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Secondhand smoke in waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo. - Environmental research
The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking has risen in recent decades. Controlled studies suggest that waterpipe secondhand smoke (SHS) contains similar or greater quantities of toxicants than cigarette SHS, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Few studies have examined SHS from waterpipe tobacco in real-world settings. The purpose of this study was to quantify SHS exposure levels and describe the characteristics of waterpipe tobacco venues.In 2012-2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues (9 in Istanbul, 17 in Moscow, and 20 in Cairo). We administered venue questionnaires, conducted venue observations, and sampled indoor air particulate matter (PM2.5) (N=35), carbon monoxide (CO) (N=23), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs) (N=31), 4-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (N=43), and air nicotine (N=46).Venue characteristics and SHS concentrations were highly variable within and between cities. Overall, we observed a mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 5 (5) waterpipe smokers and 5 (3) cigarette smokers per venue. The overall median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) of venue mean air concentrations was 136 (82, 213) Âµg/m(3) for PM2.5, 3.9 (1.7, 22) ppm for CO, 68 (33, 121) ng/m(3) for p-PAHs, 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) ng/m(3) for NNK, and 5.3 (0.7, 14) Âµg/m(3) for nicotine. PM2.5, CO, and p-PAHs concentrations were generally higher in venues with more waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers, although associations were not statistically significant.High concentrations of SHS constituents known to cause health effects indicate that indoor air quality in waterpipe tobacco venues may adversely affect the health of employees and customers.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
New insights in the neuroanatomy of the human adult superior hypogastric plexus and hypogastric nerves. - Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical
The superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) is an autonomic plexus, located ventrally to the abdominal aorta and its bifurcation, innervating pelvic viscera. It is classically described as being composed of merely sympathetic fibres. However, post-operative complications after surgery damaging the peri-aortic retroperitoneal compartment suggest the existence of parasympathetic fibres. This immunohistochemical study describes the neuroanatomical composition of the human mature SHP.Eight pre-determined retroperitoneal localizations including the lumbar splanchnic nerves, the SHP and the HN were studied in four human cadavers. Control tissues (white rami, grey rami, vagus nerve, splanchnic nerves, sympathetic ganglia, sympathetic chain and spinal nerve) were collected to verify the results. All tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and antibodies S100, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) to identify pre- and postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibres.All tissues comprising the SHP and hypogastric nerves (HN) showed isolated expression of TH, VIP and MBP, revealing the presence of three types of fibres: postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic fibres marked by TH, unmyelinated VIP-positive fibres and myelinated preganglionic fibres marked by MBP. Analysis of control tissues confirmed that TH, VIP and MBP were well usable to interpret the neurochemical composition of the SHP and HN.The human SHP and HN contain sympathetic and most likely postganglionic parasympathetic fibres. The origin of these fibres is still to be elucidated, however surgical damage in the peri-aortic retroperitoneal compartment may cause pelvic organ dysfunction related to both parasympathetic and sympathetic denervation.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Intraosseous vascular access in critically ill adults-a review of the literature. - Nursing in critical care
The aim of this literature review is to present a detailed investigation critiquing contemporary practices of intraosseous (IO) vascular access in adult patients. Specific objectives identified led to the exploration of clinical contexts, IO device/s and anatomical sites; education and training requirements; implications and recommendations for emergency health care practice and any requirements for further research.The IO route is an established method of obtaining vascular access in children in acute and emergency situations and is now increasingly being used in adults as an alternative to intravenous access, yet a paucity of evidence exists regarding its use, effectiveness and implementation.An exploratory literature review was undertaken in acknowledgement of the broad and complex nature of the project aim. Five electronic search engines were examined iteratively from June 2013 to February 2014. The search terms were 'intraosseous' and 'adult' which were purposely limited because of the exploratory nature of the review. Studies that met the inclusion criteria of primary research articles with an adult focus were included. Research with a paediatric focus was excluded. Secondary research, reviews, case reports, editorials and opinion papers were excluded.IO vascular access is considered an alternative intravascular access route although debate considering the preferred anatomical site is ongoing. Documented practices are only established in pre-hospital and specialist emergency department settings; however, variety exists in policy and actual practice. Achieving insertion competence is relatively uncomplicated following minimal preparation although ongoing skill maintenance is less clear. IO vascular access is associated with minimal complications although pain is a significant issue for the conscious patient especially during fluid administration.The IO route is clearly a valuable alternative to problematic intravascular access. However, further research, including cost effectiveness reviews, is required to gain clarity of whole acute care approaches.Â© 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Total Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser-A Less-explored Indian Mango Mistletoe. - Journal of traditional and complementary medicine
Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae) is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 Î¼g/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica.
