2100 Webster St Suite 404
San Francisco CA 94115
Medical School: Other - 1989
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: Yes
Participates In EHR: Yes
License #: A48639
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Awards & Recognitions
Dr. David Tong is associated with these group practices
|HCPCS Code||Description||Average Price||Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
|HCPCS Code:99291||Description:Critical care first hour||Average Price:$1,010.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99223||Description:Initial hospital care||Average Price:$692.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99215||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$485.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99233||Description:Subsequent hospital care||Average Price:$368.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99232||Description:Subsequent hospital care||Average Price:$258.00||Average Price Allowed
HCPCS Code Definitions
- Critical care, evaluation and management of the critically ill or critically injured patient; first 30-74 minutes
- Subsequent hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed interval history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of high complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the patient is unstable or has developed a significant complication or a significant new problem. Typically, 35 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
- Initial hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; and Medical decision making of high complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the problem(s) requiring admission are of high severity. Typically, 70 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; Medical decision making of high complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 40 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Subsequent hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused interval history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the patient is responding inadequately to therapy or has developed a minor complication. Typically, 25 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical Board Sanctions
Physical Medicine And Rehabilitation
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Tong has made to other doctors
Reorganizing a hospital ward as an accountable care unit. - Journal of hospital medicine
Traditional hospital wards are not specifically designed as effective clinical microsystems. The feasibility and sustainability of doing so are unclear, as are the possible outcomes. To reorganize a traditional hospital ward with the traits of an effective clinical microsystem, we designed it to have 4 specific features: (1) unit-based teams, (2) structured interdisciplinary bedside rounds, (3) unit-level performance reporting, and (4) unit-level nurse and physician coleadership. We called this type of unit an accountable care unit (ACU). In this narrative article, we describe our experience implementing each feature of the ACU. Our aim was to introduce a progressive approach to hospital care and training.Â© 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Holographic lattices give the graviton an effective mass. - Physical review letters
We discuss the dc conductivity of holographic theories with translational invariance broken by a background lattice. We show that the presence of the lattice induces an effective mass for the graviton via a gravitational version of the Higgs mechanism. This allows us to obtain, at leading order in the lattice strength, an analytic expression for the dc conductivity in terms of the size of the lattice at the horizon. In locally critical theories this leads to a power law resistivity that is in agreement with an earlier field theory analysis of Hartnoll and Hofman.
Reduced clopidogrel metabolism in a multiethnic population: prevalence and rates of recurrent cerebrovascular events. - Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association
Concern has recently been raised over the possibility of a reduced efficacy of clopidogrel because of genetic variations in cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19 (CYP2C19) metabolism. A black box warning from the US Food and Drug Administration recommends that all patients be tested. It has been estimated that approximately 3% (range 2-14%) of the population are poor metabolizers, but few data are available for cerebrovascular patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the frequency and effects of variability in CYP2C19 metabolism in patients with cerebrovascular disease.A retrospective review of all patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) tested for the clopidogrel CYP2C19 genotype was performed, with a collection of data including race/ethnicity, CYP2C19 status, and the presence of recurrent vascular events.A total of 53 cerebrovascular patients were tested, consisting of 5.7% poor (n = 3), 26.4% intermediate (n = 14), 62.3% extensive (n = 33), 3.8% indeterminate (n = 2), and 1.9% "mixed ultra rapid and poor" (n = 1) metabolizers. Only 10 of 38 white patients (26.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.42) were intermediate or poor metabolizers, compared with 7 of 15 (46.7%; 95% CI 0.25-0.70) nonwhites. Of 43 patients treated with clopidogrel, 3 of 27 extensive metabolizers (11.1%; 95% CI 0.04-0.28) had recurrent cerebrovascular events compared with 33.3% of intermediate metabolizers (4/12; 95% CI 0.14-0.61) and 50% of poor metabolizers (1/2; 95% CI 0.09-0.90).These data suggest that the proportion of poor/intermediate clopidogrel metabolizers in cerebrovascular patients is comparable to cardiovascular studies and these patients may have an increased risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. Routine CYP2C19 testing may be warranted.Copyright Â© 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fluctuation and dissipation at a quantum critical point. - Physical review letters
In nonrelativistic field theories, quantum fluctuations give rise to dissipative behavior even at zero temperature. Here we use holographic methods to explore the dissipative dynamics of massive particles coupled to quantum critical theories. We present analytic expressions for correlation functions and response functions. The behavior changes qualitatively as the dynamical exponent passes through z=2. In particular, for z>2, the long-time dynamics of the particle is independent of its inertial mass.
Reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections by bundling interventions. - International journal for quality in health care : journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care / ISQua
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection, and most are associated with indwelling urinary catheters, that is, catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). Our goal was to reduce the CAUTI rate.We retrospectively examined the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a bundle of four evidence-based interventions upon the incidence rate (IR) of CAUTIs in a community hospital. The first intervention was the exclusive use of silver alloy catheters in the hospital's acute care areas. The second intervention was a securing device to limit the movement of the catheter after insertion. The third intervention was repositioning of the catheter tubing if it was found to be touching the floor. The fourth intervention was removal of the indwelling urinary catheter on postoperative Day 1 or 2, for most surgical patients.Rates of CAUTI per 1000 catheter days were estimated and compared using the generalized estimating equations Poisson regression analysis.During the study period, 33 of the 2228 patients were diagnosed with a CAUTI. The CAUTI IR for the pre-intervention period was 5.2/1000. For the 7 months following the implementation of the fourth intervention, the IR was 1.5/1000 catheter days, a significant reduction relative to the pre-intervention period (P = 0.03). The annualized projection for the cost of implementing this bundle of four interventions is $23 924.A bundle of four evidence-based interventions reduced the incidence of CAUTIs in a community hospital. It is relatively simple, appears to be cost-effective and might be sustainable and adaptable by other hospitals.
Times from symptom onset to hospital arrival in the Get with the Guidelines--Stroke Program 2002 to 2009: temporal trends and implications. - Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation
Time from symptom onset to hospital arrival is the most important factor in determining eligibility for intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator. We used data from a large contemporary nationwide study to determine temporal trends in the proportions of patients arriving within time windows for potential acute ischemic stroke therapies.Trends in symptom onset to hospital arrival time ("onset-to-door time") for patients with acute ischemic stroke in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) program were analyzed between 2003 and 2009. Factors associated with early onset-to-door time (â‰¤2 hours) were also examined.Between April 2003 and March 2009, 1287 hospitals submitted data on 413 147 patients with acute ischemic stroke of whom 194 352 (47.0%) had a specific onset time documented. Among all 413 147 patients, onset-to-door time was documented as â‰¤2 hours in 20.6%, â‰¤3 hours in 25.1%, â‰¤3.5 hours in 26.8%, and â‰¤8 hours in 35.8%. Early arrival within 2 hours was significantly associated with emergency medical services transport (P<0.0001). There was no substantial change in onset-to-door time over the 6-year study period. Expansion of the tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment window from 3 to 4.5 hours (allowing 60 minutes for provision of tissue-type plasminogen activator) increases the pool of potentially eligible patients by 6.3% (30.1% relative increase).More than one fourth of patients with ischemic stroke arrive within the time window for tissue-type plasminogen activator therapy; however, this percentage has remained unchanged over recent years. Further efforts are needed to increase the portion of patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting within the time window for acute interventions.
Temporary central venous catheter utilization patterns in a large tertiary care center: tracking the "idle central venous catheter". - Infection control and hospital epidemiology
Although central venous catheter (CVC) dwell time is a major risk factor for catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs), few studies reveal how often CVCs are retained when not needed ("idle"). We describe use patterns for temporary CVCs, including peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), on non-ICU wards.A retrospective observational study.A 579-bed acute care, academic tertiary care facility.A retrospective observational study of a random sample of patients on hospital wards who have a temporary, nonimplanted CVC, with a focus on on daily ward CVC justification. A uniform definition of idle CVC-days was used.We analyzed 89 patients with 146 CVCs (56% of which were PICCs); of 1,433 ward CVC-days, 361 (25.2%) were idle. At least 1 idle day was observed for 63% of patients. Patients had a mean of 4.1 idle days and a mean of 3.4 days with both a CVC and a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV). After adjusting for ward length of stay, mean CVC dwell time was 14.4 days for patients with PICCs versus 9.0 days for patients with non-PICC temporary CVCs (other CVCs; P<.001). Patients with a PICC had 5.4 days in which they also had a PIV, compared with 10 days in other CVC patients (P<.001). Patients with PICCs had more days in which the only justification for the CVC was intravenous administration of antimicrobial agents (8.5 vs 1.6 days; P=.0013).Significant proportions of ward CVC-days were unjustified. Reducing "idle CVC-days" and facilitating the appropriate use of PIVs may reduce CVC-days and CR-BSI risk.
