13114 Fm 1960 Rd W
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Chronic pacing and adverse outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. - Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Many patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have a pre-existing, permanent pacemaker (PPM) or receive one as a consequence of the procedure. We hypothesised that chronic pacing may have adverse effects on TAVI outcomes.Four groups of patients undergoing TAVI in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial and registries were compared: prior PPM (n=586), new PPM (n=173), no PPM (n=1612), and left bundle branch block (LBBB)/no PPM (n=160). At 1â€…year, prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM had higher all-cause mortality than no PPM (27.4%, 26.3%, 27.7% and 20.0%, p<0.05), and prior PPM or new PPM had higher rehospitalisation or mortality/rehospitalisation (p<0.04). By Cox regression analysis, new PPM (HR 1.38, 1.00 to 1.89, p=0.05) and prior PPM (HR 1.31, 1.08 to 1.60, p=0.006) were independently associated with 1-year mortality. Surviving prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM patients had lower LVEF at 1â€…year relative to no PPM (50.5%, 55.4%, 48.9% and 57.6%, p<0.01). Prior PPM had worsened recovery of LVEF after TAVI (Î”=10.0 prior vs 19.7% no PPM for baseline LVEF <35%, p<0.0001; Î”=4.1 prior vs 7.4% no PPM for baseline LVEF 35-50%, p=0.006). Paced ECGs displayed a high prevalence of RV pacing (>88%).In the PARTNER trial, prior PPM, along with new PPM and chronic LBBB patients, had worsened clinical and echocardiographic outcomes relative to no PPM patients, and the presence of a PPM was independently associated with 1-year mortality. Ventricular dyssynchrony due to chronic RV pacing may be mechanistically responsible for these findings.(ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00530894).Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
A mitochondrial therapeutic reverses visual decline in mouse models of diabetes. - Disease models & mechanisms
Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by progressive vision loss and the advancement of retinal micoraneurysms, edema and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, managing glycemia or targeting vascular complications with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents has shown only limited efficacy in treating the deterioration of vision in diabetic retinopathy. In light of growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is an independent pathophysiology of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, we investigated whether selectively targeting and improving mitochondrial dysfunction is a viable treatment for visual decline in diabetes. Measures of spatial visual behavior, blood glucose, bodyweight and optical clarity were made in mouse models of diabetes. Treatment groups were administered MTP-131, a water-soluble tetrapeptide that selectively targets mitochondrial cardiolipin and promotes efficient electron transfer, either systemically or in eye drops. Progressive visual decline emerged in untreated animals before the overt symptoms of metabolic and ophthalmic abnormalities were manifest, but with time, visual dysfunction was accompanied by compromised glucose clearance, and elevated blood glucose and bodyweight. MTP-131 treatment reversed the visual decline without improving glycemic control or reducing bodyweight. These data provide evidence that visuomotor decline is an early complication of diabetes. They also indicate that selectively treating mitochondrial dysfunction with MTP-131 has the potential to remediate the visual dysfunction and to complement existing treatments for diabetic retinopathy.Â© 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Propensity-matched comparisons of clinical outcomes after transapical or transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a placement of aortic transcatheter valves (PARTNER)-I trial substudy. - Circulation
The higher risk of adverse outcomes after transapical (TA) versus transfemoral (TF) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) could be attributable to TA-TAVR being an open surgical procedure or to clinical differences between TA- and TF-TAVR patients. We compared outcomes after neutralizing patient differences using propensity score matching.From April 2007 to February 2012, 1100 Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER)-I patients underwent TA-TAVR and 1521 underwent TF-TAVR with Edwards SAPIEN balloon-expandable bioprostheses. Propensity matching based on 111 preprocedural variables, exclusive of femoral access morphology, identified 501 well-matched patient pairs (46% of possible matches), 95% of whom had peripheral arterial disease. Matched TA-TAVR patients experienced more adverse procedural events, longer length of stay (5 versus 8 days; P<0.0001), and slower recovery (New York Heart Association class I, 31% versus 38% at 30 days, equalizing by 6 months at 51% versus 47%); stroke risk was similar (3.4% versus 3.3% at 30 days and 6.0% versus 6.7% at 3 years); mortality was elevated for the first 6 postprocedural months (19% versus 12%; P=0.01); but aortic regurgitation was less (34% versus 52% mild and 8.9% versus 12% moderate to severe at discharge, P=0.001; 36% versus 50% mild and 10% versus 15% moderate to severe at 6 months, P<0.0001).The likelihood of adverse periprocedural events and prolonged recovery is greater after TA-TAVR than TF-TAVR in vasculopathic patients after accounting for differences in cardiovascular risk factors, although stroke risk is equivalent and aortic regurgitation is less. As smaller delivery systems permit TF-TAVR in many of these patients, we recommend a TF-first access strategy for TAVR when anatomically feasible.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00530894.Â© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
