4900 Kelley Hwy
Fort Smith AR 72904
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Sexual orientation disparities in longitudinal alcohol use patterns among adolescents: findings from the Growing Up Today Study. - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
To compare sexual orientation group differences in the longitudinal development of alcohol use behaviors during adolescence.Community-based prospective cohort study.Self-reported questionnaires.A total of 13,450 Growing Up Today Study participants (79.7% of the original cohort) aged 9 to 14 years at baseline in 1996 were followed up for more than 7 years. Main Exposure Self-reported sexual orientation classified as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, or gay/lesbian.Age at alcohol use initiation, any past-month drinking, number of alcoholic drinks usually consumed, and number of binge drinking episodes in the past year.Compared with heterosexual participants, youth reporting any minority sexual orientation reported having initiated alcohol use at younger ages. Greater risk of alcohol use was consistently observed for mostly heterosexual males and females and for bisexual females, whereas gay and bisexual males and lesbians reported elevated levels of alcohol use on only some indicators. Gender was an important modifier of alcohol use risk; mostly heterosexual and bisexual females exhibited the highest relative risk. Younger age at alcohol use initiation among participants with minority sexual orientations significantly contributed to their elevated risk of binge drinking.Our findings suggest that disparities in alcohol use among youth with a minority sexual orientation emerge in early adolescence and persist into young adulthood. Health care providers should be aware that adolescents with a minority sexual orientation are at greater risk of alcohol use.
Subjective social status in the school and change in adiposity in female adolescents: findings from a prospective cohort study. - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
To determine whether subjective social standing in school predicts a change in body mass index (BMI) in adolescent girls during a 2-year period.Prospective cohort study.Self-report questionnaires from a community-based population of adolescent girls living across the United States from 1999 to 2001.Of 5723 girls aged 12 to 18 years participating in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), adequate information was available for 4446 (78%), who provided the analytic sample.Low subjective social status in the school.Change in BMI between 1999 and 2001 and multivariable odds ratio for a 2-U increase in BMI in girls with low subjective social status in the school compared with girls with higher subjective social status in the school.After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, baseline BMI, diet, television viewing, depression, global and social self-esteem, menarche, height growth, mother's BMI, and pretax household income, adolescent girls who placed themselves on the low end of the school subjective social status scale had a 69% increased odds of having a 2-unit increase in BMI (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.60) during the next 2 years compared with other girls.Higher subjective social standing in school may protect against gains in adiposity in adolescent girls.
Predictors of initiation of alcohol use among US adolescents: findings from a prospective cohort study. - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
To identify precursors of adolescent alcohol initiation and binge drinking.Prospective cohort study.Self-report questionnaires.A total of 5511 Growing Up Today Study participants aged 11 to 18 years in 1998. Main Exposures Individual, family, and social factors.First whole drink of alcohol and binge drinking.Between 1998 and 1999, 611 girls (19%) and 384 boys (17%) initiated alcohol use. Older age, later maturational stage, smoking, adults drinking in the home, underage sibling drinking, peer drinking, possession of or willingness to use alcohol promotional items, and positive attitudes toward alcohol were associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol initiation. Girls who ate family dinner at home every day were less likely to initiate alcohol use than girls who ate family dinner only on some days or never (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.87). Girls with higher social self-esteem and boys with higher athletic self-esteem were more likely to initiate alcohol use than those with lower self-esteem. Among teens who initiated alcohol use, 149 girls (24%) and 112 boys (29%) further engaged in binge drinking. Among girls, positive attitudes toward alcohol, underage sibling drinking, and possession of or willingness to use alcohol promotional items were associated with binge drinking; among boys, positive attitudes toward alcohol and older age were associated with binge drinking.Eating family dinner at home every day may delay alcohol uptake among some adolescents. Alcohol promotional items appear to encourage underage alcohol initiation and binge drinking; this may warrant marketing restrictions on the alcohol industry.
Household smoking restrictions and adolescent smoking. - American journal of health promotion : AJHP
To examine the association between household smoking restrictions and adolescent smoking, controlling for parental smoking, peer smoking, and tobacco marketing.Cross-sectional analysis of 1999 data from the Growing Up Today Study, a longitudinal cohort of adolescents.Self-report questionnaire.10,593 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years.The dependent variable was established smoking (smoking > or = 100 cigarettes). Variables of interest were household smoking restrictions, parental smoking, peer smoking, and tobacco promotional item (TPI) possession.Four percent of participants reported that their households permitted smoking. Parental smoking, peer smoking, and TPI possession were significantly associated with established smoking In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, peer smoking, and TPI possession, adolescent smoking was inversely related to the presence of a restrictive household policy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-0.93); however, when parental smoking was added to this model, the association was attenuated (OR = 0.94, CI = 0.65-1.35). When only one parent in the household smoked, smoking restrictions were more common when this parent was the father.Although household smoking restrictions offer health benefits, they do not appear to be associated with adolescent smoking after accounting for other factors. Prior studies did not include parental smoking, peer smoking, and marketing influences. This analytic difference may explain apparent contradictions in the literature.
