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Dispositional Anxiety and Frontal-midline Theta: On the Modulatory Influence of Sex and Situational Threat. - Journal of personality
In their Adaptive Control Hypothesis, Cavanagh and Shackman (2015) recently claimed that dispositional anxiety is correlated with frontal-midline theta (FMÎ¸) as a generic "need for control" signal of the anterior midcingulate cortex. Here, we tested this assumption, also considering potential modulatory influences of anticipatory threat and individual's sex.In a non-clinical sample of 168 participants (84 women), electroencephalogram was recorded while individuals performed a simple two-choice task. Half of the participants were assigned to a threat anticipation condition (anticipation of public speaking) whereas the other half was assigned to a control condition. State anxiety was monitored across the experiment. Dispositional anxiety was assessed by self-report scales, which were completed before individuals came to the laboratory.Target stimuli in the two-choice task induced a transient increase in FMÎ¸ power which was subject to an interaction of dispositional anxiety, sex, and experimental group. Only in women who anticipated public speaking we did observe a substantial positive relation between dispositional anxiety and general FMÎ¸ power.Our results indicate that the link between dispositional anxiety and FMÎ¸ is not universal but rather depends on complex interactions of individuals' sex and situational threat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Complications of Carpal Tunnel Release. - The Orthopedic clinics of North America
Carpal tunnel release for compression of the median nerve at the wrist is one of the most common and successful procedures in hand surgery. Complications, though rare, are potentially devastating and may include intraoperative technical errors, postoperative infection and pain, and persistent or recurrent symptoms. Patients with continued complaints after carpal tunnel release should be carefully evaluated with detailed history and physical examination in addition to electrodiagnostic testing. For those with persistent or recurrent symptoms, a course of nonoperative management including splinting, injections, occupational therapy, and desensitization should be considered prior to revision surgery.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isolated Brachialis Muscle Atrophy. - American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.)
solated brachialis muscle atrophy, a rare entity with few reported cases in the literature, is explained by a variety of etiologies. We present a case of unilateral, isolated brachialis muscle atrophy that likely resulted from neuralgic amyotrophy.
Altered Appetite-Mediating Hormone Concentrations Precede Compensatory Overeating After Severe, Short-Term Energy Deprivation in Healthy Adults. - The Journal of nutrition
Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume.In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe energy deprivation (ED) on appetite and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations.Twenty-one adults with a mean Â± SD age of 21 Â± 3 y and body mass index of 25 Â± 3 kg/m(2) consumed isovolumetric diets provided over separate 48-h periods while increasing habitual energy expenditure by 1683 Â± 329 kcal/d through light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Energy intake was matched to energy expenditure to maintain energy balance (EB) (-44 Â± 92 kcal/d) or was <10% of energy expenditure to generate a -3696 Â± 742-kcal/d energy deficit. Postprandial appetite, glucose, insulin, acyl ghrelin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses and ad libitum energy intake were measured as secondary outcomes after both experimental periods.Fasting insulin (-56% Â± 42%) and acyl ghrelin (-60% Â± 17%) concentrations decreased during ED but not during EB (condition-by-time interaction; P-interaction â‰¤ 0.01), whereas fasting leptin concentrations decreased more during ED compared with during EB (-47% Â± 27% compared with -20% Â± 27%; P-interaction = 0.05). Postprandial insulin (57% Â± 63%; P < 0.001), GLP-1 (14% Â± 28%; P = 0.04), and PP (54% Â± 52%; P < 0.001) areas under the curve (AUCs) were higher, whereas the acyl ghrelin AUC was lower (-56% Â± 13%; P < 0.001) after ED compared with after EB. After ED, self-rated appetite was greater, and ad libitum energy intake was 811 kcal/36 h (95% CI: 184, 1439 kcal/36 h) higher relative to after EB (P = 0.01).Short-term, severe ED suppressed acyl ghrelin concentrations and increased postprandial anorexigenic hormone concentrations. These effects preceded compensatory overeating, suggesting that in adults without obesity, altered sensitivity to appetite-mediating hormones may contribute to an adaptive counterregulatory response during the initial stages of negative EB. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01603550.Â© 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Differential Assimilation of Inorganic Carbon and Leucine by Prochlorococcus in the Oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. - Frontiers in microbiology
