189 Kennedy Dr
Putnam CT 06260
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Association of the Fractal Dimension of Retinal Arteries and Veins with Quantitative Brain MRI Measures in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women. - PloS one
The fractal dimension of retinal arteries and veins is a measure of the complexity of the vascular tree. We hypothesized that retinal fractal dimension would be associated with brain volume and white matter integrity in HIV-infected women.Nested case-control within longitudinal cohort study.Women were recruited from the Brooklyn site of the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS); 34 HIV-infected and 21 HIV-uninfected women with analyzable MRIs and retinal photographs were included. Fractal dimension was determined using the SIVA software program on skeletonized retinal images. The relationship between predictors (retinal vascular measures) and outcomes (quantitative MRI measures) were analyzed with linear regression models. All models included age, intracranial volume, and both arterial and venous fractal dimension. Some models were adjusted for blood pressure, race/ethnicity, and HIV-infection.The women were 45.6 Â± 7.3 years of age. Higher arterial dimension was associated with larger cortical volumes, but higher venous dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes. In fully adjusted models, venous dimension was significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (standardized Î² = -0.41, p = 0.009) and total gray matter volume (Î² = -0.24, p = 0.03), and arterial dimension with mean diffusivity (Î² = -0.33,.p = 0.04) and fractional anisotropy (Î² = 0.34, p = 0.03). HIV-infection was not associated with any retinal or MRI measure.Higher venous fractal dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes and lower fractional anisotropy, whereas higher arterial fractal dimension was associated with the opposite patterns. Longitudinal studies are needed to validate this finding.
The KDM2B- let-7b -EZH2 axis in myelodysplastic syndromes as a target for combined epigenetic therapy. - PloS one
Both DNA and histone methylation are dysregulated in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Based on preliminary data we hypothesized that dysregulated interactions of KDM2B, let-7b and EZH2 signals lead to an aberrant epigenetic landscape. Gene expression in CD34+ cells from MDS marrows was analyzed by NanoString miR array and validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functions of KDM2B, let-7b and EZH2 were characterized in myeloid cell lines and in primary MDS cells. Let-7b levels were significantly higher, and KDM2B and EZH2 expression was lower in primary CD34+ MDS marrow cells (n = 44) than in healthy controls (n = 21; p<0.013, and p<0.0001, respectively). Overexpression of let-7b reduced EZH2 and KDM2B protein levels, and decreased cells in S-phase while increasing G0/G1 cells (p = 0.0005), accompanied by decreased H3K27me3 and cyclin D1. Silencing of KDM2B increased let-7b expression. Treatment with the cyclopentanyl analog of 3-deazaadenosine, DZNep, combined with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine, decreased levels of EZH2, suppressed methylation of di- and tri-methylated H3K27, and increased p16 expression, associated with cell proliferation. Thus, KDM2B, via let-7b/EZH2, promotes transcriptional repression. DZNep bypassed the inhibitory KDM2B/let-7b/EZH2 axis by preventing H3K27 methylation and reducing cell proliferation. DZNep might be able to enhance the therapeutic effects of DNA hypomethylating agents such as 5-azacitidine, currently considered standard therapy for patients with MDS.
Rationale for and design of the Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial. - American heart journal
Patients with cardiovascular disease and impaired glucose tolerance are at increased risk of cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Lifestyle modification or pharmacological intervention can delay progression to T2DM, but there is no clear evidence that they reduce cardiovascular risk in this population. Acarbose, an Î±-glucosidase inhibitor that lowers postprandial blood glucose, has been shown to reduce T2DM risk by 25%, and possibly cardiovascular risk in impaired glucose tolerance subjects without cardiovascular disease.Copyright Â© 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosiglitazone decreases C-reactive protein to a greater extent relative to glyburide and metformin over 4 years despite greater weight gain: observations from a Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT). - Diabetes care
C-reactive protein (CRP) is closely associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease in both diabetic and nondiabetic populations. In the short term, commonly prescribed antidiabetic agents have different effects on CRP; however, the long-term effects of those agents are unknown.In A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT), we examined the long-term effects of rosiglitazone, glyburide, and metformin on CRP and the relationship among CRP, weight, and glycemic variables in 904 subjects over 4 years.Baseline CRP was significantly correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), A1C, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. CRP reduction was greater in the rosiglitazone group by -47.6% relative to glyburide and by -30.5% relative to metformin at 48 months. Mean weight gain from baseline (at 48 months) was 5.6 kg with rosiglitazone, 1.8 kg with glyburide, and -2.8 kg with metformin. The change in CRP from baseline to 12 months was correlated positively with change in BMI in glyburide (r = 0.18) and metformin (r = 0.20) groups but not in the rosiglitazone (r = -0.05, NS) group. However, there was no longer a significant correlation between change in CRP and change in HOMA-IR, A1C, or waist-to-hip ratio in any of the three treatment groups.Rosiglitazone treatment was associated with durable reductions in CRP independent of changes in insulin sensitivity, A1C, and weight gain. CRP in the glyburide and metformin groups was positively associated with changes in weight, but this was not the case with rosiglitazone.
