3711 Long Beach Blvd Suite 600
Long Beach CA 90807
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ZYGOTIC EMBRYO CRYOPRESERVATION OF Calamus vattayila RENUKA, AN ENDANGERED RATTAN PALM OF INDIA, AS INFLUENCED BY SEED MATURITY. - Cryo letters
Calamus vattayila Renuka is an endemic and endangered rattan palm of the Western Ghats, India where the development of a protocol for cryopreservation is important for their ex situ conservation in gene banks.The objective of the study is to devise an efficient protocol for cryopreservation of the species, comparing the relative efficiency of seeds and zygotic embryos as storage material.Mature seeds extracted from ripened fruits were subjected to cryopreservation through a simple dehydration method and zygotic embryos isolated from seeds of three different maturity stages were cryopreserved through an encapsulation-dehydration method.The mature seeds did not tolerate desiccation and freezing but the isolated zygotic embryos tolerated both desiccation and freezing. Embryos isolated from immature, partially mature and mature seeds harvested respectively after 160-170, 210-220 and 250-260 days after flowering possessed 82 - 86% moisture content (m.c.) and tolerated desiccation down to 9% m.c. with 80% viability. Embryos from immature seeds gave a maximum 63+/-26% regeneration after LN exposure, which is nearly equal to the corresponding desiccated control (73%). LN tolerance declined with maturity of seeds with a maximum of 49% of embryos from partially mature seeds and 25% from mature seeds subjected to LN exposure showing post-freeze recovery and regeneration.Although immature seeds collected during February-March were recalcitrant (desiccation sensitivity), their embryos tolerated cryopreservation through encapsulation-dehydration better than embryos isolated from more mature seeds.
MeRy-B, a metabolomic database and knowledge base for exploring plant primary metabolism. - Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Plant primary metabolites are organic compounds that are common to all or most plant species and are essential for plant growth, development, and reproduction. They are intermediates and products of metabolism involved in photosynthesis and other biosynthetic processes. Primary metabolites belong to different compound families, mainly carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, steroids, or lipids. Until recently, unlike the Human Metabolome Database ( http://www.hmdb.ca ) dedicated to human metabolism, there was no centralized database or repository dedicated exclusively to the plant kingdom that contained information on metabolites and their concentrations in a detailed experimental context. MeRy-B is the first platform for plant (1)H-NMR metabolomic profiles (MeRy-B, http://bit.ly/meryb ), designed to provide a knowledge base of curated plant profiles and metabolites obtained by NMR, together with the corresponding experimental and analytical metadata. MeRy-B contains lists of plant metabolites, mostly primary metabolites and unknown compounds, with information about experimental conditions, the factors studied, and metabolite concentrations for 19 different plant species (Arabidopsis, broccoli, daphne, grape, maize, barrel clover, melon, Ostreococcus tauri, palm date, palm tree, peach, pine tree, eucalyptus, plantain rice, strawberry, sugar beet, tomato, vanilla), compiled from more than 2,300 annotated NMR profiles for various organs or tissues deposited by 30 different private or public contributors in September 2013. Currently, about half of the data deposited in MeRy-B is publicly available. In this chapter, readers will be shown how to (1) navigate through and retrieve data of publicly available projects on MeRy-B website; (2) visualize lists of experimentally identified metabolites and their concentrations in all plant species present in MeRy-B; (3) get primary metabolite list for a particular plant species in MeRy-B; and for a particular tissue (4) find information on a primary metabolite regardless of the species.
Water sorption studies of hybrid biofiber-reinforced natural rubber biocomposites. - Biomacromolecules
Hybrid biofibers (sisal and oil palm) were incorporated into natural rubber matrix. The water absorption characteristics of the composites were evaluated with reference to fiber loading. The influence of temperature on water sorption of the composites is also analyzed. Moisture uptake was found to be dependent on the properties of the biofibers. The mechanism of diffusion in the gum sample was found to be Fickian in nature, while in the loaded composites, it was non-Fickian. Sisal and oil palm fibers were subjected to different treatments such as mercerization and silanation. The effect of chemical modification on moisture uptake was also analyzed. Chemical modification was seen to decrease the water uptake in the composites. The thermodynamic parameters of the sorption process were also evaluated. Activation energy was found to be maximum for the gum sample.
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