2280 Wednesday Street
Tallahassee FL 32308
Medical School: Howard University College Of Medicine - 1993
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: Yes
Participates In EHR: No
License #: ME73488
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Awards & Recognitions
Dr. Karen Young is associated with these group practices
|HCPCS Code||Description||Average Price||Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
|HCPCS Code:66982||Description:Cataract surgery complex||Average Price:$2,500.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:66984||Description:Cataract surg w/iol 1 stage||Average Price:$2,000.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:65855||Description:Laser surgery of eye||Average Price:$800.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:66821||Description:After cataract laser surgery||Average Price:$600.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92083||Description:Visual field examination(s)||Average Price:$200.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92004||Description:Eye exam new patient||Average Price:$250.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92134||Description:Cptr ophth dx img post segmt||Average Price:$150.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92133||Description:Cmptr ophth img optic nerve||Average Price:$150.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92250||Description:Eye exam with photos||Average Price:$150.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92014||Description:Eye exam & treatment||Average Price:$200.18||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92020||Description:Special eye evaluation||Average Price:$100.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:92012||Description:Eye exam established pat||Average Price:$150.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:76519||Description:Echo exam of eye||Average Price:$100.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:76514||Description:Echo exam of eye thickness||Average Price:$40.00||Average Price Allowed
HCPCS Code Definitions
- Fundus photography with interpretation and report
- Scanning computerized ophthalmic diagnostic imaging, posterior segment, with interpretation and report, unilateral or bilateral; retina
- Ophthalmological services: medical examination and evaluation with initiation of diagnostic and treatment program; comprehensive, new patient, 1 or more visits
- Scanning computerized ophthalmic diagnostic imaging, posterior segment, with interpretation and report, unilateral or bilateral; optic nerve
- Visual field examination, unilateral or bilateral, with interpretation and report; extended examination (eg, Goldmann visual fields with at least 3 isopters plotted and static determination within the central 30°, or quantitative, automated threshold perimetry, Octopus program G-1, 32 or 42, Humphrey visual field analyzer full threshold programs 30-2, 24-2, or 30/60-2)
- Ophthalmic ultrasound, diagnostic; corneal pachymetry, unilateral or bilateral (determination of corneal thickness)
- Ophthalmic biometry by ultrasound echography, A-scan; with intraocular lens power calculation
- Extracapsular cataract removal with insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis (1 stage procedure), manual or mechanical technique (eg, irrigation and aspiration or phacoemulsification)
- Gonioscopy (separate procedure)
- Ophthalmological services: medical examination and evaluation, with initiation or continuation of diagnostic and treatment program; comprehensive, established patient, 1 or more visits
- Extracapsular cataract removal with insertion of intraocular lens prosthesis (1-stage procedure), manual or mechanical technique (eg, irrigation and aspiration or phacoemulsification), complex, requiring devices or techniques not generally used in routine cataract surgery (eg, iris expansion device, suture support for intraocular lens, or primary posterior capsulorrhexis) or performed on patients in the amblyogenic developmental stage
- Trabeculoplasty by laser surgery, 1 or more sessions (defined treatment series)
- Discission of secondary membranous cataract (opacified posterior lens capsule and/or anterior hyaloid); laser surgery (eg, YAG laser) (1 or more stages)
- Ophthalmological services: medical examination and evaluation, with initiation or continuation of diagnostic and treatment program; intermediate, established patient
Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical Board Sanctions
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Young has made to other doctors
CXCR4 Blockade Attenuates Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Rats. - Neonatology
Lung inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) modulate the inflammatory response. It is not known if antagonism of CXCR4 alleviates lung inflammation in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury.We aimed to determine whether CXCR4 antagonism would attenuate lung injury in rodents with experimental BPD by decreasing pulmonary inflammation.Newborn rats exposed to normoxia (room air, RA) or hyperoxia (FiO2 = 0.9) from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P16 were randomized to receive the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 or placebo (PL) from P5 to P15. Lung alveolarization, angiogenesis and inflammation were evaluated at P16.Compared to the RA pups, hyperoxic PL pups had a decrease in alveolarization, reduced lung vascular density and increased lung inflammation. In contrast, AMD3100-treated hyperoxic pups had improved alveolarization and increased angiogenesis. This improvement in lung structure was accompanied by a decrease in the macrophage and neutrophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity.CXCR4 antagonism decreases lung inflammation and improves alveolar and vascular structure in neonatal rats with experimental BPD. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate lung injury in preterm infants with BPD. Â© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid. - Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
Canine osteoarthritis is a common disorder seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. However, the low sample volumes obtained during arthrocentesis are often insufficient for performing an automated TNCC, thereby limiting diagnostic interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty-eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; the mean number of nucleated cells per 400â€‰Ã—â€‰field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately increased, or markedly increased) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by methodical manual counting of cells on direct smears.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice. - Endocrinology
Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of Î±-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low Î±-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug combination may be a well-tolerated novel therapeutic or preventive option for malignant PCC.
