there is a lack of standardized tools available to reliably assess residents. Inherent to this is a concern that we may not be truly measuring what we intend to assess. The purpose of this study was to design a direct observation milestone assessment instrument supported by validity and reliability evidence. In addition, such a tool would further lend validity evidence to the EM milestones by demonstrating their accurate measurement.This was a multi-center, prospective, observational validity study conducted at eight institutions. The Critical Care Direct Observation Tool (CDOT) was created to assess EM residents during resuscitations. This tool was designed using a modified Delphi method focused on content, response process, and internal structure validity. Paying special attention to content validity, the CDOT was developed by an expert panel, maintaining the use of the EM milestone wording. We built response process and internal consistency by piloting and revising the instrument. Raters were faculty who routinely assess residents on the milestones. A brief training video on utilization of the instrument was completed by all. Raters used the CDOT to assess simulated videos of three residents at different stages of training in a critical care scenario. We measured reliability using Fleiss' kappa and interclass correlations.Two versions of the CDOT were used: one used the milestone levels as global rating scales with anchors, and the second reflected a current trend of a checklist response system. Although the raters who used the CDOT routinely rate residents in their practice, they did not score the residents' performances in the videos comparably, which led to poor reliability. The Fleiss' kappa of each of the items measured on both versions of the CDOT was near zero.The validity and reliability of the current EM milestone assessment tools have yet to be determined. This study is a rigorous attempt to collect validity evidence in the development of a direct observation assessment instrument. However, despite strict attention to validity evidence, inter-rater reliability was low. The potential sources of reducible variance include rater- and instrument-based error. Based on this study, there may be concerns for the reliability of other EM milestone assessment tools that are currently in use.
The 2013 Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. - Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
In 2001, "The Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine" was first published. This document, the first of its kind, was the result of an extensive practice analysis of emergency department (ED) visits and several expert panels, overseen by representatives from six collaborating professional organizations (the American Board of Emergency Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, the Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine, the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association). Every 2 years, the document is reviewed by these organizations to identify practice changes, incorporate new evidence, and identify perceived deficiencies. For this revision, a seventh organization was included, the American Academy of Emergency Medicine.Â© 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Effective teaching and feedback skills for international emergency medicine "train the trainers" programs. - The Journal of emergency medicine
As the specialty of Emergency Medicine (EM) develops around the world, it has become common for practitioners from countries with mature EM systems to assist those in regions with developing systems. One effective and frequently used model is "train the trainers," in which a group of consultant teachers instructs a cadre of clinicians in the host region to then become the future teachers of EM in that area. This model has the advantage of overcoming cultural barriers to instruction and can lead to providing a lasting training infrastructure in the region. A key to a successful program is the use of effective and culturally appropriate teaching and feedback skills.The goal of this article is to bring together experts in adult education with experts in training in the international setting to present teaching and feedback skills and how they can be applied in different settings and cultures.Cutting edge instruction and evaluation techniques that can be employed in intercultural "train the trainers" programs will be presented. The characteristics of successful programs, using specifics from actual programs, will also be shared.Applying the described teaching and evaluation skills with modifications based on local culture will help empower newly trained teachers who will contribute in turn to the longevity of EM in the region and set a high teaching standard that will benefit generations of future colleagues.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The development of the emergency medicine milestones. - Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has outlined its "Next Accreditation System" (NAS) that will focus on resident and residency outcome measurements. Emergency medicine (EM) is one of seven specialties that will implement the NAS beginning July 2013. All other specialties will follow in July 2014. A key component of the NAS is the development of assessable milestones, which are explicit accomplishments or behaviors that occur during the process of residency education. Milestones describe competencies more specifically and identify specialty-specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors (KSABs) that can be used as outcome measures within the general competencies. The ACGME and the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) convened an EM milestone working group to develop the EM milestones. This article describes the development, use within the NAS, and challenges of the EM milestones.Â© 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Evaluating educational interventions in emergency medicine. - Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
This article presents the proceedings of the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout group charged with identifying areas necessary for future research regarding effectiveness of educational interventions for teaching emergency medicine (EM) knowledge, skills, and attitudes outside of the clinical setting. The objective was to summarize both medical and nonmedical education literature and report the consensus formation methods and results. The authors present final statements to guide future research aimed at evaluating the best methods for understanding and developing successful EM curricula using all types of educational interventions.Â© 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and Association of Academic Chairs in Emergency Medicine 2009-2010 emergency medicine faculty salary and benefits survey. - Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
