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Cutaneous B-lymphoblastic lymphoma with IL3/IgH translocation presenting with hypereosinophilia and acute endocarditis. - Pediatric blood & cancer
Hypereosinophilia is a rare phenomenon associated with childhood malignancy, predominantly acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Causation is unclear and likely to have multiple mechanisms. We report a six year old boy presenting with hypereosinophilia and associated Loeffler endocarditis. Three months following his initial hypereosinophilia he developed cutaneous B-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Re-analysis of apparently uninvolved bone marrow, taken at initial presentation, revealed a single, previously unidentified, t(5;14)(q31;q32) positive cell. Using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, we demonstrate IL3/IgH@ fusion in cutaneous lymphoma cells. Our case confirms the association of hypereosinophilia and B-lymphoblastic lymphoma and strengthens the association between IL3 hypersecretion and hypereosinophilia.Â© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Genetic testing can resolve diagnostic confusion in Alport syndrome. - Clinical kidney journal
Alport syndrome (AS) is a familial glomerular disorder resulting from mutations in the genes encoding several members of the type IV collagen protein family. Despite advances in molecular genetics, renal biopsy remains an important initial diagnostic tool. Histological diagnosis is challenging as features may be non-specific, particularly early in the disease course and in females with X-linked disease. We present three families for whom there was difficulty in correctly diagnosing AS or thin basement membrane nephropathy as a result of misinterpretation of non-specific and incomplete histology. We highlight the importance of electron microscopy and immunofluorescence in improving diagnostic yield and also the hazard of interpreting a descriptive histological term as a diagnostic label. Molecular genetic testing allows a definitive diagnosis to be made in index patients and at-risk family members.
Utility of echocardiography in identifying right ventricular extension of Wilm's tumor. - Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
We present a rare case of a child with a Wilm's tumor with an intravascular tumor-thrombus extending from the inferior vena cava to the right ventricle via the tricuspid valve. Rapid tumor progression resulted in life-threatening clinical deterioration. Radiologic and cardiac imaging demonstrated the extent of the intravascular extension of her tumor-thrombus. Emergency neo-adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in rapid clinical improvement, so that complete surgical excision was possible. Following multimodality therapy, the child is now in remission. Â© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2014.Copyright Â© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Identification of compound heterozygous KCNJ1 mutations (encoding ROMK) in a kindred with Bartter's syndrome and a functional analysis of their pathogenicity. - Physiological reports
A multiplex family was identified with biochemical and clinical features suggestive of Bartter's syndrome (BS). The eldest sibling presented with developmental delay and rickets at 4 years of age with evidence of hypercalciuria and hypokalemia. The second sibling presented at 1 year of age with urinary tract infections, polyuria, and polydipsia. The third child was born after a premature delivery with a history of polyhydramnios and neonatal hypocalcemia. Following corrective treatment she also developed hypercalciuria and a hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. There was evidence of secondary hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism in all three siblings consistent with BS. Known BS genes were screened and functional assays of ROMK (alias KCNJ1, Kir1.1) were carried out in Xenopus oocytes. We detected compound heterozygous missense changes in KCNJ1, encoding the potassium channel ROMK. The S219R/L220F mutation was segregated from father and mother, respectively. In silico modeling of the missense mutations suggested deleterious changes. Studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that both S219R and L220F had a deleterious effect on ROMK-mediated potassium currents. Coinjection to mimic the compound heterozygosity produced a synergistic decrease in channel function and revealed a loss of PKA-dependent stabilization of PIP2 binding. In conclusion, in a multiplex family with BS, we identified compound heterozygous mutations in KCNJ1. Functional studies of ROMK confirmed the pathogenicity of these mutations and defined the mechanism of channel dysfunction.