Stem cell factor improves lung recovery in rats following neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury. - Pediatric research
Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-kit, are modulators of angiogenesis. Neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury (HILI) is characterized by disordered angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous SCF improves recovery from neonatal HILI by improving angiogenesis.Newborn rats assigned to normoxia (RA: 20.9% O2) or hyperoxia (90% O2) from postnatal day (P) 2 to 15, received daily injections of SCF 100 Î¼g/kg or placebo (PL) from P15 to P21. Lung morphometry was performed at P28. Capillary tube formation in SCF-treated hyperoxia-exposed pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) was determined by Matrigel assay.As compared with RA, hyperoxic-PL pups had decrease in alveolarization and in lung vascular density, and this was associated with increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling. In contrast, SCF-treated hyperoxic pups had increased angiogenesis, improved alveolarization, and attenuation of pulmonary hypertension as evidenced by decreased RVSP, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling. Moreover, in an in vitro model, SCF increased capillary tube formation in hyperoxia-exposed HPMECs.Exogenous SCF restores alveolar and vascular structure in neonatal rats with HILI by promoting neoangiogenesis. These findings suggest a new strategy to treat lung diseases characterized by dysangiogenesis.
Chloride channel ClC-2 is a key factor in the development of DSS-induced murine colitis. - Inflammatory bowel diseases
Previously, it was shown that the chloride channel ClC-2 modulates intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ClC-2 in epithelial barrier function and recovery in the event of epithelial injury.The role of ClC-2 was investigated in TJ barrier function in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in ClC-2 knockout mice and ClC-2 knockdown intestinal Caco-2 cells. Barrier function was measured electrophysiologically and by transepithelial mannitol fluxes. Selected TJ and associated proteins were Western blotted, cytokines were measured using quantitative PCR, and human colonic biopsies were examined with immunohistochemistry.ClC-2 mice had a higher disease activity index, higher histological scores, and increased paracellular permeability compared with wild-type mice when treated with DSS. DSS-treated ClC-2 mice had increased claudin-2 expression, greater loss of occludin in the membrane, increased association of occludin with caveolin-1, and significantly increased tumor necrosis factor-Î± and interleukin-1Î² messenger RNA. ClC-2 knockdown in human intestinal Caco-2 cells resulted in a greater loss of epithelial resistance in the event of epithelial injury. The restoration of colonic barrier function after DSS colitis was delayed in ClC-2 mice. In human colonic biopsies, the protein and messenger RNA expression of ClC-2 was found to be reduced in patients with ulcerative colitis.ClC-2 plays a critical role in experimental colitis in that its absence increases disease activity, reduces barrier function and recovery, and perturbs TJs. Furthermore, ClC-2 expression is markedly reduced in the colon of human patients with ulcerative colitis.
Bone marrow-derived c-kit+ cells attenuate neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury. - Cell transplantation
Recent studies suggest that bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells have therapeutic efficacy in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury (HILI). c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor that regulates angiogenesis, is expressed on several populations of BM-derived cells. Preterm infants exposed to hyperoxia have decreased lung angiogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that administration of BM-derived c-kit(+) cells would improve angiogenesis in neonatal rats with HILI. To determine whether intratracheal (IT) administration of BM-derived c-kit(+) cells attenuates neonatal HILI, rat pups exposed to either normobaric normoxia (21% O2) or hyperoxia (90% O2) from postnatal day (P) 2 to P15 were randomly assigned to receive either IT BM-derived green fluorescent protein (GFP)(+) c-kit(-) cells (PL) or BM-derived GFP(+) c-kit(+) cells on P8. The effect of cell therapy on lung angiogenesis, alveolarization, pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodeling, cell proliferation, and apoptosis was determined at P15. Cell engraftment was determined by GFP immunostaining. Compared to PL, the IT administration of BM-derived c-kit(+) cells to neonatal rodents with HILI improved alveolarization as evidenced by increased lung septation and decreased mean linear intercept. This was accompanied by an increase in lung vascular density, a decrease in lung apoptosis, and an increase in the secretion of proangiogenic factors. There was no difference in pulmonary vascular remodeling or the degree of pulmonary hypertension. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that 1% of total lung cells were GFP(+) cells. IT administration of BM-derived c-kit(+) cells improves lung alveolarization and angiogenesis in neonatal HILI, and this may be secondary to an improvement in the lung angiogenic milieu.
"PhacoTracking": an evolving paradigm in ophthalmic surgical training. - JAMA ophthalmology
Motion analysis has been validated as a tool to evaluate surgical skill. We investigated a novel computer vision-based tool for the evaluation of surgical movements during cataract surgery. A prospective cohort analysis of 2 groups was performed. Ten videos of junior surgeons (ie, those with <200 cases) and 10 videos of senior surgeons (ie, those with >1000 cases) were analyzed. Movement parameters were measured over an entire procedure. Significant statistical differences were found between novice and expert surgeons for total path length (P = .002), number of movements (P = .05), and total time (P = .004). Our study has shown that computer vision-based motion analysis can be successfully applied to video recordings of cataract surgery to provide robust measurements of instrument motion. Further work needs to be done to evaluate its usefulness in training and feedback.