he objective was to report the results of a survey conducted jointly by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the Association of Academic Chairs in Emergency Medicine (AACEM) of faculty salaries, benefits, work hours, and department demographics for institutions sponsoring residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine (RRC-EM).Data represent information collected for the 2009-2010 academic year through an electronic survey developed by SAEM and AACEM and distributed by the Office for Survey Research at the University of Michigan to all emergency department (ED) chairs and chiefs at institutions sponsoring accredited residency programs. Information was collected regarding faculty salaries and benefits; clinical and nonclinical work hours; sources of department income and department expenses; and selected demographic information regarding faculty, EDs, and hospitals. Salary data were sorted by program geographic region and faculty characteristics such as training and board certification, academic rank, department title, and sex. Demographic data were analyzed with regard to numerous criteria, including ED staffing levels, patient volumes and length of stay, income sources, salary incentive components, research funding, and specific type and value of fringe benefits offered. Data were compared with previous SAEM studies and the most recent faculty salary survey conducted by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC).Ninety-four of 155 programs (61%) responded, yielding salary data on 1,644 faculty, of whom 1,515 (92%) worked full-time. The mean salary for all faculty nationwide was $237,884, with the mean ranging from $232,819 to $246,853 depending on geographic region. The mean salary for first-year faculty nationwide was $204,833. Benefits had an estimated mean value of $48,915 for all faculty, with the mean ranging from $37,813 to $55,346 depending on geographic region. The following factors are associated with higher salaries: emergency medicine (EM) residency training and board certification, fellowship training in toxicology and hyperbaric medicine, higher academic rank, male sex, and living in the western and southern regions. Full-time EM faculty work an average of 20 to 23 clinical hours and 16 to 19 nonclinical hours per week.The salaries for full-time EM faculty reported in this survey were higher than those found in the AAMC survey for the same time period in the majority of categories for both academic rank and geographic region. On average, female faculty are paid 10% to 13% less than their male counterparts. Full-time EM faculty work an average of 20 to 23 clinical hours and 16 to 19 nonclinical hours per week, which is similar to the work hours reported in previous SAEM surveys.Â© 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Educational excellence in a crowded emergency department: consensus recommendations from the council of emergency medicine residency directors 2010. - Journal of graduate medical education
Emergency Department (ED) crowding is a major public health problem and one that has not been well studied for its effects on education. The objective of this article was to identify best-practice, consensus recommendations to help emergency medicine (EM) residency programs and faculty maintain educational excellence in an era of ED crowding.A geographically diverse group of 37 clinician-educator leaders in EM convened at the 2010 Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors Academic Assembly. The participants discussed innovative ideas and solutions to address the many educational challenges that ED crowding poses.To cope with crowding, the consensus group identified 3 educational domains, focusing on the educator, the learner, and the institutional system. Core subthemes included optimizing teaching opportunities, providing alternative teaching approaches, and redefining what faculty and learners traditionally think of as teaching. An ED rotation provides ample opportunities for teaching not only about patient care and medical knowledge but also other Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies, such as interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and system-based practice.Crowding in EDs poses educational challenges, but with some creativity, flexibility, and desire to make the most of a challenging situation, educational excellence is an achievable goal.
Twelve tips for facilitating successful teleconferences. - Medical teacher
The work of medical education is increasingly collaborative across geographical sites, sometimes spanning international borders. The success of projects depends more strongly on how meetings are led and run than variables about the task itself; therefore, excellent communication using teleconferencing technology is required. However, we found no medical literature to assist with developing best practices in telecommunication.Using the organization and management literature, which has examined the use of telecommunication in optimizing work outcomes, we provide a guide for initiating and facilitating teleconferences.We used Tuckman's framework for group development as a means of organizing guidelines that address practical issues in approaching communication on teleconferences and discuss important aspects of forming work groups using telecommunication, setting ground rules and norms, addressing conflict, and enhancing accountability and outcomes.We identified 12 tips for optimal teleconferencing and divided them into phases of formation, setting ground rules, managing conflict, and enhancing group performance.Successful work on teleconferences requires excellent attention to the group process, especially since full engagement by participants is not always assured.
Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute blunt abdominal trauma. - Annals of emergency medicine
This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is an update of the 2004 clinical policy on the critical issues in the evaluation of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute blunt abdominal trauma. A writing subcommittee reviewed the literature as part of the process to develop evidence-based recommendations to address 4 key critical questions: (1) In a hemodynamically unstable patient with blunt abdominal trauma, is ultrasound the diagnostic modality of choice? (2) Does oral contrast improve the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in blunt abdominal trauma? (3) In a clinically stable patient with isolated blunt abdominal trauma, is it safe to discharge the patient after a negative abdominal CT scan result? (4) In patients with isolated blunt abdominal trauma, are there clinical predictors that allow the clinician to identify patients at low risk for adverse events who do not need an abdominal CT? Evidence was graded and recommendations were based on the available data in the medical literature related to the specific clinical question.
Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II). - Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium.Â© 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
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