500 Old York Rd Suite 203
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Caveolin-1 confers antiinflammatory effects in murine macrophages via the MKK3/p38 MAPK pathway. - American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
Caveolin-1 has been reported to regulate apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and endocytosis in macrophages. In the present study, we demonstrate that caveolin-1 can act as a potent immunomodulatory molecule. We first observed caveolin-1 expression in murine alveolar macrophages by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Loss-of-function experiments using small interfering RNA showed that down regulating caveolin-1 expression in murine alveolar and peritoneal macrophages increased LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production but decreased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that overexpression of caveolin-1 in RAW264.7 cells decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 production and augmented IL-10 production. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was increased by overexpressing caveolin-1 in RAW264.7 cells, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation were inhibited. The antiinflammatory modulation of LPS-induced cytokine production by caveolin-1 was significantly abrogated by the administration of p38 inhibitor SB203580 in RAW264.7 cells. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from MKK3 null mice did not demonstrate any modulation of LPS-induced cytokine production by caveolin-1. LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay were significantly reduced by overexpressing caveolin-1 in RAW264.7 cells. The reductions were attenuated by the administration of p38 inhibitor SB203580. Taken together, our data suggest that caveolin-1 acts as a potent immunomodulatory effector molecule in immune cells and that the regulation of LPS-induced cytokine production by caveolin-1 involves the MKK3/p38 MAPK pathway.
Carbon monoxide suppresses bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. - The American journal of pathology
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an incurable fibrosing disorder that progresses relentlessly to respiratory failure. We hypothesized that a product of heme oxygenase activity, carbon monoxide (CO), may have anti-fibrotic effects. To test this hypothesis, mice treated with intratracheal bleomycin were exposed to low-concentration inhaled CO or ambient air. Lungs of mice treated with CO had significantly lower hydroxyproline accumulation than controls. Fibroblast proliferation, thought to play a central role in the progression of fibrosis, was suppressed by in vitro exposure to CO. CO caused increased cellular levels of p21(Cip1) and decreased levels of cyclins A and D. This effect was independent of the observed suppression of MAPK's phosphorylation by CO but was dependent on increased cGMP levels. Further, CO-exposed cells elaborated significantly less fibronectin and collagen-1 than control cells. This same effect was seen in vivo. Suppression of collagen-1 production did not depend on MAPK or guanylate cyclase signaling pathways but did depend on the transcriptional regulator Id1. Taken together, these data suggest that CO exerts an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung, and this effect may be due to suppression of fibroblast proliferation and/or suppression of matrix deposition by fibroblasts.
Comprehensive gene expression profiles reveal pathways related to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
To better understand the molecular basis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and microarray analysis to compare the gene expression patterns of lung tissues from COPD and control smokers. A total of 59,343 tags corresponding to 26,502 transcripts were sequenced in SAGE analyses. A total of 327 genes were differentially expressed (1.5-fold up- or down-regulated). Microarray analysis using the same RNA source detected 261 transcripts that were differentially expressed to a significant degree between GOLD-2 and GOLD-0 smokers. We confirmed the altered expression of a select number of genes by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. These genes encode for transcription factors (EGR1 and FOS), growth factors or related proteins (CTGF, CYR61, CX3CL1, TGFB1, and PDGFRA), and extracellular matrix protein (COL1A1). Immunofluorescence studies on the same lung specimens localized the expression of Egr-1, CTGF, and Cyr61 to alveolar epithelial cells, airway epithelial cells, and stromal and inflammatory cells of GOLD-2 smokers. Cigarette smoke extract induced Egr-1 protein expression and increased Egr-1 DNA-binding activity in human lung fibroblast cells. Cytomix (tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1beta, and IFN-gamma) treatment showed that the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was increased in lung fibroblasts from EGR1 control (+/+) mice but not detected in that of EGR1 null (-/-) mice, whereas MMP-9 was regulated by EGR1 in a reverse manner. Our study represents the first comprehensive analysis of gene expression on GOLD-2 versus GOLD-0 smokers and reveals previously unreported candidate genes that may serve as potential molecular targets in COPD.