Impact of disinfectant-filled foot mats on mechanical transmission of bacteria in a veterinary teaching hospital. - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
To evaluate the efficacy of disinfectant-filled foot mats at reducing tracking of Salmonella enterica and overall bacterial contamination on floors in a veterinary teaching hospital.Prospective study. Samples-Bacteria collected from floors before and after placement of disinfectant-filled foot mats.Foot mats filled with a phenolic-based disinfectant were placed at key transition areas in common-use corridors between the large animal hospital (LAH) and small animal hospital in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Microbiological samples were collected for total bacterial counts and for the presence of S enterica at 14 designated sample sites in the veterinary medical teaching hospital. Samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 months before mat placement and for 13 months after mat placement.Median numbers of aerobic bacteria isolated before and after disinfectant mat placement were not significantly different for most sites sampled. For 3 of the 4 transition areas between the LAH and connecting common-use corridor, there was a significant difference in median bacterial counts on either side of the threshold. This difference was significant regardless of whether a disinfectant mat was present or not. Salmonella enterica isolates were cultured from several sites in the LAH and sites outside the LAH, irrespective of the presence of a disinfectant mat.-Disinfectant-filled mats may not be uniformly effective in reducing the bacterial load on floors or in reducing mechanical tracking of S enterica from contaminated areas in a veterinary teaching hospital. Further studies are needed to determine effective measures to reduce mechanical transmission of bacteria on footwear in veterinary hospitals.
Each to their own: skeletal muscles of different function use different biochemical strategies during aestivation at high temperature. - The Journal of experimental biology
Preservation of muscle morphology depends on a continuing regulatory balance between molecules that protect and molecules that damage muscle structural integrity. Excessive disruption of the biochemical balance that favours reactive oxygen species (ROS) in disused muscles may lead to oxidative stress, which in turn is associated with increased atrophic or apoptotic signalling and/or oxidative damage to the muscle and thus muscle disuse atrophy. Increases in the rate of oxygen consumption likely increase the overall generation of ROS in vivo. Temperature-induced increases in oxygen consumption rate occur in some muscles of ectotherms undergoing prolonged muscular disuse during aestivation. In the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata, both large jumping and small non-jumping muscles undergo atrophy seemingly commensurate with their rate of oxygen consumption during aestivation. However, because the extent of atrophy in these muscles is not enhanced at higher temperatures, despite a temperature-sensitive rate of oxygen consumption in the jumping muscle, we proposed that muscles are protected by biochemical means that, when mobilised at higher temperatures, inhibit atrophy. We proposed that the biochemical response to temperature would be muscle-specific. We examined the effect of temperature on the antioxidant and heat shock protein systems and determined the extent of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in two functionally different skeletal muscles, the gastrocnemius (jumping muscle) and the iliofibularis (non-jumping muscle), by aestivating frogs at 24 and 30Â°C for 6 months. We assayed small molecule antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial and cytosolic superoxide dismutase activities and Hsp70 concentrations to show that protective mechanisms in disused muscles are differentially regulated with respect to both temperature and aestivation. High aestivation temperature results in an antioxidant response in the metabolically temperature-sensitive jumping muscle. We assayed lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation to show that oxidative damage is apparent during aestivation and its pattern is muscle-specific, but unaffected by temperature. Consideration is given to how the complex responses of muscle biochemistry inform the different strategies muscles may use in regulating their oxidative environment during extended disuse and disuse at high temperature.
Long-term reparative effects of mesenchymal stem cell therapy following neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury. - Pediatric research
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy may prevent neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury (HILI). There are, however, no clear data on the therapeutic efficacy of MSC therapy in established HILI, the duration of the reparative effects, and the exact mechanisms of repair. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether the long-term reparative effects of a single intratracheal (IT) dose of MSCs or MSC-conditioned medium (CM) are comparable in established HILI.Newborn rats exposed to normoxia or hyperoxia from postnatal day (P)2)-P16 were randomized to receive IT MSCs, IT CM, or IT placebo (PL) on P9. Alveolarization and angiogenesis were evaluated at P16, P30, and P100.At all time periods, there were marked improvements in alveolar and vascular development in hyperoxic pups treated with MSCs or CM as compared with PL. This was associated with decreased expression of inflammatory mediators and an upregulation of angiogenic factors. Of note, at P100, the improvements were more substantial with MSCs as compared with CM.These data suggest that acute effects of MSC therapy in HILI are mainly paracrine mediated; however, optimum long-term improvement following HILI requires treatment with the MSCs themselves or potentially repetitive administration of CM.
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2280 Wednesday Street Tallahassee, FL 32308
1609 Physicians Drive
3401 Capital Cir Ne
1908 Miccosukee Rd Rick Levy Phd
3334 Capital Medical Blvd Ste 400
2626 Capital Medical Blvd