725 North St Department Of Medicine
Pittsfield MA 01201
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Pharmacometrics-guided drug development of antihyperhidrosis agents. - Journal of clinical pharmacology
The objective of the present work was to use modeling and simulation to inform trial design of a proof-of-concept study for agents used in the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Data were available from 36 subjects who received the vehicle, 2% or 4% topical glycopyrrolate wipes daily for 4 weeks, with response (hyperhidrosis disease severity scale [HDSS] and sweat production [SP]) measured weekly. The HDSS and SP time courses were best described using a longitudinal model with maximum response achieved by 1 week. Glycopyrrolate 4% had a higher HDSS responder rate than 2% (50% vs 33%) and placebo (0%) at week 1. Mean change from baseline (mg/5â€‰min [SD]) in SP at week 1 was -90 (220), -185 (214), and -271 (265) for placebo, 2%, and 4% glycopyrrolate, respectively. Subjects with higher baseline SP had higher sweat reduction from baseline. Virtual clinical trials were simulated and analyzed using conventional (at the end of the study) versus model-based methods to determine sample size for achieving 80% power to identify a dose-response relationship. Twenty-seven subjects compared with at least 120 subjects would be needed using model-based and conventional methods, respectively. Thus, the model-based method using longitudinal data required fewer subjects than the conventional single-point method.Â© 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Abl N-terminal cap stabilization of SH3 domain dynamics. - Biochemistry
Crystal structures and other biochemical data indicate that the N-terminal cap (NCap) region of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is important for maintaining the downregulated conformation of the kinase domain. The exact contributions that the NCap makes in stabilizing the various intramolecular interactions within c-Abl are less clear. While the NCap appears to be important for locking the SH3 and SH2 domains to the back of the kinase domain, there may be other more subtle elements of regulation. Hydrogen exchange (HX) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to determine if the NCap contributes to intramolecular interactions involving the Abl SH3 domain. Under physiological conditions, the Abl SH3 domain underwent partial unfolding and its unfolding half-life was slowed during binding to the SH2 kinase linker, providing a unique assay for testing NCap-induced stabilization of the SH3 domain in various constructs. The results showed that the NCap stabilizes the dynamics of the SH3 domain in certain constructs but does not increase the relative affinity of the SH3 domain for the native SH2 kinase linker. The stabilization effect was absent in constructs of just the NCap and SH3 but was obvious when the SH2 domain and the SH2 kinase linker were present. These results suggest that interactions between the NCap and the SH3 domain can contribute to c-Abl stabilization in constructs that contain at least the SH2 domain, an effect that may partially compensate for the absence of the negative regulatory C-terminal tail found in the related Src family of kinases.
SRC family kinase activity is required for murine embryonic stem cell growth and differentiation. - Molecular pharmacology
Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells are regulated by cytokines and growth factors through tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling pathways. In murine ES cells, signals for self-renewal are generated by the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF and other growth factors are linked to the activation of the Src family of cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases (SFKs), which consists of eight members having shared structural architecture. In this article, we show that murine ES cells express seven SFKs, three of which (Hck, Src, and Fyn) exhibit constitutive activity in self-renewing ES cells. Differentiation of ES cells to embryoid bodies was associated with rapid transcriptional silencing of Hck and Lck and with the loss of the corresponding kinase proteins. The expression of other family members remained relatively constant, although some loss of Fgr and Lyn proteins was observed during differentiation. Like ES cells, embryoid bodies maintained constitutive Src and Fyn kinase activity. Partial inhibition of endogenous SFK activity with the ATP-competitive inhibitors 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine or Src kinase inhibitor-1 induced differentiation of ES cells in the presence of LIF. In contrast, suppression of all SFK activity with higher concentrations of these inhibitors, or with the more potent compound A-419259 (Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:1683-1686, 2002) blocked differentiation in response to LIF withdrawal. It is surprising that these inhibitor-treated cells remained pluripotent despite the absence of LIF. Our results implicate individual members of the Src kinase family in distinct ES cell renewal and differentiation pathways and show that small-molecule SFK inhibitors can control ES cell fate.
Small molecule modulators of endogenous and co-chaperone-stimulated Hsp70 ATPase activity. - The Journal of biological chemistry
The molecular chaperone and cytoprotective activities of the Hsp70 and Hsp40 chaperones represent therapeutic targets for human diseases such as cancer and those that arise from defects in protein folding; however, very few Hsp70 and no Hsp40 modulators have been described. Using an assay for ATP hydrolysis, we identified and screened small molecules with structural similarity to 15-deoxyspergualin and NSC 630668-R/1 for their effects on endogenous and Hsp40-stimulated Hsp70 ATPase activity. Several of these compounds modulated Hsp70 ATPase activity, consistent with the action of NSC 630668-R/1 observed previously (Fewell, S. W., Day, B. W., and Brodsky, J. L. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 910-914). In contrast, three compounds inhibited the ability of Hsp40 to stimulate Hsp70 ATPase activity but did not affect the endogenous activity of Hsp70. Two of these agents also compromised the Hsp70/Hsp40-mediated post-translational translocation of a secreted pre-protein in vitro. Together, these data indicate the potential for continued screening of small molecule Hsp70 effectors and that specific modulators of Hsp70-Hsp40 interaction can be obtained, potentially for future therapeutic use.
The FEAR Before MEN: networks of mitotic exit. - Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
Variations in the normal regulation of the mitotic cell cycle can lead to such global cellular changes as differential development or malignant transformation. Studies on the control of mitosis are particularly important to discover the details of the basic mechanisms responsible for normal cell division, as well as to learn about strategies employed by cancerous cells to indefinitely proliferate. The past years have brought noteworthy progress in elucidating the molecular pathways that regulate crucial events during mitosis such as: chromosome condensation, formation of the mitotic spindle, chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, and disassembly of the mitotic spindle.
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725 North St Department Of Medicine Pittsfield, MA 01201
777 North St Cardiology
725 North St Department Of Dentistry
725 North St
725 North St Department Of Surgery Warriner Building
725 North Street Berkshire Medical Center