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Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence. - Journal of medicine and life
To elucidate the prepubertal risk factors associated with the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and determine the special clinical manifestations of the syndrome in this transitional time of a woman's life.To propose therapeutic targets and regimens, not only to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, but also to improve the self-esteem of a young girl who matures into womanhood.A systematic review of literature was performed through electronic database searches (Pubmed, Medline and Embase). Studies published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals from 1996 to 2013 were included. The selected studies focused on the risk factors, the unique features and treatment options of the PCOS in puberty. The pathogenesis of the PCOS was hypothesized to be based on interactions between genetic and certain environmental factors. The diagnosis was usually difficult in young girls. The syndrome was related to a greater risk of future infertility, type II diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Early treatment was crucial to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, especially infertility and cardiovascular disease.The recognition of the early signs of PCOS during or even before adolescence is of great importance. It is essential to establish the correct diagnosis for PCOS and rule out other causes of androgen excess in young women with hyperandrogenism. The type of treatment applied should be considered on an individual basis.PCOS = Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Investigation of the photochemical reactivity of soot particles derived from biofuels toward NO2. A kinetic and product study. - The journal of physical chemistry. A
In the current study, the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with soot and biosoot surfaces was investigated in the dark and under illumination relevant to atmospheric conditions (J(NO2) = 0.012 s(-1)). A flat-flame burner was used for preparation and collection of soot samples from premixed flames of liquid fuels. The biofuels were prepared by mixing 20% v/v of (i) 1-butanol (CH3(CH2)3OH), (ii) methyl octanoate (CH3(CH2)6COOCH3), (iii) anhydrous diethyl carbonate (C2H5O)2CO and (iv) 2,5 dimethyl furan (CH3)2C4H2O additive compounds in conventional kerosene fuel (JetA-1). Experiments were performed at 293 K using a low-pressure flow tube reactor (P = 9 Torr) coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial and steady-state uptake coefficients, Î³0 and Î³(ss), respectively, as well as the surface coverage, N(s), were measured under dry and humid conditions. Furthermore, the branching ratios of the gas-phase products NO (âˆ¼80-100%) and HONO (<20%) were determined. Soot from JetA-1/2,5-dimethyl furan was the most reactive [Î³0 = (29.1 Â± 5.8) Ã— 10(-6), Î³(ss)(dry) = (9.09 Â± 1.82) Ã— 10(-7) and Î³(ss)(5.5%RH) = (14.0 Â± 2.8)(-7)] while soot from JetA-1/1-butanol [Î³0 = (2.72 Â± 0.544) Ã— 10(-6), Î³(ss)(dry) = (4.57 Â± 0.914) Ã— 10(-7), and Î³(ss)(5.5%RH) = (3.64 Â± 0.728) Ã— 10(-7)] and JetA-1/diethyl carbonate [Î³0 = (2.99 Â± 0.598) Ã— 10(-6), Î³(ss)(dry) = (3.99 Â± 0.798) Ã— 10(-7), and Î³(ss)(5.5%RH) = (4.80 Â± 0.960) Ã— 10(-7)] were less reactive. To correlate the chemical reactivity with the physicochemical properties of the soot samples, their chemical composition was analyzed employing Raman spectroscopy, NMR, and high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption isotherms and the particle size distributions were determined employing a Quantachrome Nova 2200e gas sorption analyzer. The analysis of the results showed that factors such as (i) soot mass collection rate, (ii) porosity of the particles formed, (iii) aromatic fraction, and (iv) pre-existence of nitro-containing species in soot samples (formed during the combustion process) can be used as indicators of soot reactivity with NO2.
