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Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress. - Scientific reports
Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1Î², tumor necrosis factor-Î±, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention.
Inflammation and oxidative stress in viper bite: an insight within and beyond. - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Though systemic and local manifestations of snakebite are considered serious, the relevance of oxidative stress in viper bite pathology is largely denied. However, over the past decade, studies have provided substantial evidence for the presence of persistent oxidative stress in viper bite victims. This review aims at highlighting the disturbances in redox homeostasis soon after viper envenomation and its implications in the pathomechanism of secondary/long term complications including thrombocytopenia, hypopituitarism, infertility, renal abnormalities and persistent local tissue degradation. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of viper venom play a pivotal role in bringing redox turbulence in victims. Venom-induced hemorrhage and necrosis with subsequent release of damage associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecules also contribute to sustained oxidative stress and inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that along with anti-venom therapy an antioxidant treatment during the early stages of viper bite and also long term treatment could help to reduce the occurrence of secondary/long term complications. Further, proper knowledge regarding the pathophysiology will allow for exploration of new avenues in the treatment of viper bite.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Propensity of crocin to offset Vipera russelli venom induced oxidative stress mediated neutrophil apoptosis: a biochemical insight. - Cytotechnology
Viper envenomation results in inflammation at the bitten site as well as target organs. Neutrophils and other polymorphonuclear leukocytes execute inflammation resolving mechanism and will undergo apoptosis after completing the task. However, the target specific toxins induce neutrophil apoptosis at the bitten site and in circulation prior to their function, thus reducing their number. Circulating activated neutrophils are major source of inflammatory cytokines and leakage of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/other toxic intermediates resulting in aggravation of inflammatory response at the bitten/target site. Therefore, neutralization of venom induced neutrophil apoptosis reduces inflammation besides increasing the functional neutrophil population. Therefore, the present study investigates the venom induced perturbances in isolated human neutrophils and its neutralization by crocin (Crocus sativus) a potent antioxidant carotenoid. Human neutrophils on treatment with venom resulted in altered ROS generation, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cyt-c translocation, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA damage. On the other hand significant protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis were evidenced in crocin pre-treated groups. In conclusion the viper venom induces neutrophil apoptosis and results in aggravation of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study demands the necessity of an auxiliary therapy in addition to antivenin therapy to treat secondary/overlooked complications of envenomation.
Melatonin alleviates Echis carinatus venom-induced toxicities by modulating inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. - Journal of pineal research
Viper bites cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide and regarded as a neglected tropical disease affecting a large healthy population. Classical antivenom therapy has appreciably reduced the snakebite mortality rate; it apparently fails to tackle viper venom-induced local manifestations that persist even after the administration of antivenom. Recently, viper venom-induced oxidative stress and vital organ damage is deemed as yet another reason for concern; these are considered as postmedicated complications of viper bite. Thus, treating viper bite has become a challenge demanding new treatment strategies, auxiliary to antivenin therapy. In the last decade, several studies have reported the use of plant products and clinically approved drugs to neutralize venom-induced pharmacology. However, very few attempts were undertaken to study oxidative stress and vital organ damage. Based on this background, the present study evaluated the protective efficacy of melatonin in Echis carinatus (EC) venom-induced tissue necrosis, oxidative stress, and organ toxicity. The results demonstrated that melatonin efficiently alleviated EC venom-induced hemorrhage and myonecrosis. It also mitigated the altered levels of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers of blood components in liver and kidney homogenates, and documented renal and hepatoprotective action of melatonin. The histopathology of skin, muscle, liver, and kidney tissues further substantiated the overall protection offered by melatonin against viper bite toxicities. Besides the inability of antivenoms to block local effects and the fact that melatonin is already a widely used drug promulgating a multitude of therapeutic functionalities, its use in viper bite management is of high interest and should be seriously considered.Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sesamol ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. - Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
In current scenario of human health and diseases, drug-induced hepatic injury has been recognized as a serious and unresolved problem. Particularly, chemotherapeutic agents have been reported to induce organ toxicity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate organ toxicity and oxidative damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), a chemotherapeutic drug and its amelioration by sesamol, an antioxidant from sesame seeds. CP (150 mg/kg) is injected intraperitonially to experimental rats and from day 2 rats were orally treated with sesamol. Rats were sacrificed to evaluate non-enzymatic and enzymatic oxidative stress parameters in serum and tissue homogenates on day 8. Besides, liver function parameters and pro-inflammatory mediators were assessed. Histopathological studies of liver and kidney were also carried out. Elevated levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of glutathione, total thiols, along with the reduction in antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-stransferase and glutathione peroxidase, were evident in CP-intoxicated animals. Pro-inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor - Î±, interleukin (IL)-1Î², IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 were also elevated. Moreover, the levels of liver function markers like serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were also altered. Histology of liver and kidney tissues further supported CP-induced organ damage. Altered parameters were significantly restored to normal by oral administration of sesamol (50 mg/kg) suggesting its antioxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective abilities. The study clearly demonstrated the potentiality of sesamol against CPinduced organ toxicity and oxidative stress suggesting its applicability in treatment regime of cancer and other stress-associated disorders as a supportive/auxiliary therapy.
