160 E 34Th St 3Rd Fl.
New York NY 10016
Medical School: Other - 1982
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: Yes
License #: 151859
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Awards & Recognitions
Dr. Deborah Axelrod is associated with these group practices
|HCPCS Code||Description||Average Price||Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
|HCPCS Code:38525||Description:Biopsy/removal lymph nodes||Average Price:$4,550.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:19125||Description:Excision breast lesion||Average Price:$4,692.19||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:38900||Description:Io map of sent lymph node||Average Price:$3,150.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:10160||Description:Puncture drainage of lesion||Average Price:$526.15||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99204||Description:Office/outpatient visit new||Average Price:$365.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99213||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$150.00||Average Price Allowed
HCPCS Code Definitions
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of low complexity. Counseling and coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of low to moderate severity. Typically, 15 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Puncture aspiration of abscess, hematoma, bulla, or cyst
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of a new patient, which requires these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 45 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Excision of breast lesion identified by preoperative placement of radiological marker, open; single lesion
- Intraoperative identification (eg, mapping) of sentinel lymph node(s) includes injection of non-radioactive dye, when performed (List separately in addition to code for primary procedure)
- Biopsy or excision of lymph node(s); open, deep axillary node(s)
Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical Board Sanctions
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Axelrod has made to other doctors
A Web- and Mobile-Based Intervention for Women Treated for Breast Cancer to Manage Chronic Pain and Symptoms Related to Lymphedema: Randomized Clinical Trial Rationale and Protocol. - JMIR research protocols
Despite current advances in cancer treatment, many breast cancer survivors still face long-term post-operative challenges as a result of suffering from daily pain and other distressing symptoms related to lymphedema, ie, abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid in the ipsilateral upper limb or body. Grounded in research-driven behavioral strategies, The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow is a unique Web- and mobile-based system focusing on self-care strategies to empower, rather than inhibit, how breast cancer survivors manage daily pain and symptoms. It features a set of safe, feasible, and easily-integrated-into-daily-routine exercises to promote lymph flow and drainage, as well as guidance to maintain an optimal body mass index (BMI).To conduct a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of the Web- and mobile-based The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow system for managing chronic pain and symptoms related to lymphedema. The primary outcome includes pain reduction, and the secondary outcomes focus on symptom relief, limb volume difference by infra-red perometer, BMI, and quality of life (QOL) related to pain. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will have improved pain and symptom experiences, limb volume difference, body mass index, and QOL.A parallel RCT with a control-experimental, pre- and post-test, repeated-measures design is used in this study. A total of 120 patients will be randomized according to the occurrence of pain. Participants will be recruited face-to-face at the point of care during clinical visits. Participants in the intervention group will receive the Web- and mobile-based The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow intervention and will have access to and learn about the program during the first in-person research visit. Participants in the control group will receive the Web- and mobile-based Arm Precaution program and will have access to and learn about the program during the first in-person research visit. Participants will be encouraged to enhance their learning by accessing the program and following the daily exercises during the study period. Participants will have monthly online self-report of pain and symptoms at 4 and 8 weeks post-intervention. During the two in-person research visits prior to and 12 weeks post-intervention, participants will be measured for limb volume difference, BMI, and complete self-report of pain, symptoms, self-care behaviors, and QOL.This trial is currently open for recruitment. The anticipated completion date for the study is July 2017. The primary endpoint for the study is absence or reduction of pain reported by the participants at week 12 post-intervention.The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow is a unique Web- and mobile-based self-care and patient-reported outcome system designed to effectively help women treated for breast cancer manage daily pain and symptoms related to lymphedema. Patients learn self-care strategies from a Web- and mobile-based program and track their symptoms. The RCT will directly benefit all women treated for breast cancer who suffer from or at risk for pain and symptoms related to lymph fluid accumulation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02462226; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02462226 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6du4IupG5).