5-year outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement compared with standard treatment for patients with inoperable aortic stenosis (PARTNER 1): a randomised controlled trial. - Lancet (London, England)
Based on the early results of the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an accepted treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable for surgery. However, little information is available about the late clinical outcomes in such patients.We did this randomised controlled trial at 21 experienced valve centres in Canada, Germany, and the USA. We enrolled patients with severe symptomatic inoperable aortic stenosis and randomly assigned (1:1) them to transfemoral TAVR or to standard treatment, which often included balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Patients and their treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The randomisation was done centrally, and sites learned of the assignment only after a patient had been screened, consented, and entered into the database. The primary outcome of the trial was all-cause mortality at 1 year in the intention-to-treat population, here we present the prespecified findings after 5 years. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00530894.We screened 3015 patients, of whom 358 were enrolled (mean age 83 years, Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality 11Â·7%, 54% female). 179 were assigned to TAVR treatment and 179 were assigned to standard treatment. 20 patients crossed over from the standard treatment group and ten withdrew from study, leaving only six patients at 5 years, of whom five had aortic valve replacement treatment outside of the study. The risk of all-cause mortality at 5 years was 71Â·8% in the TAVR group versus 93Â·6% in the standard treatment group (hazard ratio 0Â·50, 95% CI 0Â·39-0Â·65; p<0Â·0001). At 5 years, 42 (86%) of 49 survivors in the TAVR group had New York Heart Association class 1 or 2 symptoms compared with three (60%) of five in the standard treatment group. Echocardiography after TAVR showed durable haemodynamic benefit (aortic valve area 1Â·52 cm(2) at 5 years, mean gradient 10Â·6 mm Hg at 5 years), with no evidence of structural valve deterioration.TAVR is more beneficial than standard treatment for treatment of inoperable aortic stenosis. TAVR should be strongly considered for patients who are not surgical candidates for aortic valve replacement to improve their survival and functional status. Appropriate selection of patients will help to maximise the benefit of TAVR and reduce mortality from severe comorbidities.Edwards Lifesciences.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Predictors and clinical outcomes of permanent pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the PARTNER (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves) trial and registry. - JACC. Cardiovascular interventions
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and clinical implications of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).Cardiac conduction disturbances requiring PPM are a frequent complication of TAVR. However, limited data is available regarding this complication after TAVR with a balloon-expandable valve.The study included patients without prior pacemaker who underwent TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves) trial and registry and investigated predictors and clinical effect of new PPM.Of 2,559 TAVR patients, 586 were excluded due to pre-existing PPM. A new PPM was required in 173 of the remaining 1,973 patients (8.8%). By multivariable analysis, predictors of PPM included right bundle branch block (odds ratio [OR]: 7.