Dr. Nipun  Patel  Md image

Dr. Nipun Patel Md

3646 Chamblee Tucker Rd D
Chamblee GA 30341
770 936-6767
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 46800
NPI: 1417990987
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Further improvements on the factors affecting bone mineral density measured by quantitative micro-computed tomography. - Bone
The effects of imaging parameters and special configuration of objects within the reconstruction space on the micro computed tomography (μCT) based mineral density have been explored, and a series of density correction curves have been presented. A manufacturer-provided calibration phantom (0, 100, 200, 400, 800 mg HA/cm(3)) was imaged at all possible imaging conditions (n=216) based on energy, resolution, vial diameter, beam hardening correction factor and averaging. For each imaging condition, a linear regression model was fitted to the observed versus expected densities, and the intercepts (β(0)) and slopes (β(1)) of the regression lines and each density level were modeled using multiple regression modeling. Additionally, a custom made phantom (0, 50, 150, 500, 800, 1000 and 1500 mg HA/cm(3)) was scanned in order to study the effects of location and orientation of an object within the reconstruction space and presence of surrounding objects on μCT based mineral density. The energy, vial diameter and beam hardening correction factor were significant predictors of cumineral density (P values<0.001), while averaging and resolution did not have a significant effect on the observed density values (P values>0.1) except for 0.0 density (P values<0.04). Varying the location of an object within the reconstruction space from the center to the periphery resulted in a drop in observed mineral density up to 10% (P values<0.005). The presence of surrounding densities resulted in decreased observed mineral density up to 17% at the center and up to 14% at the periphery of the reconstruction space (P values<0.001 for all densities). Changing the orientation of the sample also had a significant effect on the observed mineral density, resulting in up to 16% lower observed mineral density for vertical vs. horizontal orientation at the center of the reconstruction space (P value<0.001). We conclude that energy, resolution and post processing correction factor are significant predictors of the observed mineral density in μCT.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A high-affinity fully human anti-IL-6 mAb, 1339, for the treatment of multiple myeloma. - Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
We investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-multiple myeloma activity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1339, a high-affinity fully humanized anti-interleukin 6 mAb (immunoglobulin G1), alone and in combination with conventional and novel anti-multiple myeloma agents, as well as its effect on bone turnover.We examined the growth inhibitory effect of 1339 against multiple myeloma cell lines in the absence and in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells, alone or in combination with dexamethasone, bortezomib, perifosine, and Revlimid. Using the severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu murine model of multiple myeloma, we also examined the effect of 1339 on multiple myeloma cell growth and multiple myeloma bone disease.mAb 1339 significantly inhibited growth of multiple myeloma cell in the presence of bone marrow stromal cell in vitro, associated with inhibition of phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and Akt. In addition, mAb 1339 enhanced cytotoxicity induced by dexamethasone, as well as bortezomib, lenalidomide, and perifosine, in a synergistic fashion. Importantly mAb 1339 significantly enhanced growth inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in vivo in SCID-hu mouse model of multiple myeloma. mAb 1339 treatment also resulted in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in vitro and bone remodeling in SCID-hu model.Our data confirm in vitro and in vivo anti-multiple myeloma activity of, as well as inhibition of bone turnover by, fully humanized mAb 1339, as a single agent and in combination with conventional and novel agents, providing a rationale for its clinical evaluation in multiple myeloma.
Anti-DKK1 mAb (BHQ880) as a potential therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma. - Blood
Decreased activity of osteoblasts (OBs) contributes to osteolytic lesions in multiple myeloma (MM). The production of the soluble Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) by MM cells inhibits OB activity, and its serum level correlates with focal bone lesions in MM. Therefore, we have evaluated bone anabolic effects of a DKK1 neutralizing antibody (BHQ880) in MM. In vitro BHQ880 increased OB differentiation, neutralized the negative effect of MM cells on osteoblastogenesis, and reduced IL-6 secretion. In a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-hu murine model of human MM, BHQ880 treatment led to a significant increase in OB number, serum human osteocalcin level, and trabecular bone. Although BHQ880 had no direct effect on MM cell growth, it significantly inhibited growth of MM cells in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. This effect was associated with inhibition of BMSC/MM cell adhesion and production of IL-6. In addition, BHQ880 up-regulated beta-catenin level while down-regulating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity in BMSC. Interestingly, we also observed in vivo inhibition of MM cell growth by BHQ880 treatment in the SCID-hu murine model. These results confirm DKK1 as an important therapeutic target in myeloma and provide the rationale for clinical evaluation of BHQ880 to improve bone disease and to inhibit MM growth.