Oncologic outcomes after nipple-sparing mastectomy: A single-institution experience. - Journal of surgical oncology
Long-term oncologic outcomes in nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) continue to be defined. Rates of locoregional recurrence for skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and NSM in the literature range from 0% to 14.3%. We investigated the outcomes of NSM at our institution.Patients undergoing NSM at our institution from 2006 to 2014 were identified and outcomes were analyzed.From 2006 to 2014, 319 patients (555 breasts) underwent NSM. One-hundered and fourty-one patients (237 breasts) had long-term follow-up available. Average patient age and BMI were 47.78 and 24.63. Eighty-four percent of patients underwent mastectomy primarily for a therapeutic indication. Average tumor size was 1.50â€‰cm with the most common histologic type being invasive ductal carcinoma (62.7%) followed by DCIS (23.7%). Average patient follow-up was 30.73 months. There was one (0.8%) incidence of ipsilateral chest-wall recurrence. There were 0.37 complications per patient.We examined our institutional outcomes with NSM and found a locoregional recurrence rate of 0.8% with no nipple-areolar complex recurrence. This rate is lower than published rates for both NSM and SSM. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:8-11. Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema. - Breast cancer (Dove Medical Press)
Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1) examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2) determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from 250 women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema, and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema. A diagnostic cutoff of three symptoms discriminated breast cancer survivors with lymphedema from healthy women with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97% (area under the curve =0.98). A diagnostic cutoff of nine symptoms discriminated at-risk survivors from survivors with lymphedema with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 80% (area under the curve =0.72). In the absence of objective measurements capable of detecting latent stages of lymphedema, count of symptoms may be a cost-effective initial screening tool for detecting lymphedema.
Nipple-sparing Mastectomy and Sub-areolar Biopsy: To Freeze or not to Freeze? Evaluating the Role of Sub-areolar Intraoperative Frozen Section. - The breast journal
Use of nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) for risk-reduction and therapeutic breast cancer resection is growing. The role for intraoperative frozen section of the nipple-areolar complex remains controversial. Records of patients undergoing NSM at our institution from 2006 to 2013 were reviewed. Records from 501 nipple-sparing mastectomies were reviewed (216 therapeutic, 285 prophylactic). Of the 480 breasts with sub-areolar biopsies, 307 had intraoperative frozen sections and 173 were evaluated with permanent paraffin section only. Among the 307 intraoperative frozen sections, 12 biopsies were positive on permanent paraffin section (3.9% or 12/307). Of the 12 positive permanent biopsies, five were false negative and the remaining seven concordant intraoperatively. Sensitivity and specificity of sub-areolar frozen section were 0.58 and 1, respectively. Positive sub-areolar biopsies consisted primarily of ductal carcinoma in situ (62% or 13/21). The nipples or nipple-areolar complex were resected in a separate procedure following mastectomy (10/21), intraoperatively following frozen section results (7/21) or during second-stage breast reconstruction (3/21; 1 additional scheduled). Only 30% (6/20) of resected specimens had abnormal residual pathology. Intraoperative frozen section is highly specific and moderately sensitive for the detection of positive sub-areolar biopsies in NSM. Its use can help guide intraoperative reconstructive planning. The presence of positive sub-areolar biopsies in both contralateral and high-risk prophylactic mastectomy specimens emphasizes the need to perform sub-areolar biopsies in all nipple-sparing mastectomies.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cost Analysis of Intraoperative Subareolar Frozen Section During Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy. - Annals of surgical oncology
Permanent paraffin subareolar biopsy during nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) tests for occult cancer at the nipple-areolar complex. Intraoperative subareolar frozen section can provide earlier detection intraoperatively. Cost analysis for intraoperative subareolar frozen section has never been performed.NSM cases from 2006-2013 were reviewed. Patient records including financial charges were analyzed.Of 480 subareolar biopsies for NSM from 2006-2013, 21 were abnormal (4.4Â %). A total of 307 of the subareolar biopsies included intraoperative frozen section. Of the 307, 12 (3.9Â %) were abnormal with 7 of 12 detected on intraoperative frozen section. The median baseline charge for an intraoperative subareolar frozen section was $309 for an estimated total cost of $94,863 in 307 breasts. The median baseline charge for interval operative resection of a nipple-areolar complex following an abnormal subareolar pathology result was $11,021. Intraoperative subareolar biopsy avoided an estimated six return trips to the operating room for savings of $66,126. At our institution, routine use of intraoperative frozen section resulted in an additional $28,737 in healthcare charges or $95 per breast.We present the first cost analysis to evaluate intraoperative subareolar frozen section in NSM. This practice obviated an estimated six return trips to the operating room. With our institutional frequency of abnormal subareolar pathology, intraoperative frozen sections resulted in a marginal increased charge per mastectomy.
