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STEMI notification by EMS predicts shorter door-to-balloon time and smaller infarct size. - The American journal of emergency medicine
Emergency medical services (EMS) transportation is associated with shorter door-to-balloon (DTB) time in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In addition to EMS transportation, prehospital notification of STEMI by EMS to receiving hospital might be able to further shorten DTB time. We evaluated the impact of STEMI notification on DTB time as well as infarct size.We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with anterior wall STEMI who underwent emergent coronary angiography. We excluded patients who presented with cardiac arrest and those who were transferred from non-percutaneous coronary intervention-capable hospitals. Mode of transportation were categorized into the 3 groups: (1) EMS transport with STEMI notification, (2) EMS transport without STEMI notification, and (3) self-transport. Baseline characteristics, laboratory data, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and DTB time were compared among the 3 groups.A total of 148 patients were included in the final analysis. Of the 148 patients, 56 patients arrived by EMS transport with STEMI notification, 56 patients arrived by EMS transport without STEMI notification, and 36 patients arrived by self-transport. Patients who arrived by EMS transport with STEMI notification had the shortest DTB time among the 3 groups. Patients who arrived by EMS transport with STEMI notification had smaller infarct size, as indicated by lower peak creatine kinase value and higher LVEF, compared with those who arrived by EMS transport without STEMI notification.Emergency medical services transport with STEMI notification was associated with shorter DTB time and smaller infarct size in patients with anterior wall STEMI.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Screening Utility of the King-Devick Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease Dementia. - Alzheimer disease and associated disorders
The King-Devick (K-D) test is a 1 to 2 minute, rapid number naming test, often used to assist with detection of concussion, but also has clinical utility in other neurological conditions (eg, Parkinson disease). The K-D involves saccadic eye and other eye movements, and abnormalities thereof may be an early indicator of Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated cognitive impairment. No study has tested the utility of the K-D in AD and we sought to do so. The sample included 206 [135 controls, 39 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 32 AD dementia] consecutive subjects from the Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center registry undergoing their initial annual evaluation between March 2013 and July 2015. The K-D was administered during this period. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves generated from logistic regression models revealed the K-D test distinguished controls from subjects with cognitive impairment (MCI and AD dementia) [area under the curve (AUC)=0.72], MCI (AUC=0.71) and AD dementia (AUC=0.74). K-D time scores between 48 and 52 seconds were associated with high sensitivity (>90.0%) and negative predictive values (>85.0%) for each diagnostic group. The K-D correlated strongly with validated attention, processing speed, and visual scanning tests. The K-D test may be a rapid and simple effective screening tool to detect cognitive impairment associated with AD.
Mini Mental State Examination and Logical Memory scores for entry into Alzheimer's disease trials. - Alzheimer's research & therapy
Specific cutoff scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Logical Memory (LM) test are used to determine inclusion in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials and diagnostic studies. These screening measures have known psychometric limitations, but no study has examined the diagnostic accuracy of the cutoff scores used to determine entry into AD clinical trials and diagnostic studies.ClinicalTrials.gov entries were reviewed for phases II and III active and recruiting AD studies using the MMSE and LM for inclusion. The diagnostic accuracy of MMSE and LM-II cutoffs used in AD trials and diagnostic studies was examined using 23,438 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD dementia derived from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database.MMSE and LM cutoffs used in current AD clinical trials and diagnostic studies had limited diagnostic accuracy, particularly for distinguishing between normal cognition and MCI, and MCI from AD dementia. The MMSE poorly discriminated dementia stage.The MMSE and LM may result in inappropriate subject enrollment in large-scale, multicenter studies designed to develop therapeutics and diagnostic methods for AD.
