Dr. Arif  Mahmood  Md image

Dr. Arif Mahmood Md

9 Peyton Ct
Wichita Falls TX 76310
214 957-7818
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
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License #: BP10040026
NPI: 1487940953
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Nanotextured polymer substrates show enhanced cancer cell isolation and cell culture. - Nanotechnology
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the early stages of cancer is a great challenge because of their exceedingly small concentration. There are only a few approaches sensitive enough to differentiate tumor cells from the plethora of other cells in a sample like blood. In order to detect CTCs, several antibodies and aptamers have already shown high affinity. Nanotexture can be used to mimic basement membrane to further enhance this affinity. This article reports an approach to fabricate nanotextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using micro reactive ion etching (micro-RIE). Three recipes were used to prepare nanotextured PDMS using oxygen and carbon tetrafluoride. Micro-RIE provided better control on surface properties. Nanotexturing improved the affinity of PDMS surfaces to capture cancer cells using surface immobilized aptamers against cell membrane overexpressed with epidermal growth factor receptors. In all cases, nanotexture of PDMS increased the effective surface area by creating nanoscale roughness on the surface. Nanotexture also enhanced the growth rate of cultured cells compared to plain surfaces. A comparison among the three nanotextured surfaces demonstrated an almost linear relationship between the surface roughness and density of captured tumor cells. The nanotextured PDMS mimicked biophysical environments for cells to grow faster. This can have many implications in microfluidic platforms used for cell handling.
Hyperspectral face recognition with spatiospectral information fusion and PLS regression. - IEEE transactions on image processing : a publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Hyperspectral imaging offers new opportunities for face recognition via improved discrimination along the spectral dimension. However, it poses new challenges, including low signal-to-noise ratio, interband misalignment, and high data dimensionality. Due to these challenges, the literature on hyperspectral face recognition is not only sparse but is limited to ad hoc dimensionality reduction techniques and lacks comprehensive evaluation. We propose a hyperspectral face recognition algorithm using a spatiospectral covariance for band fusion and partial least square regression for classification. Moreover, we extend 13 existing face recognition techniques, for the first time, to perform hyperspectral face recognition.We formulate hyperspectral face recognition as an image-set classification problem and evaluate the performance of seven state-of-the-art image-set classification techniques. We also test six state-of-the-art grayscale and RGB (color) face recognition algorithms after applying fusion techniques on hyperspectral images. Comparison with the 13 extended and five existing hyperspectral face recognition techniques on three standard data sets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms all by a significant margin. Finally, we perform band selection experiments to find the most discriminative bands in the visible and near infrared response spectrum.
Nucleic acid aptamers in cancer research, diagnosis and therapy. - Chemical Society reviews
Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligomers, identified from a random sequence pool, with the ability to form unique and versatile tertiary structures that bind to cognate molecules with superior specificity. Their small size, excellent chemical stability and low immunogenicity enable them to rival antibodies in cancer imaging and therapy applications. Their facile chemical synthesis, versatility in structural design and engineering, and the ability for site-specific modifications with functional moieties make aptamers excellent recognition motifs for cancer biomarker discovery and detection. Moreover, aptamers can be selected or engineered to regulate cancer protein functions, as well as to guide anti-cancer drug design or screening. This review summarizes their applications in cancer, including cancer biomarker discovery and detection, cancer imaging, cancer therapy, and anti-cancer drug discovery. Although relevant applications are relatively new, the significant progress achieved has demonstrated that aptamers can be promising players in cancer research.
Capture, isolation and release of cancer cells with aptamer-functionalized glass bead array. - Lab on a chip
Early detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can enable better prognosis for cancer patients. A Hele-Shaw device with aptamer functionalized glass beads is designed, modeled, and fabricated to efficiently isolate cancer cells from a cellular mixture. The glass beads are functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) aptamer and sit in ordered array of pits in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. A PDMS encapsulation is then used to cover the channel and to flow through cell solution. The beads capture cancer cells from flowing solution depicting high selectivity. The cell-bound glass beads are then re-suspended from the device surface followed by the release of 92% cells from glass beads using combination of soft shaking and anti-sense RNA. This approach ensures that the cells remain in native state and undisturbed during capture, isolation and elution for post-analysis. The use of highly selective anti-EGFR aptamer with the glass beads in an array and subsequent release of cells with antisense molecules provide multiple levels of binding and release opportunities that can help in defining new classes of CTC enumeration devices.