Genotype/phenotype correlations in complement factor H deficiency arising from uniparental isodisomy. - American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
We report a male infant who presented at 8 months of age with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) responsive to plasma therapy. Investigation showed him to have complement factor H (CFH) deficiency associated with a homozygous CFH mutation (c.2880delT [p.Phe960fs]). Mutation screening of the child's parents revealed that the father was heterozygous for this change but that it was not present in his mother. Chromosome 1 uniparental isodisomy of paternal origin was confirmed by genotyping chromosome 1 SNPs. CD46 SNP genotyping was undertaken in this individual and another patient with CFH deficiency associated with chromosome 1 uniparental isodisomy. This showed a homozygous aHUS risk haplotype (CD46GGAAC) in the patient with aHUS and a homozygous glomerulonephritis risk haplotype (CD46AAGGT) in the patient with endocapillary glomerulonephritis. We also showed that FHL-1 (factor H-like protein 1) was present in the patient with aHUS and absent in the patient with glomerulonephritis. This study emphasizes that modifiers such as CD46 and FHL-1 may determine the kidney phenotype of patients who present with homozygous CFH deficiency.Copyright Â© 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kidney transplantation: analysis of the expression and T cell-mediated activation of latent TGF-Î². - Journal of leukocyte biology
Activated T cells infiltrate a renal allograft during rejection and can respond to TGF-Î² within the tubules, causing local differentiation and expression of the Î±E(CD103)Î²7 integrin. This study was performed to examine the expression of latent TGF-Î² within renal allograft tissues and to define a mechanism by which T cells can activate and respond to this latent factor. Rejecting renal allograft biopsy tissues showed increased expression of the latent TGF-Î² complex, which was localized around the tubules by a mechanism that might involve interaction with heparan sulfate in the basement membrane. A cultured renal TEC line also expressed the latent complex, but these cells did not respond to this form of TGF-Î² by pSmad 3. However, coculture of these cells with activated T cells induced the expression of CD103, suggesting that T cells can activate and respond to the latent TGF-Î² associated with TEC. Although activated T cells expressed little cell-surface TSP-1, this was increased by culture with fibronectin or fibronectin-expressing renal TEC. Blockade of TSP-1 using LSKL peptides reduced the potential of activated T cells to differentiate in response to latent TGF-Î². This study suggests that penetration of renal tubules by activated T cells leads to increased expression of T cell-surface TSP-1, allowing activation of latent TGF-Î² sequestered on heparan sulfate within the microenvironment. This mechanism may be important for localized phenotypic maturation of T cells that have infiltrated the kidney during allograft rejection.
Evaluation of treatment outcome in 175 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma aged 60 years or over: the SHIELD study. - Blood
The SHIELD program for Hodgkin lymphoma in patients 60 years of age or older, prospectively evaluated clinical features and outcome in a large patient cohort (n = 175). The central element was a phase 2 study of VEPEMB chemotherapy (n = 103, median age 73 years) incorporating comorbidity assessment. A total of 72 other patients were treated off-study but registered prospectively and treated concurrently with: ABVD (n = 35); CLVPP (n = 19), or other (n = 18). Of VEPEMB patients, 31 had early-stage disease (stage 1A/2A) and received VEPEMB 3 times plus radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 36 months. Complete remission (CR) rate (intention-to-treat) was 74% and 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 81% and 74%, respectively. A total of 72 patients had advanced-stage disease (stage 1B/2B/3 or 4) and received VEPEMB 6 times. CR rate was 61% with 3-year OS and PFS of 66% and 58%, respectively. Of patients achieving CR, 13% with early-stage and 5% with advanced-stage disease progressed. Overall treatment-related mortality was 7%. In patients treated with curative intent with VEPEMB, ABVD, and CLVPP (n = 157), CR linked to several factors in univariate analysis. In a Cox regression model only, obtaining CR remained significant for OS and CR plus comorbidity and age for PFS. RS-EBV status had no significant effect on outcome.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated small-vessel vasculitis in a patient with diabetic nephropathy and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome (APS) Type 2: a case report. - Clinical nephrology
We present a 42-year-old woman with pre-existing autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome (APS) Type 2 and chronic kidney disease due to Type 1 diabetic nephropathy, who developed a rapid deterioration in renal function due to perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA)-associated vasculitis. Although possibly a chance occurrence, ANCA have been detected more frequently in patients with a history of certain autoimmune diseases. Such an association may simply reflect an underlying tendency to immune system dysfunction in these patients and the finding of positive ANCA serology does not reliably herald the development of ANCA-associated vasculitis. However, our case illustrates that positive ANCA serology in such circumstances is not always a benign phenomenon and should still be interpreted within the clinical context. Moreover, clinicians managing patients with pre-existing autoimmune disease should maintain a low threshold for appropriate assessment should such patients develop evidence suggestive of vasculitis.