Predictors of H1N1 vaccination in pregnancy. - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
The purpose of this review was to determine factors that influence a pregnant woman's acceptance of the H1N1 vaccine with the use of the Health Belief Model (HBM). A self-administered questionnaire based on the HBM was used in a cross-sectional study of postpartum women during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic. Overall, 212 postpartum women were approached and agreed to participate; of these women, 25.5% had received an H1N1 vaccination. Perceived barriers to vaccination (P = .001) and perceived severity of infection (P = .018) were independent predictors of vaccination. The total predictive utility of the full model that incorporated HBM dimensions, age, race, care provider, and education level was moderate (area under the curve, -0.86). The addressing of perceived barriers (such as fear of side-effects), an explanation of the safety of the vaccine for the fetus, and the stressing of complications that are associated with H1N1 infection in pregnancy may increase the rate of vaccination.Copyright Â© 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. - Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
To examine differences in lower-extremity function in cognitive healthy older persons, older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and older persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Descriptive study.University Alzheimer's disease clinical and research program.Older persons (N=66) were studied (mean age, 76.7y); 22 were cognitively normal, 22 were diagnosed with probable MCI, 22 were diagnosed with probable AD.Not applicable.Lower-extremity function was assessed by the four-meter walk test (4MWT), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and sit-to-stand (STS) test.Analysis of variance, adjusting for covariates, revealed that performance on the 4MWT was significantly lower in the MCI and AD groups as compared with controls. TUG test performance was worse in the AD group compared with controls. No significant group differences were found for STS performance.These results suggest an association between cognitive impairment and lower-limb function in older persons. Walking speed could be evaluated for its possible utility in screening older persons at risk for cognitive impairment and falls.Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clock drawing test ratings by dementia specialists: interrater reliability and diagnostic accuracy. - The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
The authors conducted a study of clock drawing test scoring by dementia specialists to determine interrater reliability and diagnostic accuracy. The authors randomly assigned 25 clocks from each of six predetermined groups based on consensus diagnosis (cognitive comparison subjects, subjects with a memory complaint but with normal neuropsychological testing, subjects with probable and possible mild cognitive impairment, and subjects with possible and probable Alzheimer's disease) to dementia specialists for blinded scoring using a binary yes/no impairment system and a 0-10 scale as subjectively determined by each individual clinician rater. The authors collapsed the six groups into three (comparison subjects, mild cognitive impairment patients, and Alzheimer's disease patients) and analyzed interrater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity for consensus diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The authors found excellent interrater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity for predicting consensus diagnosis. The 0-10 clock drawing test rating scale was more predictive of consensus diagnosis than the binary impairment scale. Based on rating systems, clock drawing test scoring by dementia clinicians had excellent interrater reliability and sensitivity for differentiating the mild Alzheimer's disease subjects from comparison subjects.
Mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in transgenic rabbits with long QT syndrome. - The Journal of clinical investigation
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heritable disease associated with ECG QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden cardiac death in young patients. Among genotyped individuals, mutations in genes encoding repolarizing K+ channels (LQT1:KCNQ1; LQT2:KCNH2) are present in approximately 90% of affected individuals. Expression of pore mutants of the human genes KCNQ1 (KvLQT1-Y315S) and KCNH2 (HERG-G628S) in the rabbit heart produced transgenic rabbits with a long QT phenotype. Prolongations of QT intervals and action potential durations were due to the elimination of IKs and IKr currents in cardiomyocytes. LQT2 rabbits showed a high incidence of spontaneous sudden cardiac death (>50% at 1 year) due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Optical mapping revealed increased spatial dispersion of repolarization underlying the arrhythmias. Both transgenes caused downregulation of the remaining complementary IKr and IKs without affecting the steady state levels of the native polypeptides. Thus, the elimination of 1 repolarizing current was associated with downregulation of the reciprocal repolarizing current rather than with the compensatory upregulation observed previously in LQTS mouse models. This suggests that mutant KvLQT1 and HERG interacted with the reciprocal wild-type alpha subunits of rabbit ERG and KvLQT1, respectively. These results have implications for understanding the nature and heterogeneity of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
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