Optical coherence tomography analysis of the stenting of saphenous vein graft (SOS) Xience V Study: use of the everolimus-eluting stent in saphenous vein graft lesions. - The Journal of invasive cardiology
The Stenting of Saphenous Grafts-Xience V (SOS-Xience V) trial prospectively examined the frequency of angiographic in-stent restenosis in saphenous vein graft (SVG) lesions 12 months after implantation of a Xience V everolimus-eluting stent (EES; Abbott Vascular). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) during follow-up angiography was added to the protocol after OCT was approved for clinical use in the United States.Forty patients with 40 SVG lesions were enrolled in the study, of whom 27 underwent 12-month coronary angiography and 12 (only 1 of whom had in-stent restenosis) also had follow-up OCT evaluation. OCT strut-level analysis was performed to determine the percentage of strut coverage, malapposition, strut protrusion, neointimal thickness, and the existence of thrombus.Mean patient age was 67 ± 7 years, and 95% were men. A total of 2584 struts were evaluated by OCT. The percentages for uncovered, malapposed, and protruding struts were 4%, 9%, and 15%, respectively. The mean strut neointimal thickness was 0.094 ± 0.094 mm. Of the 12 stents analyzed, 4 (33%) showed full neointimal coverage, 2 (17%) had all the struts embedded, 7 (58%) had at least 1 malapposed strut, and 10 (83%) had at least 1 protruding strut. The mean difference between the stent area and the lumen area was 0.36 ± 1.6 mm². No thrombus was detected in the stented areas.Use of EES in SVGs is associated with high rates of stent strut coverage and high malapposition rates at 12 months post implantation.
Frequency, treatment, and consequences of device loss and entrapment in contemporary percutaneous coronary interventions. - The Journal of invasive cardiology
Device loss and entrapment are infrequent but potentially grave complications of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). There are limited contemporary data on the frequency, treatment, and consequences of these complications.We reviewed 2338 consecutive PCI cases performed between 1/2005 and 5/2010 at our institution to identify cases of device loss or entrapment. The angiograms and outcomes of these patients were reviewed.During the study period, device loss occurred in 9 cases (0.38%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18%-0.73%) and entrapment in 4 cases (0.17%; 95% CI, 0.05%-0.44%). The lost devices were stents (n = 5; 0.21%), a coronary balloon shaft (n = 1; 0.04%), a femoral arterial sheath (n = 1; 0.04%), an arterial catheter (n = 1; 0.04%), and an Ostial Pro catheter (Ostial Solutions) distal tip (n = 1; 0.04%). Entrapped devices included a coronary guidewire (n = 2; 0.08%), a Tornus catheter (Abbott Vascular; n = 1; 0.04%) and a Filterwire (Boston Scientific; n = 1; 0.04%). All patients with device loss were successfully managed percutaneously (1 patient experienced periprocedural myocardial infarction). Retrieval of the lost devices was attempted in 7 of 9 cases (78%) and was successful in 6 cases (86%). Retrieval was successful with the initial attempt in 2 patients but required >1 attempt in 4 patients. In contrast, 3 of 4 patients (75%) with device entrapment required emergency surgical removal and coronary artery bypass grafting.Device loss or entrapment is an infrequent complication of contemporary PCI. Device loss can be successfully managed percutaneously, whereas device entrapment often requires emergency cardiac surgery.