Specimen size and porosity can introduce error into microCT-based tissue mineral density measurements. - Bone
The accurate measurement of tissue mineral density, rho(m), in specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral using polychromatic microCT systems is important, since studies often compare samples with a range of sizes and bone densities. We assessed the influence of object size on microCT measurements of rho(m) using (1) hydroxyapatite rods (HA), (2) precision-manufactured aluminum foams (AL) simulating trabecular bone structure, and (3) bovine cortical bone cubes (BCt). Two beam-hardening correction (BHC) algorithms, determined using a 200 and 1200 mg/cm(3) HA wedge phantom, were used to calculate rho(m) of the HA and BCt. The 200 mg/cm(3) and an aluminum BHC algorithm were used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams. Equivalent rho(m) measurements of 500, 1000, and 1500 mg HA/cm(3) rods decreased (r(2)>0.96, p<0.05 for all) as HA rod diameter increased in the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC data. Errors averaged 8.2% across these samples and reached as high as 29.5%. Regression analyses suggested no size effects in the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC data but differences between successive sizes still reached as high as 13%. The linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams increased up to approximately 6% with increasing volume fractions (r(2)>0.81, p<0.05 for all) but the strength of the size-related error was also BHC dependent. Equivalent rho(m) values were inversely correlated with BCt cube size (r(2)>0.92, p<0.05). Use of the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC ameliorated the size-related artifact compared to the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC but errors with this BHC were still significant and ranged between 5% and 12%. These results demonstrate that object size, structure, and BHC algorithm can influence microCT measurements of rho(m). Measurements of rho(m) of specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral must be interpreted with caution unless appropriate steps are taken to minimize these potential artifacts.
Effects of chondrogenic and osteogenic regulatory factors on composite constructs grown using human mesenchymal stem cells, silk scaffolds and bioreactors. - Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) isolated from bone marrow aspirates were cultured on silk scaffolds in rotating bioreactors for three weeks with either chondrogenic or osteogenic medium supplements to engineer cartilage- or bone-like tissue constructs. Osteochondral composites formed from these cartilage and bone constructs were cultured for an additional three weeks in culture medium that was supplemented with chondrogenic factors, supplemented with osteogenic factors or unsupplemented. Progression of cartilage and bone formation and the integration between the two regions were assessed by medical imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computerized tomography imaging), and by biochemical, histological and mechanical assays. During composite culture (three to six weeks), bone-like tissue formation progressed in all three media to a markedly larger extent than cartilage-like tissue formation. The integration of the constructs was most enhanced in composites cultured in chondrogenic medium. The results suggest that tissue composites with well-mineralized regions and substantially less developed cartilage regions can be generated in vitro by culturing hMSCs on silk scaffolds in bioreactors, that hMSCs have markedly higher capacity for producing engineered bone than engineered cartilage, and that chondrogenic factors play major roles at early stages of bone formation by hMSCs and in the integration of the two tissue constructs into a tissue composite.
Bone and cartilage tissue constructs grown using human bone marrow stromal cells, silk scaffolds and rotating bioreactors. - Biomaterials
Human bone marrow contains a population of bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) capable of forming several types of mesenchymal tissues, including bone and cartilage. The present study was designed to test whether large cartilaginous and bone-like tissue constructs can be selectively engineered using the same cell population (hBMSCs), the same scaffold type (porous silk) and same hydrodynamic environment (construct settling in rotating bioreactors), by varying the medium composition (chondrogenic vs. osteogenic differentiation factors). The hBMSCs were harvested, expanded and characterized with respect to their differentiation potential and population distribution. Passage two cells were seeded on scaffolds and cultured for 5 weeks in bioreactors using osteogenic, chondrogenic or control medium. The three media yielded constructs with comparable wet weights and compressive moduli ( approximately 25 kPa). Chondrogenic medium yielded constructs with higher amounts of DNA (1.5-fold) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG, 4-fold) per unit wet weight (ww) than control medium. In contrast, osteogenic medium yielded constructs with higher dry weight (1.6-fold), alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity (8-fold) and calcium content (100-fold) per unit ww than control medium. Chondrogenic medium yielded constructs that were weakly positive for GAG by contrast-enhanced MRI and alcian blue stain, whereas osteogenic medium yielded constructs that were highly mineralized by microCT and von Kossa stain. Engineered bone constructs were large (8mm diameter x 2mm thick disks) and resembled trabecular bone with respect to structure and mineralized tissue volume fraction (12%).

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