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.92 to 10.06, p < 0.001), prosthesis diameter/left ventricular (LV) outflow tract diameter (for each 0.1 increment, OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.51, p = 0.002), LV end-diastolic diameter (for each 1 cm, OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.87, p = 0.003), and treatment in continued access registry (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.92, p = 0.025). Patients requiring PPM had a longer mean duration of post-procedure hospitalization (7.3 Â± 2.7 days vs. 6.2 Â± 2.8 days, p = 0.001). At 1 year, new PPM was associated with significantly higher repeat hospitalization (23.9% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.05) and mortality or repeat hospitalization (42.0% vs. 32.6%, p = 0.007). There was no difference between groups in LV ejection fraction at 1 year.PPM was required in 8.8% of patients without prior PPM who underwent TAVR with a balloon-expandable valve in the PARTNER trial and registry. In addition to pre-existing right bundle branch block, the prosthesis to LV outflow tract diameter ratio and the LV end-diastolic diameter were identified as novel predictors of PPM after TAVR. New PPM was associated with a longer duration of hospitalization and higher rates of repeat hospitalization and mortality or repeat hospitalization at 1 year. (THE PARTNER TRIAL: Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves Trial; NCT00530894).Copyright Â© 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Early regression of severe left ventricular hypertrophy after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with decreased hospitalizations. - JACC. Cardiovascular interventions
This study sought to examine the relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM) regression and clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).LVM regression after valve replacement for aortic stenosis is assumed to be a favorable effect of LV unloading, but its relationship to improved clinical outcomes is unclear.Of 2,115 patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis at high surgical risk receiving TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) randomized trial or continued access registry, 690 had both severe LV hypertrophy (left ventricular mass index [LVMi] â‰¥ 149 g/m(2) men, â‰¥ 122 g/m(2) women) at baseline and an LVMi measurement at 30-day post-TAVR follow-up. Clinical outcomes were compared for patients with greater than versus lesser than median percentage change in LVMi between baseline and 30 days using Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate event rates from 30 to 365 days.Compared with patients with lesser regression, patients with greater LVMi regression had a similar rate of all-cause mortality (14.1% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.99), but a lower rate of rehospitalization (9.5% vs. 18.5%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32 to 0.78; p = 0.002) and a lower rate of rehospitalization specifically for heart failure (7.3% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.01). The association with a lower rate of rehospitalization was consistent across subgroups and remained significant after multivariable adjustment (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.84; p = 0.007). Patients with greater LVMi regression had lower B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.002) and a trend toward better quality of life (p = 0.06) at 1-year follow-up than did those with lesser regression.In high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe LV hypertrophy undergoing TAVR, those with greater early LVM regression had one-half the rate of rehospitalization over the subsequent year compared to those with lesser regression.Copyright Â© 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Impact of preoperative moderate/severe mitral regurgitation on 2-year outcome after transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement: insight from the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve (PARTNER) Trial Cohort A. - Circulation
The effect of preoperative mitral regurgitation (MR) on clinical outcomes of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is controversial. This study sought to examine the impact of moderate and severe MR on outcomes after TAVR and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR).Data were drawn from the randomized Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve (PARTNER) Trial cohort A patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing either TAVR (n=331) or SAVR (n=299). Both TAVR and SAVR patients were dichotomized according to the degree of preoperative MR (moderate/severe versus none/mild). At baseline, moderate or severe MR was reported in 65 TAVR patients (19.6%) and 63 SAVR patients (21.2%). At 30 days, among survivors who had isolated SAVR/TAVR, moderate/severe MR had improved in 25 SAVR patients (69.4%) and 30 TAVR patients (57.7%), was unchanged in 10 SAVR patients (27.8%) and 19 TAVR patients (36.5%), and worsened in 1 SAVR patient (2.8%) and 4 TAVR patients (5.8%; all P=NS). Mortality at 2 years was higher in SAVR patients with moderate or severe MR than in those with mild or less MR (49.8% versus 28.1%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.96; P=0.04). In contrast, MR severity at baseline did not affect mortality in TAVR patients (37.0% versus 32.7%, moderate/severe versus none/mild; hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.78; P=0.58; P for interaction=0.05).Both TAVR and SAVR were associated with a significant early improvement in MR in survivors. However, moderate or severe MR at baseline was associated with increased 2-year mortality after SAVR but not after TAVR. TAVR may be a reasonable option in selected patients with combined aortic and mitral valve disease.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00530894.