The light effect on photoheterotrophic processes in Prochlorococcus, and primary and bacterial productivity in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre was investigated using (14)C-bicarbonate and (3)H-leucine. Light and dark incubation experiments were conducted in situ throughout the euphotic zone (0-175 m) on nine expeditions to Station ALOHA over a 3-year period. Photosynthetrons were also used to elucidate rate responses in leucine and inorganic carbon assimilation as a function of light intensity. Taxonomic group and cell-specific rates were assessed using flow cytometric sorting. The light:dark assimilation rate ratios of leucine in the top 150 m were âˆ¼7:1 for Prochlorococcus, whereas the light:dark ratios for the non-pigmented bacteria (NPB) were not significant different from 1:1. Prochlorococcus assimilated leucine in the dark at per cell rates similar to the NPB, with a contribution to the total community bacterial production, integrated over the euphotic zone, of approximately 20% in the dark and 60% in the light. Depth-resolved primary productivity and leucine incorporation showed that the ratio of Prochlorococcus leucine:primary production peaked at 100 m then declined steeply below the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). The photosynthetron experiments revealed that, for Prochlorococcus at the DCM, the saturating irradiance (E k) for leucine incorporation was reached at approximately half the light intensity required for light saturation of (14)C-bicarbonate assimilation. Additionally, high and low red fluorescing Prochlorococcus populations (HRF and LRF), co-occurring at the DCM, had similar E k values for their respective substrates, however, maximum assimilation rates, for both leucine and inorganic carbon, were two times greater for HRF cells. Our results show that Prochlorococcus contributes significantly to bacterial production estimates using (3)H-leucine, whether or not the incubations are conducted in the dark or light, and this should be considered when making assessments of bacterial production in marine environments where Prochlorococcus is present. Furthermore, Prochlorococcus primary productivity showed rate to light-flux patterns that were different from its light enhanced leucine incorporation. This decoupling from autotrophic growth may indicate a separate light stimulated mechanism for leucine acquisition.
The Effects of Revealed Information on Catastrophe Loss Projection Models' Characterization of Risk: Damage Vulnerability Evidence from Florida. - Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
We examine whether the risk characterization estimated by catastrophic loss projection models is sensitive to the revelation of new information regarding risk type. We use commercial loss projection models from two widely employed modeling firms to estimate the expected hurricane losses of Florida Atlantic University's building stock, both including and excluding secondary information regarding hurricane mitigation features that influence damage vulnerability. We then compare the results of the models without and with this revealed information and find that the revelation of additional, secondary information influences modeled losses for the windstorm-exposed university building stock, primarily evidenced by meaningful percent differences in the loss exceedance output indicated after secondary modifiers are incorporated in the analysis. Secondary risk characteristics for the data set studied appear to have substantially greater impact on probable maximum loss estimates than on average annual loss estimates. While it may be intuitively expected for catastrophe models to indicate that secondary risk characteristics hold value for reducing modeled losses, the finding that the primary value of secondary risk characteristics is in reduction of losses in the "tail" (low probability, high severity) events is less intuitive, and therefore especially interesting. Further, we address the benefit-cost tradeoffs that commercial entities must consider when deciding whether to undergo the data collection necessary to include secondary information in modeling. Although we assert the long-term benefit-cost tradeoff is positive for virtually every entity, we acknowledge short-term disincentives to such an effort.Â© 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Behavioural Effects of High Fat Diet in a Mutant Mouse Model for the Schizophrenia Risk Gene Neuregulin 1. - Genes, brain, and behavior
