24911 Little Mack Ave Family Medical Cent, Ste C
Saint Clair Shores MI 48080
Medical School: Other - Unknown
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License #: 4301103299
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Doppler ultrasound of the central retinal artery in microgravity. - Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
Ocular changes have been noted during long-duration spaceflight; we studied central retinal artery (CRA) blood flow using Doppler before, during, and after long-term microgravity exposure in astronauts compared with data from a control group of nonastronauts subjected to head-down tilt (HDT).Available Doppler spectra of International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers were obtained from the NASA Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health database, along with 2D ultrasound-derived measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). CRA Doppler spectra and optic nerve sheath images were also obtained from healthy test subjects in an acute HDT experiment at 20 min of exposure (the ground-based analogue).HDT CRA peak systolic velocity in the ground-based analogue group increased by an average of 3 cm -s(-1) (33%) relative to seated values. ONSD at 300 of HDT increased by 0.5 mm relative to supine values. CRA Doppler spectra obtained on orbit were of excellent quality and demonstrated in-flight changes of +5 cm x s(-1) (50%) compared to preflight. ONSD increased in ISS crewmembers during flight relative to before flight, with some reversal postflight.A significant ONSD response to acute postural change and to spaceflight was demonstrated in this preliminary study. Increases in Doppler peak flow velocities correlated with increases in ONSD. Further investigations are warranted to corroborate the relationship between ONSD, intracranial pressure, and central retinal blood flow for occupational surveillance and research purposes.
Insulin stimulates the expression of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) by attenuating the repressive effect of Pit-1, Oct-1/Oct-2, and Unc-86 homeodomain protein octamer transcription factor-1. - Endocrinology
The carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) has been recognized as a key controller of hepatic lipogenesis. Whereas the function of ChREBP has been extensively investigated, mechanisms underlying its transcription remain largely unknown, although ChREBP production is elevated in a hyperinsulinemic mouse model. We located a conserved Pit-1, Oct-1/Oct-2, and Unc-86 (POU) protein binding site (ATGCTAAT) within the proximal promoter region of human ChREBP. This site interacts with the POU homeodomain protein octamer transcription factor-1 (Oct-1), as detected by gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Oct-1 cotransfection in the human HepG2 cell line repressed ChREBP promoter activity approximately 50-75% (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001), and this repression was dependent on the existence of the POU binding site. Furthermore, overexpression of Oct-1 repressed endogenous ChREBP mRNA and protein expression, whereas knockdown of Oct-1 expression, using a lentivirus-based small hairpin RNA approach, led to increased ChREBP mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, HepG2 cells treated with 10 or 100 nM insulin for 4 or 8 h resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase of ChREBP promoter activity (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). Insulin (10 nM) also stimulated endogenous ChREBP expression in HepG2 and primary hamster hepatocytes. More importantly, we found that the stimulatory effect of insulin on ChREBP promoter activity was dependent on the presence of the POU binding site, and insulin treatment reduced Oct-1 expression levels. Our observations therefore identify Oct-1 as a transcriptional repressor of ChREBP and suggest that insulin stimulates ChREBP expression via attenuating the repressive effect of Oct-1.
Adaptation to intermittent stress promotes maintenance of beta-cell compensation: comparison with food restriction. - American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Intermittent restraint stress delays hyperglycemia in ZDF rats better than pair feeding. We hypothesized that intermittent stress would preserve beta-cell mass through distinct mechanisms from food restriction. We studied temporal effects of intermittent stress on beta-cell compensation during pre-, early, and late diabetes. Six-week-old obese male ZDF rats were restraint-stressed 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 0, 3, 6, or 13 wk and compared with age-matched obese ZDF rats that had been food restricted for 13 wk, and 19-wk-old lean ZDF rats. Thirteen weeks of stress and food restriction lowered cumulative food intake 10-15%. Obese islets were fibrotic and disorganized and not improved by stress or food restriction. Obese pancreata had islet hyperplasia and showed evidence of neogenesis, but by 19 wk old beta-cell mass was not increased, and islets had fewer beta-cells that were hypertrophic. Both stress and food restriction partially preserved beta-cell mass at 19 wk old via islet hypertrophy, whereas stress additionally lowered alpha-cell mass. Concomitant with maintenance of insulin responses to glucose, stress delayed the sixfold decline in beta-cell proliferation and reduced beta-cell hypertrophy, translating into 30% more beta-cells per islet after 13 wk. In contrast, food restriction did not improve insulin responses or beta-cell hyperplasia, exacerbated beta-cell hypertrophy, and resulted in fewer beta-cells and greater alpha-cell mass than with stress. Thus, preservation of beta-cell mass with adaptation to intermittent stress is related to beta-cell hyperplasia, maintenance of insulin responses to glucose, and reductions in alpha-cell mass that do not occur with food restriction.
Adaptation to mild, intermittent stress delays development of hyperglycemia in the Zucker diabetic Fatty rat independent of food intake: role of habituation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. - Endocrinology
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity occurs in type 2 diabetes, and stress is assumed to play a causal role. However, intermittent restraint stress, a model mimicking some mild stressors, delays development of hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We examine whether such stress delays hyperglycemia independent of stress-induced reductions in hyperphagia and is due to adaptations in gene expression of HPA-related peptides and receptors that ameliorate corticosteronemia and thus hyperglycemia. ZDF rats were intermittently restraint stressed (1 h/d, 5 d/wk) for 13 wk and compared with obese control, pair fed, and lean ZDF rats. After 13 wk, basal hormones were repeatedly measured over 24 h, and HPA-related gene expression was assessed by in situ hybridization. Although restraint initially induced hyperglycemia, this response habituated over time, and intermittent restraint delayed hyperglycemia. This delay was partly related to 5-15% decreased hyperphagia, which was not accompanied by decreased arcuate nucleus NPY or increased POMC mRNA expression, although expression was altered by obesity. Obese rats demonstrated basal hypercorticosteronemia and greater corticosterone responses to food/water removal. Basal hypercorticosteronemia was further exacerbated after 13 wk of pair feeding during the nadir. Importantly, intermittent restraint further delayed hyperglycemia independent of food intake, because glycemia was 30-40% lower than after 13 wk of pair feeding. This may be mediated by increased hippocampal MR mRNA, reduced anterior pituitary POMC mRNA levels, and lower adrenal sensitivity to ACTH, thus preventing basal and stress-induced hypercorticosteronemia. In contrast, 24-h catecholamines were unaltered. Thus, rather than playing a causal role, intermittent stress delayed deteriorations in glycemia and ameliorated HPA hyperactivity in the ZDF rat.
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24911 Little Mack Ave Family Medical Cent, Ste C Saint Clair Shores, MI 48080
24911 Little Mack Ave Suite C
24911 Little Mack Ave
20225 E 9 Mile Rd Suite A
23800 Greater Mack Ave