Predictors of mortality and outcomes of therapy in low-flow severe aortic stenosis: a Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial analysis. - Circulation
The prognosis and treatment of patients with low-flow (LF) severe aortic stenosis are controversial.The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial randomized patients with severe aortic stenosis to medical management versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR; inoperable cohort) and surgical aortic valve replacement versus TAVR (high-risk cohort). Among 971 patients with evaluable echocardiograms (92%), LF (stroke volume index â‰¤35 mL/m(2)) was observed in 530 (55%); LF and low ejection fraction (<50%) in 225 (23%); and LF, low ejection fraction, and low mean gradient (<40 mm Hg) in 147 (15%). Two-year mortality was significantly higher in patients with LF compared with those with normal stroke volume index (47% versus 34%; hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.89; P=0.006). In the inoperable cohort, patients with LF had higher mortality than those with normal flow, but both groups improved with TAVR (46% versus 76% with LF and 38% versus 53% with normal flow; P<0.001). In the high-risk cohort, there was no difference between TAVR and surgical aortic valve replacement. In patients with paradoxical LF and low gradient (preserved ejection fraction), TAVR reduced 1-year mortality from 66% to 35% (hazard ratio, 0.38; P=0.02). LF was an independent predictor of mortality in all patient cohorts (hazard ratio, â‰ˆ1.5), whereas ejection fraction and gradient were not.LF is common in severe aortic stenosis and independently predicts mortality. Survival is improved with TAVR compared with medical management and similar with TAVR and surgical aortic valve replacement. A measure of flow (stroke volume index) should be included in the evaluation and therapeutic decision making of patients with severe aortic stenosis.URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT0053089.4.
Two-year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement. - The New England journal of medicine
The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed that among high-risk patients with aortic stenosis, the 1-year survival rates are similar with transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical replacement. However, longer-term follow-up is necessary to determine whether TAVR has prolonged benefits.At 25 centers, we randomly assigned 699 high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis to undergo either surgical aortic-valve replacement or TAVR. All patients were followed for at least 2 years, with assessment of clinical outcomes and echocardiographic evaluation.The rates of death from any cause were similar in the TAVR and surgery groups (hazard ratio with TAVR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.15; P=0.41) and at 2 years (Kaplan-Meier analysis) were 33.9% in the TAVR group and 35.0% in the surgery group (P=0.78). The frequency of all strokes during follow-up did not differ significantly between the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.23; P=0.52). At 30 days, strokes were more frequent with TAVR than with surgical replacement (4.6% vs. 2.4%, P=0.12); subsequently, there were 8 additional strokes in the TAVR group and 12 in the surgery group. Improvement in valve areas was similar with TAVR and surgical replacement and was maintained for 2 years. Paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR (P<0.001), and even mild paravalvular regurgitation was associated with increased late mortality (P<0.001).A 2-year follow-up of patients in the PARTNER trial supports TAVR as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. The two treatments were similar with respect to mortality, reduction in symptoms, and improved valve hemodynamics, but paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR and was associated with increased late mortality. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00530894.).
Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement for inoperable severe aortic stenosis. - The New England journal of medicine
Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is the recommended therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable candidates for surgery. The outcomes beyond 1 year in such patients are not known.We randomly assigned patients to transfemoral TAVR or to standard therapy (which often included balloon aortic valvuloplasty). Data on 2-year outcomes were analyzed.A total of 358 patients underwent randomization at 21 centers. The rates of death at 2 years were 43.3% in the TAVR group and 68.0% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001), and the corresponding rates of cardiac death were 31.0% and 62.4% (P<0.001). The survival advantage associated with TAVR that was seen at 1 year remained significant among patients who survived beyond the first year (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.92; P=0.02 with the use of the log-rank test). The rate of stroke was higher after TAVR than with standard therapy (13.8% vs. 5.5%, P=0.01), owing, in the first 30 days, to the occurrence of more ischemic events in the TAVR group (6.7% vs. 1.7%, P=0.02) and, beyond 30 days, to the occurrence of more hemorrhagic strokes in the TAVR group (2.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.16). At 2 years, the rate of rehospitalization was 35.0% in the TAVR group and 72.5% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001). TAVR, as compared with standard therapy, was also associated with improved functional status (P<0.001). The data suggest that the mortality benefit after TAVR may be limited to patients who do not have extensive coexisting conditions. Echocardiographic analysis showed a sustained increase in aortic-valve area and a decrease in aortic-valve gradient, with no worsening of paravalvular aortic regurgitation.Among appropriately selected patients with severe aortic stenosis who were not suitable candidates for surgery, TAVR reduced the rates of death and hospitalization, with a decrease in symptoms and an improvement in valve hemodynamics that were sustained at 2 years of follow-up. The presence of extensive coexisting conditions may attenuate the survival benefit of TAVR. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00530894.).
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