Role of embolic protection devices in ostial saphenous vein graft lesions. - Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions
Although embolic protection devices (EPDs) have been shown to be beneficial in saphenous vein graft (SVG) lesions, their role in the subgroup of ostial SVG lesions has received limited study.The coronary angiograms and procedural outcomes of 109 patients undergoing stenting of 113 ostial SVG lesions were retrospectively reviewed to determine the frequency of EPD use and the periprocedural outcomes.Ninety-eight (87%) of the 113 lesions were suitable for EPD use, that was used in 70 lesions (71%). A Filterwire (Boston Scientific) or a SPIDER (ev3) filter were used in 54 (77%) and 16 (23%) of lesions, respectively. Difficulty retrieving the filter post stenting was encountered in eight lesions (11%) and led to stent thrombosis causing cardiac arrest in one patient (1%). Angiographic success was achieved in 111 (98%) of 113 lesions.EPDs can be utilized in the majority of ostial SVG lesions, but in 11% of cases filter retrieval can be challenging and may rarely (in approximately 1%) lead to a significant complication.Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Association of coronary lipid core plaque with intrastent thrombus formation: a near-infrared spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography study. - Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allow assessment of the anatomy (OCT) and composition (NIRS) of coronary lesions. We sought to examine the association between pre-stenting lipid core plaque (LCP), as assessed by NIRS and post-stenting thrombus formation, as assessed by OCT.We reviewed the angiograms of nine patients who underwent coronary stenting in association with NIRS and OCT imaging. A large LCP by NIRS was defined as at least three 2-mm yellow blocks on the NIRS block chemogram with >200° angular extent. Intracoronary thrombus was defined as a mass of medium reflectivity protruding into the vessel lumen, discontinuous from the surface of the vessel wall.Mean age was 67 ± 7 years, and all patients were men, presenting with stable angina (56%), unstable angina (11%), or acute myocardial infarction (33%). The mean vessel lipid core burden index (LCBI) was 120 ± 45, and the mean highest 6-mm LCBI was 386 ± 190. Three patients had a large LCP and two of them (66%) developed intrastent thrombus after stent implantation compared to none of six patients without large LCPs (0%, P = 0.02). The thrombus resolved after intracoronary glycoprotein IIb/IIIa administration and balloon postdilation. Postprocedural myocardial infarction occurred in 33% versus 17% of patients with and without large LCP, respectively (P = 0.57).Stenting of large LCPs may be associated with intrastent thrombus formation, suggesting that more intensive anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy may be beneficial in such lesions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Correlation-coefficient-based fast template matching through partial elimination. - IEEE transactions on image processing : a publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Partial computation elimination techniques are often used for fast template matching. At a particular search location, computations are prematurely terminated as soon as it is found that this location cannot compete with an already known best match location. Due to the nonmonotonic growth pattern of the correlation-based similarity measures, partial computation elimination techniques have been traditionally considered inapplicable to speed up these measures. In this paper, we show that partial elimination techniques may be applied to a correlation coefficient by using a monotonic formulation, and we propose basic-mode and extended-mode partial correlation elimination algorithms for fast template matching. The basic-mode algorithm is more efficient on small template sizes, whereas the extended mode is faster on medium and larger templates. We also propose a strategy to decide which algorithm to use for a given data set. To achieve a high speedup, elimination algorithms require an initial guess of the peak correlation value. We propose two initialization schemes including a coarse-to-fine scheme for larger templates and a two-stage technique for small- and medium-sized templates. Our proposed algorithms are exact, i.e., having exhaustive equivalent accuracy, and are compared with the existing fast techniques using real image data sets on a wide variety of template sizes. While the actual speedups are data dependent, in most cases, our proposed algorithms have been found to be significantly faster than the other algorithms.
Measurement of radon concentration for assessment of the radiological hazard in the Chakwal coalmines of the Salt Range, Pakistan. - Journal of radiological protection : official journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Radon and its progeny are prevalent everywhere on the lithosphere especially in the mining environment. Coal exists in the Salt Range that passes through Pakistan. The aim of the present study was to measure radon concentration and assess the associated radiological hazard in the coalmines developed in that portion of the Salt Range which passes through the district of Chakwal in Pakistan. Among the various coalmines in the coalfield, five were selected for radon survey. A passive integrated technique consisting of SSNTDs (solid state nuclear track detectors) was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in these coalmines. Box type dosimeters containing CN-85 detectors were placed for three months at six locations in every selected coalmine. After removing the dosimeters, the CN-85 detectors were etched in alkaline solution to enlarge the alpha tracks in the detectors and counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were converted to radon concentration. The average concentration of radon in the coalmines varied in the range 50-114  Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation rates from the samples of coal and shale collected from the coalmines were determined to be respectively 934 (830-1010) and 1302 (1020-1580)  mBq m(-2) h(-1). The radiation dose and corresponding health risk for the mine workers were also estimated.

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