Dr. Christina  Watson  Psy image

Dr. Christina Watson Psy

318 E Basin Rd
New Castle DE 19720
302 232-2700
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 59535
NPI: 1487939385
Taxonomy Codes:

Request Appointment Information

Awards & Recognitions

About Us

Practice Philosophy


Medical Malpractice Cases

None Found

Medical Board Sanctions

None Found


None Found


Method for the determination of ammonium in cigarette tobacco using ion chromatography. - Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
Ammonia and other alkaline substances have been postulated to be important in cigarette design. The most significant potential contribution of ammonia is a possible interaction with the native, protonated nicotine in the smoke. Ammonia is more alkaline than nicotine and could facilitate a shift in the acid/base equilibrium where a fraction of the total nicotine converts to the more lipophilic, non-protonated form. This non-protonated, or free-base, form of nicotine absorbs more efficiently across membranes, resulting in more rapid delivery to the smoker's bloodstream. Ammonia and other potential ammonia sources, such as additives like diammonium phosphate, could influence the acid-base dynamics in cigarette smoke and ultimately the rate of nicotine delivery. To examine and characterize the ammonia content in modern cigarettes, we developed a fast, simple and reliable ion chromatography based method to measure extractable ammonia levels in cigarette filler. This approach has minimal sample preparation and short run times to achieve high sample throughput. We quantified ammonia levels in tobacco filler from 34 non-mentholated cigarette brands from 3 manufacturers to examine the ranges found across a convenience sampling of popular, commercially available domestic brands and present figures of analytical merit here. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 0.9 to 2.4mg per gram of cigarette filler between brands and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and manufacturer; thus in domestic cigarettes ammonia could be considered a significant design feature because of the potential influence on smoke chemistry.Published by Elsevier Inc.

Map & Directions

318 E Basin Rd New Castle, DE 19720
View Directions In Google Maps

Nearby Doctors

318 E Basin Rd
New Castle, DE 19720
302 232-2793
212 Cherry Ln
New Castle, DE 19720
302 986-6303
20 Chase Ave
New Castle, DE 19720
302 294-4000
575 S Dupont Hwy
New Castle, DE 19720
302 283-3330
1901 North Dupont Hwy
New Castle, DE 19720
302 552-2700
239 Christiana Rd
New Castle, DE 19720
302 277-7630
191 Christiana Rd Suite 1
New Castle, DE 19720
302 282-2656
2 Reads Way Suite 201
New Castle, DE 19720
302 094-4504
2 Reads Way Suite 201
New Castle, DE 19720
302 094-4486
2 Reads Way Suite 201
New Castle, DE 19720
302 094-4709