Patterns of Obesity and Lymph Fluid Level during the First Year of Breast Cancer Treatment: A Prospective Study. - Journal of personalized medicine
Obesity is one of the risk factors for developing lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. We prospectively enrolled 140 women and followed the participants for 12 months after surgery to investigate patterns of obesity and lymph fluid level in the first year of cancer treatment. Electrical bioimpedance devices were used to measure weight, BMI, and percent of body fat as well as lymph fluid level. General instructions were given to the participants on maintaining pre-surgery weight. Among the 140 participants, 136 completed the study with 2.9% attrition. More than 60% of the participants were obese (30.8%) or overweight (32.4%), while only two participants were underweight and about 35% had normal weight. This pattern of obesity and overweight was consistent at 4-8 weeks and 12 months post-surgery. At 12 months post-surgery, the majority of the women (72.1%) maintained pre-surgery weight and 15.4% had >5% weight loss; 12.5% of the women increase >5% of their weight. Significantly more patients in the obesity group had lymphedema defined by L-Dex ratio >7.1 than those in the normal/underweight and overweight group at pre-surgery and 4-8 weeks post-surgery. There was a trend of more patients in the obesity group had L-Dex ratio >7.1 at 12 months post-surgery. Obesity and overweight remain among women at the time of cancer diagnosis and the patterns of obesity and overweight continue during the first year of treatment. General instructions on having nutrition-balanced and portion-appropriate diet and physical activities daily or weekly can be effective to maintain pre-surgery weight.
Pro-oncogenic cytokines and growth factors are differentially expressed in the post-surgical wound fluid from malignant compared to benign breast lesions. - SpringerPlus
The accumulation of wound fluid known as seroma in the chest cavity following breast surgery is a common occurrence that can persist for many weeks. While the pro-inflammatory composition of seroma is well established, there has been remarkably little research to determine whether seroma contains pro-oncogenic factors, and whether this is influenced by previous malignant disease.We developed a clinical trial in which we obtained post-surgical seroma fluids from women with benign or malignant disease 1 or 2Â weeks following lumpectomy or mastectomy. We conducted an analysis of more than 80 different cytokines, chemokines and growth factors.We found that surgical cavity seroma from breast cancer patients has a higher expression of key tumor-promoting cytokines and lower expression of important tumor-inhibiting factors when compared to benign lesions from non-cancer patients. Patients with high body mass index also had higher levels of leptin regardless of malignancy.We conclude that the breast post-surgical tumor cavity contains factors that are pro-inflammatory regardless of malignant or benign disease, but in malignant disease there is significant enrichment of additional pro-oncogenic chemokines, cytokines and growth factors, and reduction in tumor-inhibiting factors. These results are consistent with tumor conditioning of surrounding normal stromal tissue and creation of a pro-oncogenic environment that persists long after surgical removal of the tumor.
Comorbidities and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Prospective Study. - Journal of personalized medicine
Many breast cancer survivors have coexistent chronic diseases or comorbidities at the time of their cancer diagnosis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of comorbidities on breast cancer survivors' quality of life. A prospective design was used to recruit 140 women before cancer surgery, 134 women completed the study. Comorbidities were assessed using self-report and verified by medical record review and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) before and 12-month after cancer surgery. Quality of life was evaluated using Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 v2). Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-tests, Fisher's exact test, and correlations were performed for data analysis. A total of 28 comorbidities were identified. Among the 134 patients, 73.8% had at least one of the comorbidities, 54.7% had 2-4, and only 7.4% had 5-8. Comorbidities did not change at 12 months after surgery. Numbers of comorbidities by patients' self-report and weighted categorization of comorbidities by CCI had a similar negative correlation with overall quality of life scores as well as domains of general health, physical functioning, bodily pain, and vitality. Comorbidities, specifically hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes, were associated with poorer quality of life in multiple domains among breast cancer survivors. Future research should consider the combined influence of comorbidity and cancer on patients' quality of life.
Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibition with pasireotide decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in pre-malignant lesions of the breast: a phase 1 proof of principle trial. - Breast cancer research : BCR
Estrogen inhibition is effective in preventing breast cancer in only up to 50% of women with precancerous lesions and many experience side effects that are poorly tolerated. As insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) underlies both estrogen and progesterone actions and has other direct effects on mammary development and carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that IGF-I inhibition might provide a novel approach for breast cancer chemoprevention.In total, 13 women with core breast biopsies diagnostic of atypical hyperplasia (AH) were treated for 10 days with pasireotide, a somatostatin analog which uniquely inhibits IGF-I action in the mammary gland. They then had excision biopsies. 12 patients also had proliferative lesions and one a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Primary outcomes were changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis after treatment. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and phosphorylated Insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R), protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) were also assessed. Core and excision biopsies from 14 untreated patients served as non-blinded controls. Hyperglycemia and other side effects were carefully monitored.Pasireotide decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in all AH (from 3.6â€‰Â±â€‰2.6% to 1.3â€‰Â±â€‰1.2% and from 0.3â€‰Â±â€‰0.2% to 1.5â€‰Â±â€‰1.6%, respectively) and proliferative lesions (from 3.8â€‰Â±â€‰2.5% to 1.8â€‰Â±â€‰1.8% and from 0.3â€‰Â±â€‰0.2% to 1.3â€‰Â±â€‰0.6%, respectively). The DCIS responded similarly. ER and PR were not affected by pasireotide, while IGF-1R, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation decreased significantly. In contrast, tissue from untreated controls showed no change in cell proliferation or phosphorylation of IGF-1R, AKT or ERK 1/2. Mild to moderate hyperglycemia associated with reduced insulin levels was found. Glucose fell into the normal range after discontinuing treatment. Pasireotide was well tolerated and did not cause symptoms of estrogen deprivation.IGF-I inhibition by pasireotide, acting through the IGF-1R, was associated with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in pre-malignant breast lesions and one DCIS. Assuming hyperglycemia can be controlled, these data suggest that inhibiting the IGF-I pathway may prove an effective alternative for breast cancer chemoprevention.NCT01372644 Trial date: July 1, 2007.
Nipple-sparing mastectomy in patients with prior breast irradiation: are patients at higher risk for reconstructive complications? - Plastic and reconstructive surgery
Reconstruction in the setting of prior breast irradiation is conventionally considered a higher-risk procedure. Limited data exist regarding nipple-sparing mastectomy in irradiated breasts, a higher-risk procedure in higher-risk patients.The authors identified and reviewed the records of 501 nipple-sparing mastectomy breasts at their institution from 2006 to 2013.Of 501 nipple-sparing mastectomy breasts, 26 were irradiated. The average time between radiation and mastectomy was 12 years. Reconstruction methods in the 26 breasts included tissue expander (n=14), microvascular free flap (n=8), direct implant (n=2), latissimus dorsi flap with implant (n=1), and rotational perforator flap (n=1). Rate of return to the operating room for mastectomy flap necrosis was 11.5 percent (three of 26). Nipple-areola complex complications included one complete necrosis (3.8 percent) and one partial necrosis (3.8 percent). Complications were compared between this subset of previously irradiated patients and the larger nipple-sparing mastectomy cohort. There was no significant difference in body mass index, but the irradiated group was significantly older (51 years versus 47.2 years; p=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference with regard to mastectomy flap necrosis (p=0.46), partial nipple-areola complex necrosis (p=1.00), complete nipple-areola complex necrosis (p=0.47), implant explantation (p=0.06), hematoma (p=1.00), seroma (p=1.00), or capsular contracture (p=1.00).In the largest study to date of nipple-sparing mastectomy in irradiated breasts, the authors demonstrate that implant-based and autologous reconstruction can be performed with complications comparable to those of the rest of their nipple-sparing mastectomy patients.
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160 E 34Th St 3Rd Fl. New York, NY 10016
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