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The influence of gender and age on the thickness and echo-density of skin. - Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
The more recent use of ultrasound scanning allows a direct measurement on unmodified skin, and is considered to be a reliable method for in vivo measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of gender and age on the thickness and echo-density of skin measured by high frequency ultrasonography (HFUS).This study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers (17 female, 13 male) with age range of 24-61 years old. The thickness and echo-density of dermis as well as epidermal entrance echo thickness in five anatomic sites (cheek, neck, palm, dorsal foot, and sole) were measured using two different types of B mode HFUS, 22 and 50 MHz frequencies.The epidermal entrance echo thickness and thickness of dermis in males were higher than females, which was statistically significant on neck and dorsum of foot. The echo-density of dermis was higher in females on all sites, but was only statistically significant on neck. The epidermal entrance echo thickness and thickness of dermis in young age group was statistically higher than old group on sole and dorsal of the foot respectively. Overall, the skin thickness decreased with age.High frequency ultrasonography method provides a simple non-invasive method for evaluating the skin thickness and echo-density. Gender and age have significant effect on these parameters. Differences in study method, population, and body site likely account for different results previously reported.Â© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Safety assessment of tretinoin loaded nano emulsion and nanostructured lipid carriers: a non-invasive trial on human volunteers. - Current drug delivery
Topical application of tretinoin (TRE) is followed by a high incidence of side effects. One method to overcome the problem is loading TRE into lipid nanoparticles. The potential safety of the nanoparticle materials has been always considered as a major concern. In this in vivo study, changes in human skin biophysical parameters including hydration, TEWL, erythema, and pH have been used to determine the safety of tretinoin loaded nano emulsion (NE) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC).TRE loaded NE and NLC were prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. Skin biophysical parameters were measured on the volar forearms of twenty healthy volunteers, before and after applying TRE-NE and TRE-NLC lotions. All the measurements were done using respective probes of MPA 580CutometerÂ®.We obtained particles of nanometric size (Ë‚130 nm) with narrow distribution and optimal physical stability. None of the formulations made any statistically significant change in any of the measured skin properties. P-values were 0.646, 0.139, 0.386, 0.169 after applying TRE-NE and 0.508, 0.051, 0.139, 0.333 after applying TRE-NLC, respectively.Both formulations are reasonably safe for applying on human skin and topical application of TRE-NE and TRE-NLC had almost similar effects on skin biophysical parameters.
Treatment of atrophic facial acne scars with fractional Er:YAG laser in skin phototype III-IV: A pilot study. - Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Fractional ablative lasers have recently been used for the treatment of skin scars. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser (2940 nm) in the treatment of skin scars.A total of 9 patients (8 female, 1 male) with Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV suffering from atrophic facial acne scars were treated with a fractional Er:YAG laser for 2-5 (mean 3.3) sessions 4-6 weeks apart. One independent investigator assessed the efficacy, using standardized photographs, before and 1 month after the last treatment. The patients' satisfaction rate was also evaluated.The treatment was well tolerated by all patients without any anesthesia. The downtime was 2-3 days. All patients showed improvement in scars: excellent in 1, good in 1, and fair in 7 patients. Six patients were highly satisfied and 3 were satisfied with treatment. No adverse effect was noted.A fractional Er:YAG laser can deliver an effective and minimally invasive treatment for acne scars.
Nano-Sized Technologies for Miconazole Skin Delivery. - Current pharmaceutical biotechnology
Various nano-based strategies for increasing the efficiency of topical drugs have offered the potential advantage of miconazole skin delivery. Miconazole nitrate is an antifungal drug with a drawback of poor skin-penetration in the treatment of deep seated fungal skin infections. Drug entrapment in nanoparticles such as ethosome, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nano structured lipid carriers (NLCs) can facilitate localized drug delivery and remove the skin barriers for an efficient drug delivery. Different nano-formulations have been recently examined for the controlled release, retention and permeation enhancement of miconazole in skin. The present overview focuses on novel nano-based formulation approaches employed to improve miconazole penetration through skin for the treatment of fungal infections.
Novel drug delivery strategies for improving econazole antifungal action. - International journal of pharmaceutics
Econazole is a commonly used azole antifungal in clinical treatment of superficial fungal infections. It is generally used as conventional cream and gel preparations under the brand names of Spectazole (United States), Ecostatin (Canada), Pevaryl (Western Europe). Treatment efficiency of antifungal drugs depends on their penetration through target layers of skin at effective concentrations. Econazole's poor water solubility limits its bioavailability and antifungal effects. Therefore, formulation strategies have been examined for delivering econazole through targeted skin sites. The present overview focuses on novel nano-based formulation approaches used to improve econazole penetration through skin for treatment of superficial fungal infections.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis. - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals.To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis.We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions.Two review authors independently searched for trials and extracted data from included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach.We included 14 RCTs that evaluated a range of interventions across different settings. The study methods were generally poorly described, and consequently all included trials were judged to be at high or unclear risk of selection and reporting bias. Only seven trials reported clinical outcome data which limits our ability to make broad generalizations to different epidemiological settings and cultures. Cutaneous leishmaniasisOne four-arm RCT from Afghanistan compared indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and insecticide-treated bedsheets, with no intervention. Over 15 months follow-up, all three insecticide-based interventions had a lower incidence of CL than the control area (IRS: risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.97, 2892 participants, moderate quality evidence; ITNs: RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.56, 2954 participants, low quality evidence; ITS: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.57, 2784 participants, low quality evidence). No difference was detected between the three interventions (low quality evidence). One additional trial of ITNs from Iran was underpowered to show a difference.Insecticide treated curtains were compared with no intervention in one RCT from Venezuela, where there were no CL episodes in the intervention areas over 12 months follow-up compared to 142 in control areas (RR 0.00, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.49, one trial, 2938 participants, low quality evidence).Personal protection using insecticide treated clothing was evaluated by two RCTs in soldiers, but the trials were underpowered to reliably detect effects on the incidence of CL (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.20, two trials, 558 participants, low quality evidence). Visceral leishmaniasisIn a single RCT of ITNs versus no intervention from India and Nepal, the incidence of VL was low in both groups and no difference was detected (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.15, one trial, 19,810 participants, moderate quality evidence).Two trials from Brazil evaluated the effects of culling infected dogs compared to no intervention or IRS. Although they report a reduction in seroconversion over 18 months follow-up, they did not measure or report effects on clinical disease.Using insecticides to reduce phlebotomine sandfly numbers may be effective at reducing the incidence of CL, but there is insufficient evidence from trials to know whether it is better to spray the internal walls of houses or to treat bednets, curtains, bedsheets or clothing.
