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A Method for Accurate Reconstructions of the Upper Airway Using Magnetic Resonance Images. - PloS one
The purpose of this study is to provide an optimized method to reconstruct the structure of the upper airway (UA) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can faithfully show the anatomical structure with a smooth surface without artificial modifications.MRI was performed on the head and neck of a healthy young male participant in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes to acquire images of the UA. The level set method was used to segment the boundary of the UA. The boundaries in the three scanning planes were registered according to the positions of crossing points and anatomical characteristics using a Matlab program. Finally, the three-dimensional (3D) NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surface of the UA was constructed using the registered boundaries in all three different planes.A smooth 3D structure of the UA was constructed, which captured the anatomical features from the three anatomical planes, particularly the location of the anterior wall of the nasopharynx. The volume and area of every cross section of the UA can be calculated from the constructed 3D model of UA.A complete scheme of reconstruction of the UA was proposed, which can be used to measure and evaluate the 3D upper airway accurately.
An Opposite Pattern to the Conventional Thermal Hypothesis: Temperature-Dependent Variation in Coloration of Adults of Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae). - PloS one
Melanism is a common polymorphism in many insect species that also influences immune function. According to the thermal melanin hypothesis, ectothermic individuals from cooler environments have darker cuticles and higher polyphenol oxidase (PO) levels, which represent a better immunocompetence. In this study, the links among environmental temperature, melanism, and PO activity of Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) were examined. Most S. procerus have a black spot on their forewings at high temperatures in the field and in the laboratory. In PO activity assay, a positive association between PO level and temperature was found. Our results showed that a diversification of melanism occurred under different temperatures and that melanism in S. procerus presented an opposite pattern to the one proposed by the thermal hypothesis.
Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c for the detection of diabetes in Chinese adults. - Journal of diabetes
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of plasma glucose (PG) and HbA1c for the detection of diabetes in the general population in China.A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 98â€‰658 Chinese adults aged â‰¥18 years. Fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels were measured in all participants after at least a 10-h overnight fast. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted among participants without a self-reported history of diagnosed diabetes.An HbA1c â‰¥6.5% could identify 4.57% of Chinese adults as having newly detected diabetes, followed by fasting PG (FPG) and 2-h PG at 4.52% and 3.50%, respectively. Approximately 1.95% of the total population was detected by HbA1c but not by FPG or 2-h PG. However, FPG plus HbA1c could identify most (85.2%) diabetic individuals identified by any of the three tests (i.e. FPG, 2-h PG, and HbA1c). Levels of most cardiovascular risk factors, such as body mass index, waist circumference, and cholesterol, were higher in diabetes detected by HbA1c alone than in diabetes identified by the OGTT.Although HbA1c â‰¥6.5% has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association as one of the diagnostic tests for diabetes, caution should be used to avoid potential overdiagnosis when interpreting diabetes identified by elevated HbA1c alone.Â© 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction of main vessels in hemangiomas. - International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
This study aimed to investigate three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of the main vessel architecture of human hemangioma. Serial sections of specimens from three cases of children hemangioma were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to visualize the vessels. Serial images were taken and processed with computer-assisted 3-D reconstruction. Partial 3-D structure reconstruction of vessel morphology in hemangioma revealed strange distribution and branching, which were different from normal vessels of the human skin. The 3-5 microvascular was most common in hemangioma. We observed respective characteristics of three cases: 1 case showed uniform artery vein distribution accompanied by running trend; 1 case showed main artery distribution and less vein distribution, and there were many blood sinus in the shallow surface close to the skin; another case showed vein distribution in the middle of antrum. In conclusion, digital vascular model of 3-D structure of main vessel hemangioma provides a new way for the diagnosis and treatment of hemangioma of children.
Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. - Restorative neurology and neuroscience
Purpose: Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Methods: We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. Results: The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Conclusions: Our results indicate "cross-modal" plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.