Egg yolk identification and aging in mixed paint binding media by NMR spectroscopy. - Magnetic resonance in chemistry : MRC
NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for the identification and quantitative analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. In this report, we present an analytical NMR protocol for the identification and semiquantification of egg yolk binders and mixed binding media that also contain a drying oil, namely linseed oil. The samples studied have been artificially and/or naturally aged in order to simulate the composition of organic materials in paintings. Analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra showed that egg yolk can be identified even in binding media of considerable age via signals originating from cholesterol and/or cholesterol oxidation products present in the aged binding medium. Based on cholesterol-related and other lipid signals in the NMR spectra of egg yolk binders, a molecular marker (R/F) that suggests the presence of egg yolk in paint binders is proposed. Via this marker, the presence of egg yolk in the organic material obtained from an early 18th century Greek icon is confirmed, and this is further verified by 2D NMR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that NMR molecular markers developed to estimate the hydrolysis/oxidation state of oil paintings are also suitable for the analysis of egg yolk and mixed medium (egg yolk-linseed oil) binders, indicating the generality of the NMR methodological approach in the analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context.Copyright Â© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Heptanuclear lanthanide [Ln7] clusters: from blue-emitting solution-stable complexes to hybrid clusters. - Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)
The use of LH3 (2-(Î²-naphthalideneamino)-2-hydroxymethyl-1-propanol) and aibH (2-amino-isobutyric acid) in 4f chemistry has led to the isolation of eight new isostructural lanthanide complexes. More specifically, the reaction of the corresponding lanthanide nitrate salt with LH3 and aibH in MeOH, under solvothermal conditions in the presence of NEt3, led to the isolation and characterization of seven complexes with the general formulae [Ln(III)7(OH)2(L')9(aib)]Â·4MeOH (Ln = Gd, Â·4MeOH; Tb, Â·4MeOH; Dy, Â·4MeOH; Ho, Â·4MeOH; Er, Â·4MeOH; Tm, Â·4MeOH; Yb, Â·4MeOH L' = the dianion of the Schiff base between naphthalene aldehyde and 2-amino-isobutyric acid). Furthermore, the isostructural Y(III) analogue, cluster [Y(III)7(OH)2(L')9(aib)]Â·4MeOH (Â·4MeOH), was synthesized in a similar manner to . The structure of all eight clusters describes a distorted [M(III)6] octahedron which encapsulates a seventh M(III) ion in an off-centre fashion. Dc magnetic susceptibility studies in the 5-300 K range for complexes reveal the presence of dominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions within the metallic clusters as evidenced by the negative Weiss constant, Î¸, while ac magnetic susceptibility measurements show temperature and frequency dependent out-of-phase signals for the [Dy(III)7] analogue (Â·4MeOH), suggesting potential single molecule magnetism character. Furthermore, for complex , simulation of its dc magnetic susceptibility data yielded very weak antiferromagnetic interactions within the metallic centres. Solid-state emission studies for all clusters display ligand-based emission, while extended 1D and 2D NMR studies for Â·4MeOH reveal that the species retain their structural integrity in solution. In addition, TGA measurements for , and revealed excellent thermal stability up to 340 Â°C for the clusters.
Adsorption of organophosphates into microporous and mesoporous NaX zeolites and subsequent chemistry. - Environmental science & technology
Due to the neurotoxicity of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents synthesized as military or terror agents, their safe destruction and disposal is of considerable current importance. A representative OP, trimethyl phosphate (TMP), was adsorbed onto NaX zeolite, two mesoporous modifications, and a low-silica X zeolite. The nucleophilic chemical reactions of TMP with the zeolites were investigated by solid-state 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the solvent extracts by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. Nucleophilic substitution and subsequent hydrolysis reaction schemes are proposed. All of the zeolites have similar TMP decomposition yields, supporting the hypothesis that slow or incomplete diffusion of TMP in the microporous zeolite regions limits TMP decomposition.
Analysis and aging of unsaturated polyester resins in contemporary art installations by NMR spectroscopy. - Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
Two original art installations constructed from unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) and four different reference UPR products (before and after UVB aging) were analyzed by high-resolution 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Breaking strain studies were also conducted for the four UPR model products before and after different aging procedures (moisture, UVB exposure, melt/freeze). NMR analysis of the chemical composition of the UPR resin extracts showed they contain several low MW organic compounds and oligomers rich in polar -OH groups that play a significant role in the degradation behavior of the composite UPR materials. Statistical analysis of the NMR compositional data showed that styrene and benzaldehyde contents can be used to differentiate between fresh and aged UPR samples. The phthalate and propylene glycol unit speciation (esterified, primary or secondary -OH) of the extracts provided evidence that UPR resin C was used in the construction of the two art installations, and direct comparison of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra verified this compositional similarity. UPR resin C was shown by both NMR and breaking strain studies to be the reference UPR most susceptible to degradation by different aging procedures, a characteristic attributed to the lower styrene content of resin C.