EBV-positive extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the posttransplant setting: a distinct type of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder? - The American journal of surgical pathology
The 2008 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues defines monomorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (M-PTLDs) as lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations that fulfill the criteria for one of the B-cell or T/NK-cell neoplasms recognized in immunocompetent patients. However, indolent B-cell lymphomas, such as extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), are specifically excluded from this category. In this study, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 4 posttransplant lymphoma-like proliferations that were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive, but were otherwise completely typical for a MALT lymphoma. The 4 patients (age, 12 to 71 y) had received solid organ transplants (2 hearts, 1 kidney, 1 kidney/pancreas) at a median of 116 months before presentation, and had been maintained on varying immunosuppressive regimens that included cyclosporine, azathioprine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. Three of the 4 patients presented with solitary subcutaneous masses, whereas the fourth patient presented with a solitary orbital soft tissue mass. All the 4 cases were morphologically typical for MALT lymphoma, demonstrated plasmacytic differentiation with IgA heavy chain restriction (3 cases Îº positive, 1 case Î» positive), and were diffusely EBV-encoded small RNA positive. Patients were followed for a median of 44.9 months, and all achieved a complete response following various regimens that included reduced immunosuppression with or without antiviral therapy, local surgical excision, rituximab, or local radiation therapy. The uniform EBV positivity and response to immune reconstitution in some cases suggest that EBV-positive MALT lymphomas arising in the posttransplant setting should be included among PTLDs. Whether their distinctive subcutaneous/soft tissue localization and IgA positivity are uniform features will require identification of additional cases.
Percentage tumor necrosis following chemotherapy in neuroblastoma correlates with MYCN status but not survival. - Pediatric hematology and oncology
The percentage of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in primary tumors corresponds with outcome in several childhood malignancies, including high-risk metastatic diseases. In this retrospective pilot study, the authors assessed the importance of postchemotherapy necrosis in high-risk neuroblastoma with a histological and case notes review of surgically resected specimens. The authors reviewed all available histology of 31 high-risk neuroblastoma cases treated with COJEC (dose intensive etoposide and vincristine with either cyclophosphamide, cisplatin or carboplatin) or OPEC/OJEC (etoposide, vincristine and cyclophosphamide with alternating cisplatin [OPEC] or carboplatin [OJEC]) induction chemotherapy in 2 Children's Cancer & Leukaemia Group (CCLG) pediatric oncology centers. The percentage of postchemotherapy necrosis was assessed and compared with MYCN amplification status and overall survival. The median percentage of postchemotherapy tumor necrosis was 60%. MYCN status was available for 28 cases, of which 12 were amplified (43%). Survival in cases with â‰¥ 60% necrosis or â‰¥ 90% necrosis was not better than those with less necrosis, nor was percentage necrosis associated with survival using Cox regression. However, MYCN-amplified tumors showed a higher percentage of necrosis than non-MYCN-amplified tumors, 71.3% versus 37.2% (P = .006). This effect was not related to prechemotherapy necrosis and did not confer improved overall survival. Postchemotherapy tumor necrosis is higher in patients with MYCN amplification. In this study, postchemotherapy necrosis did not correlate with overall survival and should not lead to modification of postoperative treatment. However, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger prospective study of children with high-risk neuroblastoma.
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