Systemic lupus erythematosus cardiomyopathyâ€”a case series demonstrating a reversible form of left ventricular dysfunction. - Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
Myocarditis is reported to be a common postmortem finding of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, most case reports on SLE cardiomyopathy (CM) have not found evidence of myocarditis upon biopsy. Our aim was to characterize the nature, course, and reversibility of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with SLE.The records of 526 SLE patients were reviewed. Patients were included if: (1) at least 4 of 11 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE were met, (2) testing for erythrocyte sedimentation rate and hs-CRP were performed during hospitalization, and (3) echocardiogram demonstrated left ventricular ejection function (LVEF) <50%.We identified 14 patients meeting study criteria. Mean LVEF was 33.1 Â± 9% upon presentation. The main echocardiographic pattern observed was generalized hypokinesis. Twelve patients demonstrated reversal of cardiomyopathy within 1 week, showing a mean improvement in LVEF of 21.0 Â± 7%. Of these, 2 patients underwent coronary angiography demonstrating no evidence of obstructive coronary disease, and 1 underwent cardiac biopsy with no evidence of myocarditis. Four patients (29%) demonstrated improvement within 3 days. Two of the 14 patients died due to their underlying medical illness and did not have a repeat echocardiogram.The pattern of wall-motion abnormalities and reversibility demonstrated in the majority of these patients with SLE suggests an etiology more consistent with stress cardiomyopathy rather than myocarditis.
The effects of water exposure on biophysical properties of normal skin. - Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
Water exposure is an influential factor in some common dermatoses. It has also been shown that water has an effect on barrier function and biophysical properties of skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water immersion on biophysical properties of normal skin.Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this study. The volar aspect of volunteer's forearm was immersed in tap water for 30 min a day for five consecutive days. Biophysical skin parameters including TEWL, skin pH, capacitance, erythema and sebum content were measured using specific probes before and after the exposure and compared with unexposed other forearm as control.TEWL and pH of the exposed forearm increased significantly after 5 days of consecutive daily exposure to water.Water exposure increases the TEWL and pH of normal skin. Future studies evaluating the durability of the increased TEWL through monitoring the time course of events following skin immersion in water and susceptibility of skin to chemical irritants are required.Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Development of a highly sensitive and selective mercury optical sensor based on immobilization of bis(thiophenal)-4,4'-methylenedianiline on a PVC membrane. - Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications
A reversible optical sensor was fabricated for highly sensitive and selective determination of Hg(II) ions. The optode was prepared using a newly synthesized ionophore, bis(thiophenal)-4,4'-methylenedianiline, and ETH-5294 as a lipophilic H(+)-selective indicator in a plasticized PVC membrane. Different variables affect the optical signal such as pH and compositions of the membrane components were optimized. The spectrophotometric method (Î»max 662 nm) was used for the determination of Hg(II). Under the optimum conditions, the optode has a wide linear dynamic range of 2.51Ã—10(-13) to 1.02Ã—10(-5) mol L(-1) Hg(II) with a detection limit as low as 3.43Ã—10(-14) mol L(-1) and a response time of 90 s (for a highly diluted solution). The influence of potential interference ions on the Hg(II) determination was studied. The results showed that the prepared optical sensor was highly selective to Hg(II) ions so that it had no significant response to a wide variety of common metal ions. The response of the optode to Hg(II) is completely reversible and was lucratively applied for the determination of Hg(II) in different real samples.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Assessment of efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on infraorbital dark circles and crow's feet wrinkles. - Journal of cosmetic dermatology
Infraorbital skin hyperpigmentation, commonly called dark circles, and crow's feet wrinkles are common cosmetic concerns. Various methods of treatment have been evaluated with variable outcomes.This study was performed to assess the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection for treating periorbital dark circles and crow's feet.Ten participants with a mean age of 41.2Â years were treated in a single session with intradermal injections of 1.5Â mL PRP into tear trough area and crow's feet wrinkles on each side. The effects on melanin content, color homogeneity of the treated area, epidermal stratum corneum hydration, and wrinkle volume and visibility index were compared 3Â months after treatment with baseline. Physician's global assessment and participants' satisfaction and any potential side effects were also assessed.The improvement in infraorbital color homogeneity was statistically significant (PÂ =Â 0.010), but no statistically significant changes were observed in melanin content, stratum corneum hydration, wrinkle volume, and visibility index. Participant's satisfaction score and physician's global assessment score were 2.2 and 1.7, respectively, on a 0-3 scale.Platelet-rich plasma may have the potential to improve infraorbital dark circle in terms of color homogeneity of the region, though this remains to be proven using larger, controlled studies using multiple injections.Â© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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