[Comparison of dietary survey, frequency and 24 hour urinary Na methods in evaluation of salt intake in the population]. - Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
To compare the difference and correlation between dietary salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method.All 2 184 subjects aged 18 to 69 were selected by multi stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Shandong province in June to September, 2011. Dietary salt intakes were measured by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. The information on gender, age, dining locations and labour intensity of members dining at home for 3 days were recorded. And the dietary habits were surveyed by questionnaire.Salt intakes were 14.0, 12.0 and 10.5 g/d assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method were 2.0 g (14.3% undervalued) and 3.4 g (24.3% undervalued) less, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, the proportion of individuals with salt intake over-reported and under-reported were 42.4% (856/2 020) and 55.3% (1 117/2 020) by food weighted record method, and were 20.7% (418/2 020) and 16.3% (329/2 020) by food frequency questionnaire method, respectively; the proportion of individuals with salt intakes within Â± 25% of 24 hours urinary Na method were 36.9% (745/2 020) and 28.4% (574/2 020), respectively. Salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary method correlated significantly with both salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method; the correlation coefficients were 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. With the increasing of salt intakes by subjects' self-judgment, salt intakes were all rising significantly using three survey methods. Salt intakes of three group population of light, moderate and partial taste salty were 13.6, 13.6 and 14.7 g/d by 24 hours urinary Na method (F = 0.47, P < 0.05); 11.0, 12.0 and 12.7 g/d by food weighted record method (F = 5.83, P < 0.05), and 9.3, 10.2 and 11.9 g/d by food frequency questionnaire method (F = 5.83, P < 0.05), respectively.Comparing with 24 hours urinary method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method would undervalue dietary salt intake. Salt intake status can be more accurately assessed by adjusting the underestimation rate.
Comparative study of two thioredoxins from common cutworm (Spodoptera litura): cloning, expression, and functional characterization. - Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes that are involved in protecting organisms against various oxidative stresses. Here, we cloned and characterized two thioredoxins, named SlTrx1 and SlTrx2, from the common cutworm Spodoptera litura. SlTrx1 and SlTrx2, respectively, consist of 988 and 606 bp full-length cDNA with 318 and 447 bp open reading frames encoding 106 and 149 amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal region of SlTrx2 contains a predicted mitochondrial localization signal (33 amino acids). A phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that SlTrx1 is in the cytosolic thioredoxin Trx1 cluster, whereas SlTrx2 is in the mitochondrial thioredoxin Trx2 cluster. Recombinant SlTrx1 (14 kDa) and SlTrx2 (16 kDa), expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells, demonstrated insulin disulfide reductase activity at the same optimum temperature and pH value of 35 Â°C and 7.0, respectively, in vitro. During S. litura development, we found that SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 had similar transcript expression patterns and were constitutively expressed in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut, with the highest expression occurring in the sixth-instar larval stage in the epidermis and midgut. In addition, both SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 mRNA were up-regulated in S. litura after injection with H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide, indoxacarb, and metaflumizone. These results suggest that SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 function as potent antioxidant enzymes, and provide a molecular basis for the roles SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 during development and the oxidative stress response of S. litura.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Altered amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation in primary open-angle glaucoma: a resting-state FMRI study. - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
