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Influence of light exposure during early life on the age of onset of bipolar disorder. - Journal of psychiatric research
Environmental conditions early in life may imprint the circadian system and influence response to environmental signals later in life. We previously determined that a large springtime increase in solar insolation at the onset location was associated with a younger age of onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. This study investigated whether the hours of daylight at the birth location affected this association.Data collected previously at 36 collection sites from 23 countries were available for 3896 patients with bipolar I disorder, born between latitudes of 1.4 N and 70.7 N, and 1.2 S and 41.3 S. Hours of daylight variables for the birth location were added to a base model to assess the relation between the age of onset and solar insolation.More hours of daylight at the birth location during early life was associated with an older age of onset, suggesting reduced vulnerability to the future circadian challenge of the springtime increase in solar insolation at the onset location. Addition of the minimum of the average monthly hours of daylight during the first 3 months of life improved the base model, with a significant positive relationship to age of onset. Coefficients for all other variables remained stable, significant and consistent with the base model.Light exposure during early life may have important consequences for those who are susceptible to bipolar disorder, especially at latitudes with little natural light in winter. This study indirectly supports the concept that early life exposure to light may affect the long term adaptability to respond to a circadian challenge later in life.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Influence of birth cohort on age of onset cluster analysis in bipolar I disorder. - European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder: an international multisite study. - Journal of affective disorders
The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first episode.Data from 4037 patients with bipolar I disorder were collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries at latitudes spanning 3.2 north (N) to 63.4 N and 38.2 south (S) of the equator. The age of onset of the first episode, onset location, family history of mood disorders, and polarity of first episode were obtained retrospectively, from patient records and/or direct interview. Solar insolation data were obtained for the onset locations.There was a large, significant inverse relationship between maximum monthly increase in solar insolation and age of onset, controlling for the country median age and the birth cohort. The effect was reduced by half if there was no family history. The maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in springtime. The effect was one-third smaller for initial episodes of mania than depression. The largest maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in northern latitudes such as Oslo, Norway, and warm and dry areas such as Los Angeles, California.Recall bias for onset and family history data.A large springtime increase in sunlight may have an important influence on the onset of bipolar disorder, especially in those with a family history of mood disorders.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antidepressant dosage taken by patients with bipolar disorder: factors associated with irregularity. - International journal of bipolar disorders
This study analyzed regularity in the daily dosage of antidepressants taken by patients with bipolar disorder and identified the factors associated with irregularity.Daily self-reported medication dosage taken and mood ratings were available from 144 patients who received treatment as usual. All 144 patients took the same antidepressant for at least 100Â days. One hundred eleven of these patients were also taking a mood stabilizer. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was used to measure serial regularity in daily dosage. Regularity is the tendency that values within a time series remain the same on incremental comparisons. Drug holidays (missing three or more consecutive days) were also determined. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to estimate if any demographic or clinical variables were associated with regularity.Although the mean percent of days missing doses was only 18.6%, there was a wide range of regularity in the daily antidepressant dosage. Drug holidays were common, occurring in 41% of the analyses. Factors significantly associated with irregularity were as follows: total number of psychotropic medications (pâ€‰=â€‰0.005), pill burden (pâ€‰=â€‰0.005), and depression (pâ€‰=â€‰0.015). Neither the percent of days missing doses nor the drug holidays were associated with any demographic or clinical factors. For patients taking both antidepressants and mood stabilizers, there was no significant difference in regularity in daily dosage between these drugs.There can be considerable irregularity in daily dosage despite a low percent of days missing doses. Medication regimen complexity and depressed mood are associated with increased irregularity. Daily regularity in drug dosage may be more dependent on the individual than on the specific drug. Research on the clinical impact of irregularity in daily dosage of antidepressants is needed.
Drug treatment patterns in bipolar disorder: analysis of long-term self-reported data. - International journal of bipolar disorders
The objective of this study is to investigate drug treatment patterns in bipolar disorder using daily data from patients who received treatment as usual.Patients self-reported the drugs taken daily for about 6 months. Daily drug use and drug combinations were determined for each patient, both by the specific drugs and by medication class. The drug load was calculated for all drugs taken within a medication class.Four hundred fifty patients returned a total of 99,895 days of data (mean 222.0 days). The most frequently taken drugs were mood stabilizers. Of the 450 patients, 353 (78.4%) took a stable drug combination for â‰¥50% of days. The majority of patients were taking polypharmacy, including 75% of those with a stable combination. Only a small number of drugs were commonly taken within each medication class, but there were a large number of unique drug combinations: 52 by medication class and 231 by specific drugs. Eighty percent of patients with a stable combination were taking three or less drugs daily. Patients without a stable combination took drugs but made frequent changes. Taking more than one drug within a medication class greatly increased the drug load. To summarize, (1) patients were more likely to take a mood stabilizer than any other drug; (2) although most patients were taking polypharmacy, there were no predominant drug regimens even among those taking a stable combination; and (3) most patients with a stable combination take a relatively small number of drugs daily. The wide variation in drug regimens and numerous possible drug combinations suggest that more evidence is needed to optimize treatment of bipolar disorder.
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