Carbon monoxide promotes Fas/CD95-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. - The Journal of biological chemistry
A properly functioning immune system is dependent on programmed cell death/apoptosis at virtually every stage of lymphocyte development and activity. Carbon monoxide (CO), an enzymatic product of heme oxyenase-1, has been shown to possess anti-apoptotic effects in a number of different model systems. The purpose of the present study was to expand on this knowledge to determine the role of CO in the well established model of Fas/CD95-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, and to determine the mechanism by which CO can modulate T-cell apoptosis. Exposure of Jurkat cells to CO resulted in augmentation in Fas/CD95-induced apoptosis, which correlated with CO-induced up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein FADD as well as activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 while simultaneously down-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2. These effects of CO were lost with overexpression of the small interfering RNA of FADD. CO, as demonstrated previously in endothelial cells, was also anti-apoptotic in Jurkat cells against tumor necrosis factor and etoposide. We further demonstrate that this pro-apoptotic effect of CO was independent of reactive oxygen species production and involved inhibition in Fas/CD95-induced activation of the pro-survival ERK MAPK. We conclude that in contrast to other studies showing the anti-apoptotic effects of CO, Fas/CD95-induced cell death in Jurkat cells is augmented by exposure to CO and that this occurs in part via inhibition in the activation of ERK MAPK. These data begin to elucidate specific differences with regard to the effects of CO and cell death pathways and provide important and valuable insight into potential mechanisms of action.
Carbon monoxide inhibits T lymphocyte proliferation via caspase-dependent pathway. - Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
T lymphocyte activation and proliferation is involved in many pathological processes. We have recently shown that carbon monoxide (CO), an enzymatic product of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), confers potent antiproliferative effects in airway and vascular smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CO can inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation and then to determine the mechanism by which CO can modulate T lymphocyte proliferation. In the presence of 250 parts per million CO, CD3-activated T lymphocyte proliferation was, remarkably, inhibited by 80% when compared with controls. We observed that the antiproliferative effect of CO in T lymphocytes was independent of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or cGMP signaling pathways, unlike what we demonstrated previously in smooth muscle cells. We demonstrate that CO inhibited caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression and activity, and caspase inhibition with benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK pan-caspase inhibitor) blocked T lymphocyte proliferation. Furthermore, in caspase-8-deficient lymphocytes, the antiproliferative effect of CO was markedly attenuated, further supporting the involvement of caspase-8 in the antiproliferative effects of CO. CO also increased the protein level of p21(Cip1), and CO-mediated inhibition of caspase activity is partially regulated by p21(Cip1). Taken together, these data suggest that CO confers potent antiproliferative effects in CD3-activated T lymphocytes and that these antiproliferative effects in T lymphocytes are mediated by p21(Cip1)-dependent caspase activity, in particular caspase-8, independent of cGMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.
Hepatocyte growth factor protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Hypoxia/reoxygenation causes cellular injury and death associated with a number of pathophysiological conditions, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and stroke. The cell death pathways induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation and their underlying regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that hypoxia/reoxygenation can induce Bax translocation and cytochrome c release. Using murine lung endothelial cells as a model, we found that the induction of apoptosis by hypoxia/reoxygenation involved the activation of both Bax-dependent and death receptor-mediated pathways. We demonstrated the activation of the death-inducing signal complex and Bid pathway after hypoxia/reoxygenation. Hepatocyte growth factor markedly inhibited hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. The cytoprotection afforded by hepatocyte growth factor was mediated in part by the stimulation of FLICE-like inhibiting protein expression, the attenuation of death-inducing signal complex formation, and the inhibition of Bid and Bax activation. Hepatocyte growth factor also prevented cell injury and death by increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-XL protein. The inhibition of Bid/Bax-induced cell death by hepatocyte growth factor primarily involved p38 MAPK and in part Akt-dependent pathways but not ERK1/ERK2.
