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The Who, How and What of Real-World Penile Implantation in 2015: The PROPPER Registry Baseline Data. - The Journal of urology
To date, the published data on patients treated with penile implantation generally consist of small series of single surgeon, retrospective experiences rather than prospective or large, multicenter evaluations. This study establishes a baseline of data collection from the PROPPER (Prospective Registry of Outcomes with Penile Prosthesis for Erectile Restoration). The PROPPER is the first large, prospective, multicenter, multinational, monitored, and internal review board approved study of real-world outcomes for patients with penile implants.Data from the PROPPER study were examined to determine patient baseline characteristics and primary and secondary etiologies before treatment of erectile dysfunction. Data include type and size of implant received, surgical steps/techniques used during implantation, and duration of hospital stay.Through April 2, 2015 a total of 1,019 patients were enrolled in the study at 11 sites, with radical prostatectomy being the predominant etiology in 285 (28%). Of those 285 patients treated with radical prostatectomy 280 (98.2%) received an AMS 700â„¢. Of these patients 65.0% (182 of 280) had placement of the reservoir in the traditional retropubic space vs 31.8% (89 of 280) in a submuscular location. Of those patients not treated with radical prostatectomy receiving an AMS 700, fewer underwent reservoir placement in the submuscular location (17.7%, 124 of 702, vs 80.9%, 568 of 702; p <0.001). Of those patients receiving an AMS 700, those treated with radical prostatectomy and those with diabetes had more outpatient admissions (less than 24 hours, 56.8% and 52.1%, respectively) compared to those with cardiovascular disease and Peyronie's disease (42.0% and 35.6%, respectively, p <0.001).This first-of-its-kind, large, prospective, multicenter study reveals most penile implant cases in North America receive an inflatable penile prosthesis and that radical prostatectomy is the most common primary etiology of penile implant surgery. Moreover, patients treated with radical prostatectomy were more likely to have the reservoir placed in a submuscular location, have a longer operating room time and be admitted to the hospital overnight compared with other patient groups.Copyright Â© 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Characteristics of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Patients with Long Survival: Prognostic Significance of Skin Lesions and Possible Beneficial Role of Valproic Acid. - Leukemia research and treatment
We describe the clinical and biological features of ten patients with a survival superior to ten years (long survival), out of 175 patients diagnosed with Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) in Martinique (1983-2013). There were 5 lymphoma and 5 chronic subtypes. Five of them (3 chronic, 2 lymphoma) had been treated with valproic acid (VA) for neurological disorders developed before or after ATL diagnosis, suggesting a beneficial role for VA as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) in ATL treatment. Total duration of uninterrupted VA treatment ranged from 8 to 37 years. Overall, the 175 incident ATL cases presented with a median survival of 5.43 months. The five VA-treated (VA(+)) patients presented with longer survival compared to VA treatment-free patients (VA(-)). For chronic subtypes, survival periods were of 213 months for 3 VA(+) patients and of 33 months for 11 VA(-) patients (p = 0.023). For lymphoma subtypes, survival periods were of 144 months for 2 VA(+) patients versus 6 months for 49 VA(-) patients (p = 0.0046). ATL cases with skin lesions, particularly lymphoma subtypes, had a longer survival (13.96 months) compared to those without skin lesions (6.06 months, p = 0.002). Eight out of the 10 patients presenting with long survival had skin lesions.
Behaviours and opinions towards outdoor smoking bans and cigarette littering in Baja California, Mexico. - Health policy and planning
â€ƒOutdoor smoking bans have been implemented to reduce secondhand smoke exposure and cigarette littering. We aimed to explore outdoor smoking behaviours, cigarette littering, and support towards a recently enacted outdoor smoking ban in Baja California, Mexico.â€ƒFrom October 2013 to April 2014 a representative sample of 800 adults from urban areas of Baja California was surveyed to obtain information on demographics, smoking status, opinion towards outdoor smoking bans in general and in specific locations, and perceptions and habits regarding cigarette littering. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence ratios and corresponding 95% CI taking into account the complex survey design.â€ƒOutdoor smoking was frequently observed, as 86.8% of the population reported having seen people smoking in parks and beaches and 94.4% in open venues such as concerts or stadiums. A smoking ban in all outdoor areas was supported by 71.8% of Baja California residents. Site-specific support ranged from 80% (stadiums) to 89% (public parks). Support for the ban was higher among never and ex-smokers than in current smokers. Cigarette littering was negatively perceived by 98% of the participants, yet 45% of all cigarettes smoked were thrown on the ground. Based on cigarette consumption and butt littering reported in the survey, we estimated that 27 million cigarette butts become litter every month in urban areas of Baja California.â€ƒOutdoor smoking is still frequent in outdoor areas where people gather, and an important source of littering. We found substantial public support towards the outdoor smoking ban, which should translate into easier implementation and compliance in Baja California, Mexico.Â© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Longitudinal Associations Between Neighborhood Physical and Social Environments and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). - JAMA internal medicine
