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Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular analysis of androgen insensitivity syndromes from south Indian cohort and detection and In- silico characterization of androgen receptor gene mutations. - Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
Rare cases of 9 complete androgen insensitivity syndromes, 9 cases of partial androgen insensitivity syndromes and equal number of male control samples were selected for this study. Few strong clinical features variations were noticed and Giemsa banded metaphase revealed 46, XY karyotype and the frequency of chromosome aberrations were significantly higher when compare with control samples. DNA Sequence analysis of the Androgen Receptor gene of androgen insensitivity syndromes revealed three missense mutations- c.C1713>G resulting in the replacement of a highly conserved histidine residue with glutamine p.(His571Glu) in DNA-binding domain, c.A1715>G resulting in the replacement of a highly conserved tyrosine residue with cysteine p.(Tyr572Cys) in DNA-binding domain and c.G2599>A resulting in the replacement of a highly conserved valine residue with methionine p.(Val867Met) in ligand-binding domain of androgen receptor gene respectively. The heterozygous type of mutations c.C1713>G and c.G2599>A were observed in mothers of the patients for familial cases concluding the mutation was inherited from the mother. The novel mutation c.C1713>G is reporting first time in androgen insensitivity syndrome. In-Silico analysis of mutations observed in androgen receptor gene of androgen insensitivity syndrome predicted that the substitution at Y572C and V867M could probably disrupt the protein structure and function.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Performance demonstration of 4Ï€Î²(LS)-Î³ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. - Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4Ï€Î²(LS)-Î³ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4Ï€Î²(LS)-Î³ coincidence counting system, a 4Ï€Î²(PC)-Î³ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4Ï€Î²(LS)-Î³ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Systemic cytokine profiles in Strongyloides stercoralis infection and alterations following treatment. - Infection and immunity
Strongyloides stercoralis, is a soil transmitted helminth infection, that infects âˆ¼ 50 - 100 million people worldwide. Despite its widespread prevalence, very little is known about the immune response that characterizes human S. stercoralis infection. To study the systemic cytokine profile characteristic of Strongyloides infection, we measured the circulating levels of a large panel of pro - and anti - inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic, infected individuals (n=32) and compared them to uninfected, endemic controls (n=24). Infected individuals exhibited significantly lower circulating levels of pro - inflammatory cytokines (IFNÎ³, TNFÎ± and IL-1Î²) and significantly higher levels of anti - inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37 and TGFÎ²). Moreover, treatment of Strongyloides infection resulted in a significant reversal of the cytokine profile with increased levels of pro - inflammatory (IFNÎ³, TNFÎ±, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-23 and IL-1Î²) and decreased levels of anti - inflammatory (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37 and TGFÎ²) cytokines following treatment. Thus, S. stercoralis infection is characterized by alterations in the levels of systemic cytokines, reflecting major alterations in the underlying immune response to this chronic helminth infection.Copyright Â© 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
From QTL to variety-harnessing the benefits of QTLs for drought, flood and salt tolerance in mega rice varieties of India through a multi-institutional network. - Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology
Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1, qDTY2.1, qDTY2.2, qDTY3.1, qDTY3.2, qDTY9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into seven popular locally adapted rice varieties, namely, ADT 45, CR 1009, Gayatri, MTU 1010, PR 114, Pusa 44 and Sarjoo 52. Genotypic background selection is being done after BC2F2 stage using an in-house designed 50K SNP chip on a set of twenty lines for each combination, identified with phenotypic similarity in the field to the recipient parent. Near-isogenic lines with more than 90% similarity to the recipient parent are now in advanced generation field trials. These climate smart varieties are expected to improve rice productivity in the adverse ecologies and contribute to the farmer's livelihood.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry. - Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences
Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews the strengths of bar-coding and how easily it can be used in the routine procedure.
Right handed chiral superstructures from achiral molecules: self-assembly with a twist. - Scientific reports
The induction and development of chiral supramolecular structures from hierarchical self-assembly of achiral compounds is closely related to the evolution of life and the chiral amplification found in nature. Here we show that the combination of achiral tetraphenylethene (TPE) an AIE-active luminophore bearing four long alkyl chains via amide linkage allows the entire process of induction and control of supramolecular chirality into well-defined uniform right-handed twisted superstructures via solvent composition and polarity, i.e. solvophobic effect. We showed that the degree of twist and the pitch of the ribbons can be controlled to one-handed helical structure via solvophobic effects. The twisted superstructure assembly was visualised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), furthermore, circular dichroism (CD) confirms used to determine controlled right-handed assembly. This controlled assembly of an AIE-active molecule can be of practical value; for example, as templates for helical crystallisation, catalysis and a chiral mechanochromic luminescent superstructure formation.
Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Function by Interleukin 19 and Interleukin 24 During Filarial Infections. - The Journal of infectious diseases
Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections. To study the role of IL-19 and IL-24 in regulating T-cell responses, we examined the frequency of T-helper type 1 (Th1)/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, Th22/Tc22, and Tr1 cells in 26 filariae-infected individuals stimulated with filarial antigen following IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization. IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cells and significantly reduced frequencies of Th2/Tc2, Tr1, and/or Th9/Tc9 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the modulation of T-cell responses in filarial infections.Â© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Reliability performance of titanium sputter coated Ni-Ti arch wires: Mechanical performance and nickel release evaluation. - Bio-medical materials and engineering
The present research was aimed at developing surface coatings on NiTi archwires capable of protection against nickel release and to investigate the stability, mechanical performance and prevention of nickel release of titanium sputter coated NiTi arch wires. Coated and uncoated specimens immersed in artificial saliva were subjected to critical evaluation of parameters such as surface analysis, mechanical testing, element release, friction coefficient and adhesion of the coating. Titanium coatings exhibited high reliability on exposure even for a prolonged period of 30 days in artificial saliva. The coatings were found to be relatively stable on linear scratch test with reduced frictional coefficient compared to uncoated samples. Titanium sputtering adhered well with the Ni-Ti substrates at the molecular level, this was further confirmed by Inductive coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPE) analysis which showed no dissolution of nickel in the artificial saliva. Titanium sputter coatings seem to be promising for nickel sensitive patients. The study confirmed the superior nature of the coating, evident as reduced surface roughness, friction coefficient, good adhesion and minimal hardness and elastic modulus variations in artificial saliva over a given time period.
Age-related - oral manifestations and co-morbidities in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immune deficiency syndrome adults in Hyderabad, India. - Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
The objective of the study was to clinically evaluate age-related - oral manifestations and co-morbidities in different age groups of human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immune deficiency syndrome adults.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 adult patients aged above 20 years at infectious diseases units, medical wards and ART centre of Gandhi Medical Hospital, Hyderabad. Oral manifestations were diagnosed according to the presumptive criteria of EC-Clearinghouse Classification, and clinical data were retrieved from patient's medical records. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Men (72%) in the young age group of 21-30 years were commonly affected. Heterosexual mode of transmission was most common in all the age groups, and the overall distribution were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Most common oral findings seen in 21-30 years of age were depapillation (90%), hyperpigmentation (70% and 72%) in 31-40 and 41-50 years old and linear gingival erythema (68%) in above 50 years of age group. The various co-morbidities included the recurrent bacterial and skin infections (64% and 62% respectively) in the younger age group. Renal and cardiac diseases with pulmonary tuberculosis (74%) were commonly observed in middle-aged and elders.The underlying oral manifestations and co-morbidities could become very important variables that must be taken into account in determining treatment efficacy or health policy.
Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases. - Indian journal of medical microbiology
Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas.
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