Sesamol induces apoptosis in human platelets via reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial damage. - Biochimie
Platelets play an indispensable role in human health and disease. Platelets are very sensitive to oxidative stress, as it leads to the damage of mitochondrial DNA, which is the initial step of a sequence of events culminating in the cell death through the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Owing to a lot of reports on secondary complications arising from oxidative stress caused by therapeutic drug overdose, the present study concentrated on the influence of sesamol on oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis. Sesamol, a phenolic derivative present in sesame seeds is an exceptionally promising drug with lots of reports on its protective functions, including its inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation at concentrations below 100 Î¼M, and its anti-cancer effect at 1 mM. However, the present study explored the toxic effects of sesamol on human platelets. Sesamol at the concentration of 0.25 mM and above induced platelet apoptosis through endogenous generation of ROS, depletion of thiol pool, and Ca(2+) mobilization. It also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, caspase activation, cytochrome c translocation and phosphatidylserine exposure, thus illustrating the pro-apoptotic effect of sesamol at higher concentration. However, even at high concentration of 2 mM sesamol effectively inhibited collagen/ADP/epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. The study demonstrates that even though sesamol inhibits platelet aggregation, it has the tendency to elicit platelet apoptosis at higher concentrations. Sesamol has a potential as thrombolytic agent, nevertheless the current work highlights the significance of an appropriate dosage of sesamol when it is used as a therapeutic drug.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Viper venom-induced oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory cytokines: a therapeutic approach for overlooked issues of snakebite management. - Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]
The snakebite mortality rate has been significantly reduced due to effective anti-venin therapy. The intravenously infused anti-venom will neutralize free and target-bound toxins but fails to neutralize venom-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, as the antigen-antibody complex itself is pro-inflammatory. Therefore, an auxiliary therapy is necessary to treat secondary/overlooked envenomation complications.Blood samples from healthy donors were treated with viper venom (100 Î¼g/ml) for 2 h. The venom-induced inflammation, oxidative damage and effect of crocin pre-treatment were determined by assessing the serum levels of cytoplasmic, lysosomal and oxidative stress markers along with pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-Î±, interleukin (IL)-1Î², IL-6 and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2.Significantly increased stress markers, cytoplasmic, lysosomal and extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes as well as the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-Î±, IL-1Î², IL-6 and COX-2 indicated increased cellular damage but significantly reduced oxidative damage and inflammation in crocin pre-treated groups.The data clearly suggest that venom-induced oxidative stress and inflammation is also responsible for oxidative burst and cell death in the circulation, which may worsen even after anti-venin therapy. Hence, the current study demands a supportive therapy in addition to anti-venin therapy to neutralize the overlooked issues of snakebite.