The Janus face of adenosine: antiarrhythmic and proarrhythmic actions. - Current pharmaceutical design
Adenosine is a ubiquitous, endogenous purine involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological regulatory mechanisms. Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous antiarrhythmic substance to prevent hypoxia/ischemia-induced arrhythmias. Adenosine (and its precursor, ATP) has been used in the therapy of various cardiac arrhythmias over the past six decades. Its primary indication is treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, but it can be effective in other forms of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, like sinus node reentry based tachycardia, triggered atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, or ventricular tachycardia based on a cAMP-mediated triggered activity. The main advantage is the rapid onset and the short half life (1- 10 sec). Adenosine exerts its antiarrhythmic actions by activation of A1 adenosine receptors located in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, as well as in activated ventricular myocardium. However, adenosine can also elicit A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptor-mediated global side reactions (flushing, dyspnea, chest discomfort), but it may display also proarrhythmic actions mediated by primarily A1 adenosine receptors (e.g. bradyarrhythmia or atrial fibrillation). To avoid the non-specific global adverse reactions, A1 adenosine receptor- selective full agonists (tecadenoson, selodenoson, trabodenoson) have been developed, which agents are currently under clinical trial. During long-term administration with orthosteric agonists, adenosine receptors can be internalized and desensitized. To avoid desensitization, proarrhythmic actions, or global adverse reactions, partial A1 adenosine receptor agonists, like CVT-2759, were developed. In addition, the pharmacologically "silent" site- and event specific adenosinergic drugs, such as adenosine regulating agents and allosteric modulators, might provide attractive opportunity to increase the effectiveness of beneficial actions of adenosine and avoid the adverse reactions.
Evaluation of pH of Bathing Soaps and Shampoos for Skin and Hair Care. - Indian journal of dermatology
Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH) range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH.The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market.The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter.Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7.The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.
Development of a simple method for the rapid identification of organisms causing anthrax by coagglutination test. - Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
A protective antigen (PA) based coagglutination test was optimized in the present study for the specific and sensitive identification of bacteria causing anthrax in a cost effective and less risky manner. The test showed 100% specificity and sensitivity up to 9 Ã— 10(3) formalinized vegetative cells or 11 ng of PA. The optimized test also detected anthrax toxin directly from the serum as well as blood of anthrax infected animals indicating the potential application for direct diagnosis of anthrax under field conditions.Copyright Â© 2014 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A comparative in vitro study of cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against gram negative bacilli. - Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology
The present study aims at comparing the in-vitro susceptibility of six commercially available cephalosporin--BLI combinations with cephalosporins alone against hospital isolates of Gram negative bacilli. Gram negative bacilli, numbering 500, isolated from various clinical samples, were included in the study. The isolates were also screened for ESBL production by the methods recommended by CLSI. Susceptibility pattern of six Cephalosporins/Betalactamase inhibitor (BLI) combinations were compared with their partner cephalosporins. Overall, 29.6% of Gram negative bacilli were susceptible to the five Cephalosporins (IIIrd & IVth gen); the highest activity being shown by cefepime. Susceptibility was much higher (more than double) to the Cephalosporin combinations containing Tazobactam (TZB) & sulbactam (SLB) (62.7%). However such enhanced susceptibility was completely lacking with combinations containing clavulanate (29.1%). Gram negative bacilli, as a group, exhibited very high resistance to the new cephalosporins (IIIrd & IVth gen). When these agents were tested as fixed-dose combinations with TZB & SLB, the overall susceptibility was enhanced by more than 100%. Such an enhancement was absent with clavulanate combinations. Cefepime/TZB revealed the highest activity against ESBL producing GNB. Further studies are needed in the clinical settings as they can play an important role as good alternatives to carbapenems.
Sleep related quality of life before and after adenotonsillar surgery in pediatric population. - International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
To assess the quality of life in children with adenotonsillar problems before and after adenotonsillectomy in short term follow-up.Quasi-experimental study (before and after study) of children with adenotonsillar problems at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Amir'Alam hospital. Eighty six pediatric patients aged 3 through 13 years (58 boys and 28 girls) who underwent adenotonsillectomy, for treatment of sleep disordered breathing or recurrent throat infection, were recruited. Parents completed OSA-18 quality of life survey and Brouillette score questionnaire before and one month after surgery.Reliability of the Brouillette score and OSA-18 survey was established by evaluating the Cronbach Î± value. Cronbach Î± for Brouillette score was 0.70 and for OSA-18 survey it was 0.88. Preoperative values for the OSA-18 total and domain scores were high in children: meanÂ±SD; 61.65Â±20.78. Preoperative values for the Brouillette score were: meanÂ±SD; 0.41Â±2.34. The total OSA-18 survey score and the scores for all domains showed significant improvement after surgery: meanÂ±SD; 28.01Â±9.09 (P<0.001). Post-operative Brouillette score had a significant improvement: meanÂ±SD; -3.57Â±0.91 (P<0.001).Considering the OSA-18 survey and Brouillete score results, surgical therapy with adenotonsillectomy is associated with marked improvement in quality of life in both obstructive and infective adenotonsillar disease.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laparoscopic-assisted vesicocalicostomy for severe pelvi-ureteral stricture disease. - JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
A 39-year-old female previously treated with shock wave lithotripsy developed extensive ureteral stricture disease. After 2 unsuccessful attempts at retrograde balloon dilatation, she was evaluated at our center for further management. Successful reconstruction was performed with laparoscopic-assisted vesicocalicostomy.
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