WASP family members and formin proteins coordinate regulation of cell protrusions in carcinoma cells. - The Journal of cell biology
We examined the role of the actin nucleation promoters neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WAVE2 in cell protrusion in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key regulator in carcinoma cell invasion. We found that WAVE2 knockdown (KD) suppresses lamellipod formation and increases filopod formation, whereas N-WASP KD has no effect. However, simultaneous KD of both proteins results in the formation of large jagged protrusions with lamellar properties and increased filopod formation. This suggests that another actin nucleation activity is at work in carcinoma cells in response to EGF. A mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1, localizes at the jagged protrusions in double KD cells. Constitutively active mDia1 recapitulated the phenotype, whereas inhibition of mDia1 blocked the formation of these protrusions. Increased RhoA activity, which stimulates mDia1 nucleation, was observed in the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD cells and was shown to be required for the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD phenotype. These data show that coordinate regulation between the WASP family and mDia proteins controls the balance between lamellar and lamellipodial protrusion activity.
Rosiglitazone-associated fractures in type 2 diabetes: an Analysis from A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT). - Diabetes care
The purpose of this study was to examine possible factors associated with the increased risk of fractures observed with rosiglitazone in A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT).Data from the 1,840 women and 2,511 men randomly assigned in ADOPT to rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide for a median of 4.0 years were examined with respect to time to first fracture, rates of occurrence, and sites of fractures.In men, fracture rates did not differ between treatment groups. In women, at least one fracture was reported with rosiglitazone in 60 patients (9.3% of patients, 2.74 per 100 patient-years), metformin in 30 patients (5.1%, 1.54 per 100 patient-years), and glyburide in 21 patients (3.5%, 1.29 per 100 patient-years). The cumulative incidence (95% CI) of fractures in women at 5 years was 15.1% (11.2-19.1) with rosiglitazone, 7.3% (4.4-10.1) with metformin, and 7.7% (3.7-11.7) with glyburide, representing hazard ratios (95% CI) of 1.81 (1.17-2.80) and 2.13 (1.30-3.51) for rosiglitazone compared with metformin and glyburide, respectively. The increase in fractures with rosiglitazone occurred in pre- and postmenopausal women, and fractures were seen predominantly in the lower and upper limbs. No particular risk factor underlying the increased fractures in female patients who received rosiglitazone therapy was identified.Further investigation into the risk factors and underlying pathophysiology for the increased fracture rate in women taking rosiglitazone is required to relate them to preclinical data and better understand the clinical implications of and possible interventions for these findings.
Triplane tissue Doppler imaging: a novel three-dimensional imaging modality that predicts reverse left ventricular remodelling after cardiac resynchronisation therapy. - Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Several two-dimensional (2-D) tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographic techniques have proved useful to identify responders to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). Recently a 3-D probe allowing simultaneous acquisition of TDI data in three imaging planes became available.To evaluate the value of triplane TDI to predict reverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling after CRT.Sixty patients with heart failure, scheduled for CRT, underwent triplane echocardiography with simultaneous TDI acquisition before and 6 months after implantation. From the triplane dataset a 3-D LV volume was generated and LV volumes and ejection fraction were calculated. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was quantitatively analysed by evaluating time from onset of the QRS complex to peak myocardial systolic velocity in 12 LV segments from the triplane dataset and calculation of the standard deviation (Ts-SD-12). Clinical response was defined as an improvement of at least one New York Heart Association class. Reverse LV remodelling was defined as >/=15% decrease of LV end-systolic volume at 6 months' follow-up.Responders to CRT had significantly more LV dyssynchrony at baseline than non-responders (mean (SD) Ts-SD-12: 42 (14) vs 22 (12), p<0.001). A cut-off value of 33 ms for baseline Ts-SD-12, acquired from the triplane TDI dataset, yielded a sensitivity of 89% with a specificity of 82% to predict clinical response to CRT; sensitivity and specificity to predict reverse LV remodelling were 90% and 83%, respectively.Triplane TDI echocardiography predicts clinical response and reverse LV remodelling 6 months after CRT implantation.
Optimal use of echocardiography in cardiac resynchronisation therapy. - Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Echocardiography has several roles in patients with cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). First, it can optimise selection of CRT candidates by demonstration of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. Second, it can be used to assess immediate response to CRT, including detection of acute LV resynchronisation. Echocardiography is also useful to evaluate long-term benefit from CRT. Finally, echocardiography is important in optimisation of pacemaker settings, including AV and VV optimisation.
Obesity is a major determinant of the association of C-reactive protein levels and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes. - Diabetes
The inflammatory factor C-reactive protein (CRP) and the fibrinolytic variables fibrinogen and plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) are associated with long-term cardiovascular morbidity. To determine the contribution of body adiposity (BMI), insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and glycemia (HbA(1c) [A1C]) to the levels of these inflammatory and fibrinolytic variables in recently diagnosed (
De novo syntheses of Marburg virus antigens from adenovirus vectors induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. - Vaccine
Marburg virus (MARV) is an African filovirus that causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. Currently, there are no MARV vaccines or therapies approved for human use. We hypothesized that developing a vaccine that induces a de novo synthesis of MARV antigens in vivo will lead to strong induction of both a humoral and cell-mediated immune response against MARV. Here, we develop and characterize three novel gene-based vaccine candidates which express the viral glycoprotein (GP) from either the Ci67, Ravn or Musoke strain of MARV. Immunization of mice with complex adenovirus (Ad)-based vaccine candidates (cAdVax vaccines), led to efficient production of both antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific to Musoke strain GP and Ci67 strain GP, respectively. Antibody responses were also shown to be cross-reactive across the MARV strains, but not cross-reactive to Ebola virus, a related filovirus. Additionally, three 1 x 10(8)pfu doses of vaccine vector were demonstrated to be safe in mice, as this did not lead to any detectable toxicity in liver or spleen. These promising results indicate that a cAdVax-based vaccine could be effective for induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to multiple strains of the Marburg virus.
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189 Kennedy Dr Putnam, CT 06260
35 Kennedy Dr
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