Neighborhood environments may influence the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has evaluated specific neighborhood exposures.To determine whether long-term exposures to neighborhood physical and social environments, including the availability of healthy food and physical activity resources and levels of social cohesion and safety, are associated with incident T2DM during a 10-year period.We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based cohort study of adults aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (July 17, 2000, through August 29, 2002). A total of 5124 participants free of T2DM at baseline underwent 5 clinical follow-up examinations from July 17, 2000, through February 4, 2012. Time-varying measurements of neighborhood healthy food and physical activity resources and social environments were linked to individual participant addresses. Neighborhood environments were measured using geographic information system (GIS)- and survey-based methods and combined into a summary score. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of incident T2DM associated with cumulative exposure to neighborhood resources using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, sex, income, educational level, race/ethnicity, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Data were analyzed from December 15, 2013, through September 22, 2014.Incident T2DM defined as a fasting glucose level of at least 126 mg/dL or use of insulin or oral antihyperglycemics.During a median follow-up of 8.9 years (37,394 person-years), 616 of 5124 participants (12.0%) developed T2DM (crude incidence rate, 16.47 [95% CI, 15.22-17.83] per 1000 person-years). In adjusted models, a lower risk for developing T2DM was associated with greater cumulative exposure to indicators of neighborhood healthy food (12%; HR per interquartile range [IQR] increase in summary score, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.79-0.98]) and physical activity resources (21%; HR per IQR increase in summary score, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.71-0.88]), with associations driven primarily by the survey exposure measures. Neighborhood social environment was not associated with incident T2DM (HR per IQR increase in summary score, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.88-1.07]).Long-term exposure to residential environments with greater resources to support physical activity and, to a lesser extent, healthy diets was associated with a lower incidence of T2DM, although results varied by measurement method. Modifying neighborhood environments may represent a complementary, population-based approach to prevention of T2DM, although further intervention studies are needed.
Full-scale phosphorus recovery from digested waste water sludge in Belgium - part I: technical achievements and challenges. - Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
To date, phosphorus recovery as struvite in wastewater treatment plants has been mainly implemented on water phases resulting from dewatering processes of the sludge line. However, it is possible to recover struvite directly from sludge phases. Besides minimising the return loads of phosphorus from the sludge line to the water line, placing such a process within the sludge line is claimed to offer advantages such as a higher recovery potential, enhanced dewaterability of the treated sludge, and reduced speed of scaling in pipes and dewatering devices. In the wastewater treatment plant at Leuven (Belgium), a full-scale struvite recovery process from digested sludge has been tested for 1 year. Several monitoring campaigns and experiments provided indications of the efficiency of the process for recovery. The load of phosphorus from the sludge line returning to the water line as centrate accounted for 15% of the P-load of the plant in the reference situation. Data indicated that the process divides this phosphorus load by two. An improved dewaterability of 1.5% of dry solids content was achieved, provided a proper tuning of the installation. Quality analyses showed that the formed struvite was quite pure.
Effect of creatine monohydrate on clinical progression in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial. - JAMA
There are no treatments available to slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson disease, despite its global prevalence and significant health care burden. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease program was established to promote discovery of potential therapies.To determine whether creatine monohydrate was more effective than placebo in slowing long-term clinical decline in participants with Parkinson disease.The Long-term Study 1, a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 1:1 randomized efficacy trial. Participants were recruited from 45 investigative sites in the United States and Canada and included 1741 men and women with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) Parkinson disease. Participants were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013.Participants were randomized to placebo or creatine (10 g/d) monohydrate for a minimum of 5 years (maximum follow-up, 8 years).The primary outcome measure was a difference in clinical decline from baseline to 5-year follow-up, compared between the 2 treatment groups using a global statistical test. Clinical status was defined by 5 outcome measures: Modified Rankin Scale, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, PDQ-39 Summary Index, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, and ambulatory capacity. All outcomes were coded such that higher scores indicated worse outcomes and were analyzed by a global statistical test. Higher summed ranks (range, 5-4775) indicate worse outcomes.The trial was terminated early for futility based on results of a planned interim analysis of participants enrolled at least 5 years prior to the date of the analysis (nâ€‰=â€‰955). The median follow-up time was 4 years. Of the 955 participants, the mean of the summed ranks for placebo was 2360 (95% CI, 2249-2470) and for creatine was 2414 (95% CI, 2304-2524). The global statistical test yielded t1865.8â€‰=â€‰-0.75 (2-sided Pâ€‰=â€‰.45). There were no detectable differences (Pâ€‰<â€‰.01 to partially adjust for multiple comparisons) in adverse and serious adverse events by body system.Among patients with early and treated Parkinson disease, treatment with creatine monohydrate for at least 5 years, compared with placebo did not improve clinical outcomes. These findings do not support the use of creatine monohydrate in patients with Parkinson disease.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00449865.