To analyze the altered amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of the brain using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Resting-state fMRI was conducted in 21 POAG patients and 22 age-matched healthy control subjects. After the ALFF and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) for slow 4 and slow 5 bands were calculated, the results between POAG patients and healthy controls were compared. Then the correlations between ALFF/fALFF values and the disease stage of POAG were analyzed.Compared with controls, POAG patients showed significantly decreased ALFF/fALFF values in the visual cortices, posterior regions of the default-mode network (DMN), and motor and sensory cortices. Meanwhile, ALFF/fALFF values in the prefrontal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), right middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) significantly increased in POAG patients. Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish (HAP) score for POAG was positively correlated with ALFF values of the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and negatively correlated with that of the left cuneus. For the slow 5 band, the fALFF values of the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG) of POAG patients were negatively correlated with HAP score.Primary open-angle glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease involving multiple brain regions, including the visual cortices, DMN, limbic system, and motor and sensory networks. Moreover, the alterations in some of these networks are correlated with the progression of POAG; for the abnormal spontaneous neural activities in the left cuneus, bilateral MTG and right prefrontal cortex are correlated with glaucoma severity.Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
[Study on the relationship between BMI and the risk of cardiovascular among Chinese adults]. - Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese adult population.98 271 subjects aged 18 years or over were recruited from 162 surveillance points around 31 provinces in China's mainland in 2010, under a complex multistage stratified sampling method. The survey included face-to-face interview, physical measurement and laboratory testing, to collect information related to the prevalence of risk factors as smoking, drinking, diet and physical activities as well as the prevalence of main chronic disease as hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. 24 kg/m(2)â‰¤BMI<28 kg/m(2) was defined as overweight and BMIâ‰¥28 kg/m(2) was defined as obese. After a complex weighting on the sample, level and proportion of cardiovascular risk factors in groups of different BMI were analyzed.The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 30.6% (95%CI:29.5%-31.7%) and 12.0% (95%CI:11.0%-12.9%) and were significantly higher in men for overweight (Ï‡(2) = 16.09, P < 0.001) and those aged 45-65 years old for both overweight and obesity (Ï‡(2) values were 485.17 and 112.23 both P < 0.001), respectively. The levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting blood insulin (FBI) showed a significantly increase on BMI and were seen higher in overweight (F values were 4 056.19, 6 860.70, 3 898.91, 1 624.73, 2 337.21, 2 558.01, 1 049.01 and 1 665.52, with both Ps< 0.001)respectively and obese participants (F values were 5 628.68, 9 949.81, 5 508.77, 1 656.34, 2 452.05, 2 365.92, 1 441.72 and 6 081.27, respectively; all Ps<0.001). The prevalence rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance and clustering of cardiovascular disease showed a significantly increase on BMI and were higher in overweight (Ï‡(2) values were 704.70, 521.86, 431.35, 449.13 and 686.83, both Ps<0.001), and obese participants (Ï‡(2) values were 113.45, 645.03, 1 063.30, 1 547.86 and 1 909.66, both Ps<0.001), respectively. After adjustment for age and gender, participants with 24 kg/m(2) â‰¤BMI<28 kg/m(2) and BMIâ‰¥28 kg/m(2) increased the risks of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance and clustering of cardiovascular disease by 2.5/5.5, 2.2/3.4, 1.8/2.9, 2.9/8.2 and 3.3/8.9 times than participants with BMI<28 kg/m(2), respectively.The risk of cardiovascular disease parallelly increased with BMI among Chinese adults. Rational control on BMI should be viewed as priority on chronic disease prevention and control.
Expression of cadherin 17 in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. - Histopathology
Cadherin 17 (CDH17) is expressed primarily in normal intestinal epithelium and digestive tract tumours, and has limited expression in other neoplasms. The aims of this study were to examine CDH17 expression in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (WDNETs) from various primary sites, representing the foregut, midgut, and hindgut, and tumours metastasizing to the liver, and to correlate the differences between the expression of CDH17, CDX2, and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1).We investigated CDH17 immunohistochemical expression in 150 primary WDNETs from eight anatomical sites, including 68 from the foregut, 70 from the midgut, and 12 from the hindgut, and 15 metastases. CDH17 immunoreactivity increased significantly from foregut to hindgut WDNETs (P < 0.0001). Pancreatic WDNETs expressed CDH17 at a significantly higher frequency than other foregut tumours. Within the midgut, appendiceal and small-intestinal WDNETs were more frequently positive for CDH17 than for CDX2. All hindgut WDNETs expressed CDH17, in contrast to CDX2 (positive in one rectal case). CDH17 expression in liver metastases was similar to that of the primary tumours.This study is the first to comprehensively examine CDH17 expression in WDNETs from different sites. CDH17 is a sensitive marker for midgut WDNETs, and the CDH17+/CDX2-/TTF1- phenotype was found to be sensitive (92%) and specific (91%) for hindgut WDNETs.Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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