Schizophrenia patients are often obese or overweight and poor dietary choices appear to be a factor in this phenomenon. Poor diet has been found to have complex consequences for the mental state of patients. Thus, this study investigated whether an unhealthy diet (i.e. high fat diet: HFD) impacts on the behaviour of a genetic mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 (i.e. transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant mice: Nrg1 HET). Female Nrg1 HET and wild type-like littermates (WT) were fed with either HFD or a control chow diet. The mice were tested for baseline (e.g. anxiety) and schizophrenia-relevant behaviours after 7 weeks of diet exposure. HFD increased body weight and impaired glucose tolerance in all mice. Only Nrg1 females on HFD displayed a hyper-locomotive phenotype as locomotion-suppressive effects of HFD were only evident in WT mice. HFD also induced an anxiety-like response and increased freezing in the context and the cued version of the fear conditioning task. Importantly, CHOW-fed Nrg1 females displayed impaired social recognition memory, which was absent in HFD-fed mutants. Sensorimotor gating deficits of Nrg1 females were not affected by diet. In summary, HFD had complex effects on the behavioural phenotype of test mice and attenuated particular cognitive deficits of Nrg1 mutant females. This topic requires further investigations thereby also considering other dietary factors of relevance for schizophrenia as well as interactive effects of diet with medication and sex.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012. - Chemosphere
Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower - NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus). Quercus stellata (in the white oak subgenus Leucobalanus), on the other hand, increased its isoprene emission rate during August, and showed no decline at high temperatures during June or August, consistent with its high tolerance to drought and adaptation to xeric sites at the prairie-deciduous forest interface. Mid-late October measurements were conducted after soil moisture recharge, but were affected by senescence and cooler temperatures. Isoprene emission rates were considerably lower from all species compared to June and August data. The large differences between the oaks in response to drought emphasizes the need to consider BVOC emissions at the species level instead of just the whole canopy. Monoterpene emissions from Quercus rubra in limited data were highest among the oaks studied, while monoterpene emissions from the other oak species were 80-95% lower and less than assumed in current BVOC emission models. Major monoterpenes from Q.Â rubra (and in ambient air) were p-cymene, Î±-pinene, Î²-pinene, d-limonene, Î³-terpinene, Î²-ocimene (predominantly1,3,7-trans-Î²-ocimene, but also 1,3,6-trans-Î²-ocimene), tricyclene, Î±-terpinene, sabinene, terpinolene, and myrcene. Results are discussed in the context of canopy flux studies conducted at the site during PINOT NOIR, which are described elsewhere. The leaf isoprene emissions before and during the drought were consistent with above canopy fluxes, while leaf and branch monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower than the observed above canopy fluxes, implying that other sources may be contributing substantially to monoterpene fluxes at this site. This strongly demonstrates the need for further simultaneous canopy and enclosure BVOC emission studies.Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Observation of Scaling in the Dynamics of a Strongly Quenched Quantum Gas. - Physical review letters
We report on the experimental observation of scaling in the time evolution following a sudden quench into the vicinity of a quantum critical point. The experimental system, a two-component Bose gas with coherent exchange between the constituents, allows for the necessary high level of control of parameters as well as the access to time-resolved spatial correlation functions. The theoretical analysis reveals that when quenching the system close to the critical point, the energy introduced by the quench leads to a short-time evolution exhibiting crossover reminiscent of the finite-temperature critical properties in the system's universality class. Observing the time evolution after a quench represents a paradigm shift in accessing and probing experimentally universal properties close to a quantum critical point and allows in a new way benchmarking of quantum many-body theory with experiments.
Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography. - Optics express
We introduce a novel coherent diffraction imaging technique based on ptychography that enables simultaneous full-field imaging of multiple, spatially separate, sample locations. This technique only requires that diffracted light from spatially separated sample sites be mutually incoherent at the detector, which can be achieved using multiple probes that are separated either by wavelength or by orthogonal polarization states. This approach enables spatially resolved polarization spectroscopy from a single ptychography scan, as well as allowing a larger field of view to be imaged without loss in spatial resolution. Further, we compare the numerical efficiency of the multi-mode ptychography algorithm with a single mode algorithm.
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