Carbon monoxide induces cytoprotection in rat orthotopic lung transplantation via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. - The American journal of pathology
Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the high incidence of acute graft rejection. There is mounting evidence that the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and/or its catalytic by-product carbon monoxide (CO) confers cytoprotection against tissue and cellular injury. This led us to hypothesize that CO may protect against lung transplant rejection via its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in Lewis rat recipients from Brown-Norway rat donors. HO-1 mRNA and protein expression were markedly induced in transplanted rat lungs compared to sham-operated control lungs. Transplanted lungs developed severe intraalveolar hemorrhage, marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, and intravascular coagulation. However, in the presence of CO exposure (500 ppm), the gross anatomy and histology of transplanted lungs showed marked preservation. Furthermore, transplanted lungs displayed increased apoptotic cell death compared with the transplanted lungs of CO-exposed recipients, as assessed by TUNEL and caspase-3 immunostaining. CO exposure inhibited the induction of IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in lung and serum, respectively. Gene array analysis revealed that CO also down-regulated other proinflammatory genes, including MIP-1alpha and MIF, and growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, which were up-regulated by transplantation. These data suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties of CO confer potent cytoprotection in a rat model of lung transplantation.
Necrotic cell death in response to oxidant stress involves the activation of the apoptogenic caspase-8/bid pathway. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Human epithelial (A549) cells exposed to hyperoxia die by cellular necrosis. In the current study, we demonstrated the involvement of apoptogenic factors in epithelial cell necrosis in response to hyperoxia, including the formation of the Fas-related death-inducing signaling complex and initiation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. We showed increased activation of both Bid and Bax in A549 cells subjected to hyperoxia. Bax activation involved a Bid-assisted conformational change. We discovered that the response to hyperoxia in vivo predominantly involved the activation of the Bid/caspase-8 pathway without apparent increases in Bax expression. Disruption of the Bid pathway by gene deletion protected against cell death in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, inhibition of caspase-8 by Flip also protected against cell death. Taken together, we have demonstrated the involvement of apoptogenic factors in epithelial cell responses to hyperoxia, despite a final outcome of cellular necrosis. We have, for the first time, identified a predominant role for the caspase-8/Bid pathway in signaling associated with hyperoxic lung injury and cell death in vivo and in vitro.
Carbon monoxide suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions associated with chronic graft rejection and with balloon injury. - Nature medicine
Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of heme oxygenase action on heme, prevents arteriosclerotic lesions that occur following aorta transplantation; pre-exposure to 250 parts per million of CO for 1 hour before injury suppresses stenosis after carotid balloon injury in rats as well as in mice. The protective effect of CO is associated with a profound inhibition of graft leukocyte infiltration/activation as well as with inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. The anti-proliferative effect of CO in vitro requires the activation of guanylate cyclase, the generation of cGMP, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1. These findings demonstrate a protective role for CO in vascular injury and support its use as a therapeutic agent.
Carbon monoxide inhibits human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. - American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
The gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) is elevated in the breath of individuals with asthma. The physiologic function of CO in asthma is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that CO (250 ppm) markedly inhibits human airway smooth muscle cell (HASMC) proliferation, arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase. This CO-induced cell growth arrest of HASMC was associated with upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. It is generally believed that the signaling pathway by which CO affects biologic processes is primarily mediated via the guanylyl cyclase/3',5'-Guanylate cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. To examine whether guanylyl cyclase/cGMP was involved in CO-induced growth arrest of HASMC, Rp-8-Br-cGMP, a selective inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and ODQ, a selective inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, were administered to HASMC in the presence of CO. Interestingly, CO-induced cell growth arrest was not reversed by these inhibitors. We next examined whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway may regulate the antiproliferative effect of CO. We first showed time-dependent activation of the various MAPKs in HASMC in response to serum, including phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2, p38, and JNK and then demonstrated that CO exerted negligible effect on activated p38 and JNK; however, ERK activation was significantly attenuated in the presence of CO. These data suggest that CO can inhibit HASMC proliferation via the ERK1/ERK2 MAPK pathway, independent of a guanylyl cyclase/cGMP independent pathway. CO may act as an important mediator of remodeling of human airways in asthma via its ability to regulate cell growth of airway smooth muscle cells.
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