Parkinson's disease severity and use of dopaminergic medications. - Parkinsonism & related disorders
The effects of dopaminergic therapy in parkinson's disease (PD) can vary depending on the class of medication selected.The aim of this post hoc study was to determine if the class of dopaminergic therapy correlated with disease severity in persons with early, treated PD.A non-parametric global statistical test (GST) was used to assess the status of participants treated with dopamine agonist (DA) monotherapy, levodopa (LD) monotherapy or combined LD and DA therapy on multiple PD outcomes encompassing motor, cognitive, psychiatric and autonomic function, as well as disability and quality of life.The outcomes measured at the beginning of the study showed lower disease burden for participants on initial DA monotherapy compared to those taking combined LD and DA therapy after controlling for age, education, taking cog-meds and amantadine.This observation suggests that clinicians treating early PD patients favor combined LD and DA therapy in patients with more disabling features over DA monotherapy. As such, studies of PD progression in treated PD patients may be affected by the class of symptomatic dopaminergic therapy.Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The evaluation of hepatic fibrosis scores in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. - Digestive diseases and sciences
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and can progress to liver cirrhosis during childhood. Patients with more advanced fibrosis on biopsy tend to have more liver complications. Noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores have been developed for adult patients with NAFLD; however, these scores have not been validated in children. The aim of our study was to evaluate some of these scores in assessing the presence of fibrosis in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD.Our study consisted of 92 biopsy-proven NAFLD children from five major US centers. Fibrosis was determined by an experienced pathologist (F0-4). Clinically significant fibrosis was defined as fibrosis stage â‰¥ 2, and advanced fibrosis was defined as F3-4. The following fibrosis scores were calculated for each child: AST/ALT ratio, AST/platelet ratio index (APRI), NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), and FIB-4 index. ROC was performed to assess the performance of different scores for prediction of presence of any, significant, or advanced fibrosis. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Mean age was 13.3 Â± 3 years, and 33 % were females. Eleven (12 %) subjects had no fibrosis, 35 (38 %) had fibrosis score of 1, 26 (28 %) had fibrosis score of 2, and 20 (22 %) had a score of 3. APRI had a fair diagnostic accuracy for the presence of any fibrosis (AUC of 0.80) and poor diagnostic accuracy for significant or advanced fibrosis. AST/ALT, NFS, and FIB-4 index all either had poor diagnostic accuracy or failed to diagnose the presence of any, significant, or advanced fibrosis.Noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores developed in adults had poor performance in diagnosing significant fibrosis in children with NAFLD. Our results highlight the urgent need to develop a reliable pediatric fibrosis score.
The effect of local bone mineral density on the rate of mechanical failure after surgical treatment of distal radius fractures: a prospective multicentre cohort study including 249 patients. - Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
The aim of this prospective, multicentre study was to evaluate the influence of local bone mineral density (BMD) on the rate of mechanical failure after locking plate fixation of closed distal radius fractures.Between June 2007 and April 2010, 230 women and 19 men with a mean age of 67Â years were enrolled. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements for BMD of the contralateral distal radius were made at 6Â weeks post-surgery. Follow-up evaluations at 6Â weeks, 3Â months and 1Â year included wrist mobility and strength as well as standard radiographs. Any local bone/fracture or implant/surgery-related complications were documented. The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), and EuroQol-5D scores were also recorded at the nominated time points.Nine patients were reported with mechanical failure at an estimated risk of 3.6Â %. The BMD measurements were generally low for the study population with no difference between patients with (0.561Â g/cm(2)) and without (0.626Â g/cm(2)) mechanical failure (pÂ =Â 0.148). None of the patients achieved their pre-injury functional level and quality of life status after 1Â year. 1-year DASH and PRWE scores as well as the difference in maximum grip strength of the affected wrist relative to the contralateral side were significantly higher for patients with mechanical failure (pÂ â‰¤Â 0.036).Our study could not identify a clear association between bone mineral density status and the risk of mechanical failure. Although the risk for mechanical failure after treatment of distal radius fractures with palmar locking plates is low, these complications must be avoided to prevent negative impact on long-term patient functional and quality of life outcome.
No sex differences in use of dopaminergic medication in early Parkinson disease in the US and Canada - baseline findings of a multicenter trial. - PloS one
Sex differences in Parkinson disease clinical features have been reported, but few studies have examined sex influences on use of dopaminergic medication in early Parkinson disease. The objective of this study was to test if there are differences in the type of dopaminergic medication used and levodopa equivalent daily dose between men and women with early Parkinson disease enrolled in a large multicenter study of Creatine as a potential disease modifying therapy - the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-Term Study-1.Baseline data of 1,741 participants from 45 participating sites were analyzed. Participants from the United States and Canada were enrolled within five years of Parkinson Disease diagnosis. Two outcome variables were studied: type of dopaminergic medication used and levodopa equivalent daily dose at baseline in the Long-Term Study-1. Chi-square statistic and linear regression models were used for statistical analysis.There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of use of different types of dopaminergic medications at baseline between men and women with Parkinson Disease. A small but statistically significant difference was observed in the median unadjusted levodopa equivalent daily dose at baseline between women (300 mg) and men (325 mg), but this was not observed after controlling for disease duration (years since Parkinson disease diagnosis), disease severity (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor and Activities of Daily Living Scores), and body weight.In this large multicenter study, we did not observe sex differences in the type and dose of dopaminergic medications used in early Parkinson Disease. Further research is needed to evaluate the influence of male or female sex on use of dopaminergic medication in mid- and late-stage Parkinson Disease.
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