Geographical characterization of greek virgin olive oils (cv. Koroneiki) using 1H and 31P NMR fingerprinting with canonical discriminant analysis and classification binary trees. - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
This work deals with the prediction of the geographical origin of monovarietal virgin olive oil (cv. Koroneiki) samples from three regions of southern Greece, namely, Peloponnesus, Crete, and Zakynthos, and collected in five harvesting years (2001-2006). All samples were chemically analyzed by means of 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy and characterized according to their content in fatty acids, phenolics, diacylglycerols, total free sterols, free acidity, and iodine number. Biostatistical analysis showed that the fruiting pattern of the olive tree complicates the geographical separation of oil samples and the selection of significant chemical compounds. In this way the inclusion of the harvesting year improved the classification of samples, but increased the dimensionality of the data. Discriminant analysis showed that the geographical prediction at the level of three regions is very high (87%) and becomes (74%) when we pass to the thinner level of six sites (Chania, Sitia, and Heraklion in Crete; Lakonia and Messinia in Peloponnesus; Zakynthos). The use of classification and binary trees made possible the construction of a geographical prediction algorithm for unknown samples in a self-improvement fashion, which can be readily extended to other varieties and areas.
The isoenzyme 7 of tobacco NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase exhibits high deaminating and low aminating activities in vivo. - Plant physiology
Following the discovery of glutamine synthetase/glutamate (Glu) synthase, the physiological roles of Glu dehydrogenase (GDH) in nitrogen metabolism in plants remain obscure and is the subject of considerable controversy. Recently, transgenics were used to overexpress the gene encoding for the beta-subunit polypeptide of GDH, resulting in the GDH-isoenzyme 1 deaminating in vivo Glu. In this work, we present transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing the plant gdh gene encoding for the alpha-subunit polypeptide of GDH. The levels of transcript correlated well with the levels of total GDH protein, the alpha-subunit polypeptide, and the abundance of GDH-anionic isoenzymes. Assays of transgenic plant extracts revealed high in vitro aminating and low deaminating activities. However, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the metabolic fate of (15)NH(4) or [(15)N]Glu revealed that GDH-isoenzyme 7 mostly deaminates Glu and also exhibits low ammonium assimilating activity. These and previous results firmly establish the direction of the reactions catalyzed by the anionic and cationic isoenzymes of GDH in vivo under normal growth conditions and reveal a paradox between the in vitro and in vivo enzyme activities.
31P NMR spectroscopy in the quality control and authentication of extra-virgin olive oil: a review of recent progress. - Magnetic resonance in chemistry : MRC
This review is a brief account on the application of a novel methodology to the quality control and authentication of extra-virgin olive oil. This methodology is based on the derivatization of the labile hydrogens of functional groups, such as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, of olive oil constituents with the phosphorus reagent 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyldioxaphospholane, and the use of the (31)P chemical shifts to identify the phosphitylated compounds. Various experimental aspects such as pertinent instrumentation, sample preparation, acquisition parameters and properties of the phosphorus reagent are reviewed. The strategy to assign the (31)P signals of the phosphitylated model compounds and olive oil constituents by employing 1D and 2D NMR experiments is presented. Finally, the capability of this technique to assess the quality and the genuineness of extra-virgin olive oil and to detect fraud is discussed.Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Comparison of analytical methodologies based on 1h and 31p NMR spectroscopy with conventional methods of analysis for the determination of some olive oil constituents. - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
The present study was designed to assess the agreement between analytical methodologies based on 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy and conventional analytical methods (titration, gas chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography) for measuring certain minor and major constituents (free acidity, fatty acids, iodine value, and phenolic compounds) of olive oil. The standard deviations of the NMR method were comparable to those of the conventional methods, except perhaps those of the total hydroxytyrosol and total tyrosol. Linear regression analyses showed strong correlations between NMR and conventional methods for free acidity, total hydroxytyrosol, total tyrosol, total diacylglycerols, (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol, and apigenin; good correlations for linoleic acid, free hydroxytyrosol, and free tyrosol; and weak correlations for oleic acid, linolenic acid, saturated fatty acids, and luteolin. Furthermore, a method comparison study was conducted and the agreement between NMR and conventional methods was evaluated by using the Bland and Altman statistical analysis. The distribution of the data points in the bias plot showed that 96.4% and 100% of the measurements of free acidity and iodine value, respectively, were within the limits of agreement of the two methods. For the remaining constituents of olive oil, the percentage of measurements, located within the limits of agreement, ranged from 94% to 98.5%.
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