Adolescent physical activity and perceived competence: does change in activity level impact self-perception? - The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
To determine whether change in physical activity level impacts adolescents' self-perceptions.Using questionnaire responses from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) in 1997 and 1999, we evaluated data from 5260 girls and 3410 boys. Physical activity changes were compared to changes in perceived competence in three domains (social, athletic, and scholastic) as well as in global self-worth. Analyses controlled for sibling clustering as well as for potential confounders, including body mass index, cigarette smoking, baseline activity levels, and baseline self-perception scores.For girls and boys, increase in physical activity was positively associated with change in social and athletic (p < .0001), but not scholastic or global, self-perception. Compared to those with little or no change in activity, those who increased physical activity were more likely to have increased self-perception measures. Girls who increased physical activity by 5 or more hours/week were at least 33% more likely to have increased social self-perception, and at least 44% more likely to have increased athletic self-perception. In boys, those who increased activity by 10 or more hours/week were 45% more likely to have increased social self-perception. The reverse was also true; for both girls and boys, those with decreased physical activity were more likely to have decreased self-perception scores.This research indicates that increased physical activity has a positive impact on athletic and social self-perception in girls and boys.
Sexual orientation, gender, and alcohol use in a cohort study of U.S. adolescent girls and boys. - Drug and alcohol dependence
Sexual minority youth may be at elevated risk for alcohol use relative to heterosexual youth, but the reasons underlying higher rates and whether there may be gender differences in risk are not known.Cross-sectional survey data from 9731 early and middle adolescent girls and boys in the Growing Up Today Study in 1999 were examined to assess sexual orientation and gender patterns in alcohol use. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between sexual orientation and alcohol-related behaviors, such as binge drinking and drinking before age 12 years. Models controlled for sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, with heterosexuals as the reference.Girls who described themselves as "mostly heterosexual" and lesbian/bisexual girls were at elevated risk compared to heterosexual girls on almost all alcohol-related behaviors and exposures. "Mostly heterosexual" boys were also at elevated risk. No significant differences in alcohol-related behaviors were observed between gay/bisexual and heterosexual boys. Gender-by-sexual orientation interactions were statistically significant for LGB but not other orientations, indicating that lesbian/bisexual girls experienced elevated risk above and beyond that of gay/bisexual boys relative to same-gender heterosexual peers.In early and middle adolescence, sexual minority girls and "mostly heterosexual" boys experienced consistent patterns of elevated risk for alcohol use.
State tobacco excise taxes and adolescent smoking behaviors in the United States. - Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP
The objective of the study described in this article was to examine the association between state cigarette excise taxes and smoking behaviors among youth in the United States. A survey was nationally mailed to adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study, an ongoing cohort of offspring of participants in the Nurses' Health Study II. A volunteer sample of 10,981 adolescent boy and girl participated in the Growing Up Today Study, who were 12 to 18 years old in 1999. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between state cigarette excise taxes (in quartiles) and experimentation (ever smoked) and established smoking (smoked at least 100 cigarettes in a lifetime). State tax levels in 1999 ranged from 2.5 to 100 cents. In a model that adjusted for age, gender, peer smoking, parental smoking, state clustering, state poverty level, and possession of tobacco promotional items, higher tax rates were associated with decreased odds of experimentation (test for trend p < 0.01). The highest quartile of tax (60-100 cents) was significantly associated with lower odds of experimentation (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98) and appeared protective against established smoking (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.49-1.29). This study provides recent evidence that higher state cigarette excise taxes are associated with decreased experimental smoking among adolescent boys and girls. Higher state cigarette taxes may also be associated with lower odds of established smoking in this age group, although the association appears to be attenuated by peer and parental smoking. These results support the inclusion of tobacco taxes in state tobacco control programs.
Sexual orientation and tobacco use in a cohort study of US adolescent girls and boys. - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
To examine sexual-orientation group disparities in tobacco use in adolescent girls and boys.Survey data from 10685 adolescent girls and boys participating in 1999 in the Growing Up Today Study were examined cross-sectionally.Community-based population of adolescents living throughout the United States. Main Outcome Measure Prevalence of tobacco use.Ninety-two percent of the participants described themselves as heterosexual (n = 9296), 5% as mostly heterosexual (n = 511), 1% as lesbian/gay/bisexual (n = 103), and 2% as unsure (n = 226). Ages ranged from 12 to 17 years. Compared with heterosexuals, mostly heterosexual girls were 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5), lesbian/bisexual girls were 9.7 (95% confidence interval, 5.1-18.4), and mostly heterosexual boys were 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.6) times more likely to smoke at least weekly. In contrast, gay/bisexual boys were not more likely to smoke. Findings persisted even when controlling for multiple sociodemographic and psychosocial covariates.Our findings indicate that mostly heterosexual adolescents of both sexes and lesbian/bisexual girls are at heightened risk for tobacco use.
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4900 Kelley Hwy Fort Smith, AR 72904
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