Crocin, a dietary colorant, mitigates cyclophosphamide-induced organ toxicity by modulating antioxidant status and inflammatory cytokines. - The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
This study investigated the protective efficacy of crocin against hepatotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in Wistar rats.The experimental rats were treated with crocin orally at a dose of 10â€‰mg/kg for 6 consecutive days after the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CP (150â€‰mg/kg). The ameliorative effect of crocin on organ toxicity was studied by evaluating oxidative stress enzymes, inflammatory cytokines and histological sections.A single intraperitoneal CP injection significantly elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species and oxidation of lipids and proteins, which are the hallmarks of oxidative damage in liver and serum. In consequence, the primary defensive reduced glutathione, total thiol and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, were significantly reduced. In addition, liver and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase along with acid and alkaline phosphatase were considerably increased. Oral administration of crocin significantly rejuvenated all the above altered markers to almost normal state. The protective efficacy of crocin was further supported by the histological assessment and restoration of CP-induced inflammatory cytokines and enzyme levels compared with the control drug.The results obtained suggest the protective nature of crocin against CP-induced oxidative damage/inflammation and organ toxicity.Â© 2013 The Authors. JPP Â© 2013. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Antiarthritic and antiinflammatory propensity of 4-methylesculetin, a coumarin derivative. - Biochimie
Coumarins are a group of natural compounds widely distributed in plants. Of late, coumarins and their derivatives have grabbed much attention from the pharmacological and pharmaceutical arena due to their broad range of therapeutical qualities. A coumarin derivative 4-methylesculetin (4-ME) has known to possess effective antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties. Recently they have also shown to down regulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ÎºB) and protein kinase B (Akt) that play a vital role in inflammation and apoptosis. In view of this, the present study investigated the anti-arthritic potentiality of 4-ME by assessing its ability to inhibit cartilage and bone degeneration, inflammation and associated oxidative stress. Arthritis being a debilitating joint disease, results in the deterioration of extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage and synovium. Participation of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic factors in disease perpetuation is well documented. The present study demonstrated the mitigation of augmented serum levels of hyaluronidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-13, MMP-3 and MMP-9) responsible for cartilage degeneration by 4-ME. It also protected bone resorption by reducing the elevated levels of bone-joint exoglycosidases, cathepsin-D and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases. Further, 4-ME significantly ameliorated the upregulated non-enzymatic inflammatory markers like TNF-Î±, IL-1Î², IL-6, COX-2 and PGE2. Besides, 4-ME effectively stabilized the arthritis-induced oxidative stress by restoring the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid and hydro peroxides and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. Thus, the study suggests that 4-ME could be an effective agent to treat arthritis and associated secondary complications like oxidative stress.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
N-Acetylcysteine amide: a derivative to fulfill the promises of N-Acetylcysteine. - Free radical research
In the present human health scenario, implication of oxidative stress in numerous pathologies including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, liver, renal, pulmonary disorders, and cancer has gained attention. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a popular thiol antioxidant, has been clinically used to treat various pathophysiological disorders. However, NAC therapy is routine only in paracetamol intoxication and as a mucolytic agent. Over six decades, numerous studies involving NAC therapy have yielded inconsistent results, and this could be due to low bioavailability. In order to overcome the limitations of NAC, an amide derivative N-Acetylcysteine amide (NACA) has been synthesized to improve the lipophilicity, membrane permeability, and antioxidant property. Recent studies have demonstrated the blood-brain barrier permeability and therapeutic potentials of NACA in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple sclerosis, Tardive dyskinesia, and HIV-associated neurological disorders. In addition, NACA displays protective effect against pulmonary inflammation and antibiotic-induced apoptosis. Forthcoming research on the possible therapeutic properties of NACA and its generics in the management of pathologies associated with extracellular matrix degradation and oxidative stress-related inflammation is highly exiting. Superior bioavailability of NACA is likely to fulfill the promises of NAC as well as a molecule to improve the endurance and resident time of bioscaffolds and biomaterials. Till date, more than 800 reviews on NAC have been published. However, no comprehensive review is available on the therapeutic applications of NACA. Therefore, the current review would be the first to emphasize the therapeutic potentials of NACA and its derivatives.
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