Advanced glycation end products are direct modulators of Î²-cell function. - Diabetes
Excess accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contributes to aging and chronic diseases. We aimed to obtain evidence that exposure to AGEs plays a role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D).The effect of AGEs was examined on insulin secretion by MIN6N8 cells and mouse islets and in vivo in three separate rodent models: AGE-injected or high AGE-fed Sprague-Dawley rats and nonobese diabetic (NODLt) mice. Rodents were also treated with the AGE-lowering agent alagebrium.Î²-Cells exposed to AGEs displayed acute glucose-stimulated insulin secretory defects, mitochondrial abnormalities including excess superoxide generation, a decline in ATP content, loss of MnSOD activity, reduced calcium flux, and increased glucose uptake, all of which were improved with alagebrium treatment or with MnSOD adenoviral overexpression. Isolated mouse islets exposed to AGEs had decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, increased mitochondrial superoxide production, and depletion of ATP content, which were improved with alagebrium or with MnTBAP, an SOD mimetic. In rats, transient or chronic exposure to AGEs caused progressive insulin secretory defects, superoxide generation, and Î²-cell death, ameliorated with alagebrium. NODLt mice had increased circulating AGEs in association with an increase in islet mitochondrial superoxide generation, which was prevented by alagebrium, which also reduced the incidence of autoimmune diabetes. Finally, at-risk children who progressed to T1D had higher AGE concentrations than matched nonprogressors.These findings demonstrate that AGEs directly cause insulin secretory defects, most likely by impairing mitochondrial function, which may contribute to the development of T1D.
Advanced glycation end-products induce vascular dysfunction via resistance to nitric oxide and suppression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. - Journal of hypertension
A number of factors contribute to diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction. In the present study, we tested whether exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) impairs vascular reactivity independently of hyperglycemia and examined the potential mechanisms responsible for diabetes and AGE-associated vascular dysfunction.Vasodilator function was studied using infusion of exogenous AGEs into Sprague-Dawley rats as compared with control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats all followed for 16 weeks (n = 10 per group). The level of arginine metabolites and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and downstream mediators of nitric oxide-dependent signaling were examined. To further explore these mechanisms, cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were exposed to AGEs.Both diabetic and animals infused with AGE-modified rat serum albumin (AGE-RSA) had significantly impaired vasodilatory response to acetylcholine. Unlike diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction, AGE infusion was not associated with changes in plasma arginine metabolites, asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine levels or eNOS expression. However, expression of the downstream mediator cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (PKG-1) was significantly reduced by both AGE exposure and diabetes. AGEs also augmented hyperglycemia-associated depletion in endothelial nitric oxide production and eNOS protein expression in vitro, and the novel AGE inhibitor, alagebrium chloride, partly restored these parameters.We demonstrate that AGEs represent a potentially important cause of vascular dysfunction, linked to the induction of nitric oxide resistance. These findings also emphasize the deleterious and potentially additive effects of AGEs and hyperglycemia in diabetic vasculature.
A real-time nursing intervention reduces dysglycemia and improves best practices in noncritically ill hospitalized patients. - Journal of hospital medicine
Dysglycemia is prevalent in hospitalized patients and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Educational interventions insufficiently improve best practices in managing dysglycemia.To reduce dysglycemia by improving best practices for inpatient glycemic control.Interrupted time series.A community teaching hospital.A total of 653 adult, noncritically ill, nonobstetric patients.A real-time nursing intervention (RTNI). A charge nurse issued a verbal invitation to the physician to utilize the existing glycemic control order set for patients with dysglycemia.(1) Lone correctional insulin (LCI) usage; (2) potentially inappropriate oral hypoglycemic medication (PIOHM) usage; (3) patient day-weighted mean glucose (PDWMG; ie, mean glucose for each hospital day, averaged across all hospital days); (4) the percent of patients with PDWMG >180 mg/dL; and (5) the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia.The use of LCI regimens decreased from 48% to 30% (P < 0.01) during the RTNI period and the rate of potentially inappropriate oral hypoglycemic medications (PIOHMs) usage was reduced from 29% to 13% (P < 0.01). PDWMG decreased from 166 mg/dL to 156 mg/dL (P = 0.04). After removal of the RTNI, outcome measures were not significantly different from baseline, with the exception of PIOHM use, which remained lower at 19% in the postintervention group (P = 0.04).An RTNI promoting a best-practice glycemic control order set was successful in modestly lowering mean glucose levels and substantially reducing the use of LCI and PIOHMs.(c) 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.
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2100 Webster St Suite 404 San Francisco, CA 94115
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